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The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), is a
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
dynasty which was once one of the most prominent
royal houses A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897. usually in the context of a feudalism, feudal or monarchy, monarchical system, but sometim ...
of Europe in the 2nd millennium. The house takes its name from
Habsburg Castle Image:Habsburg castle (1250) basic structure and stages.jpg, 250px, The castle in 1250, seen from the north. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built between 1100 and 1250. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 s ...
, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = under an , leader_title1 = , leader_name1 = , leader_title2 = , leader_name2 = , legislatur ...

Switzerland
by
Radbot of KlettgauRadbod, Radbot, Ratbod, Ratpot, Redbod, Redbad, Radboud, Rapoto, or sometimes just Boddo, is a Germanic masculine given name that may refer to: *Redbad, King of the Frisians (died 719) *Radbod (prefect) (833–54), Frankish prefect *Ratbod (archbish ...
, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson
Otto II Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (''Rufus''), was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer) during the middle ages ...
was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh-generation descendant
Rudolph of Habsburg Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election m ...
was elected
King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple i ...
. Taking advantage of the extinction of the
Babenberg Babenberg was a noble dynasty of Austrian margraves and dukes. Originally from Bamberg in the Duchy of Franconia (present-day Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State ...
s and of his victory over
Ottokar II of Bohemia Ottokar II ( cs, Přemysl Otakar II; , in Městec Králové, Bohemia – 26 August 1278, in Dürnkrut, Austria, Dürnkrut, Lower Austria), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 12 ...

Ottokar II of Bohemia
at the
battle on the Marchfeld The Battle on the Marchfeld (''i.e. Morava (river), Morava Field''; german: Schlacht auf dem Marchfeld; cs, Bitva na Moravském poli; hu, Morvamezei csata) at Dürnkrut, Austria, Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen took place on 26 August 1278 and was a ...
in 1278, he subsequently moved the family's power base to
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
, where the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. The throne of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and, after the death of
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
, from 1765 until its
dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...
in 1806. The house also produced kings of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, o ...
,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, ...
and Galicia-Lodomeria, with their respective colonies; rulers of several principalities in the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe forming ...
and Italy; and in the 19th century,
emperors of Austria The Emperor of Austria ( German: ''Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor" (female Kaiserin). In general, the German title was only used for rulers above the rank of king (''König''). In English, the (untranslated) word ''Kaiser' ...
and of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
as well as one
emperor of Mexico The Emperor of Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Emperador de México'') was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century. With the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spanish ...
. The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Austrian branches following the abdication of
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
. Although they ruled distinct territories, the different branches nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. The house of Habsburg still exists and continues to oversee the Austrian branch of the
Order of the Golden Fleece , with the collar of the order (portrait in c. 1450 by Rogier van der Weyden Rogier van der Weyden () or Roger de la Pasture (1399 or 140018 June 1464) was an Early Netherlandish painting, Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works cons ...
and the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George. The current head of the family is
Karl von Habsburg Karl von Habsburg (given names: ''Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam''; born 11 January 1961) is an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no ...
.


Name

The origins of
Habsburg Castle Image:Habsburg castle (1250) basic structure and stages.jpg, 250px, The castle in 1250, seen from the north. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built between 1100 and 1250. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 s ...
's name are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the
High German The High German languages or High German dialects (german: hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isogloss Image:German dialectal map.PNG">300px, High German subdivides into Upp ...
''Habichtsburg'' (
hawk Hawks are a group of medium- diurnal birds of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, ...

hawk
castle), or from the Middle High German word ''hab/hap'' meaning ''ford'', as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. The Habsburg name was not continuously used by the family members, since they often emphasized their more prestigious princely titles. The dynasty was thus long known as the "house of Austria". Complementarily, in some circumstances the family members were identified by their place of birth.
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
was known in his youth after his birthplace as Charles of
Ghent Ghent ( ; : ''Gent'' ; : ''Gand'' ; traditional English: Gaunt) is a city and a in the of . It is the capital and largest city of the province, and the third largest in the country, exceeded in size only by and . It is a and city. The ...

Ghent
. When he became king of Spain he was known as Charles of Spain, and after he was elected emperor, as Charles V (in French, ''Charles Quint''). In Spain, the dynasty was known as the ''Casa de Austria'', including
illegitimate Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opi ...
sons such as
John of Austria John of Austria ( es, Juan, german: Johann; 24 February 1547 – 1 October 1578) was an son of . He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, , and is best known for his role as the admiral of the Holy Alliance fleet at th ...

John of Austria
and
John Joseph of Austria John Joseph of Austria or John of Austria (the Younger) ( es, Don Juan José de Austria) (7 April 162917 September 1679) was a Spanish general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, ...
. The arms displayed in their simplest form were those of Austria, which the Habsburgs had made their own, at times impaled with the arms of the Duchy of Burgundy (ancient). After
Maria Theresa Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (german: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position. She was the ...
married Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, the idea of "Habsburg" as associated with ancestral Austrian rulership was used to show that the old dynasty continued as did all its inherited rights. When Francis I became Emperor of Austria, he adopted the old shield of Habsburg in his personal arms, together with Austria and Lorraine. This also reinforced the "Germanness" of the (French-speaking) Austrian Emperor and his claim to rule in Germany, not least against the Prussian Kings. Some younger sons who had no prospects of the throne were given the personal title of "count of Habsburg". The surname of more recent members of the family such as
Otto von Habsburg Otto von Habsburg (given names: ''Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius''; 20 November 1912 4 July 2011), was the last crown prince of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, of ...

Otto von Habsburg
and
Karl von Habsburg Karl von Habsburg (given names: ''Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam''; born 11 January 1961) is an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no ...
is taken to be "
von HabsburgVon Habsburg is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Francesca von Habsburg (born 1958), Archduchess of Austria *Gabriela von Habsburg (born 1956), Archduchess of Austria *Géza von Habsburg (born 1940), Archduke of Austria *Karl von ...
" or more completely "von Habsburg-Lothringen". Princes and members of the house use the tripartite arms adopted in the 18th century by Francis Stephen.


History


Counts of Habsburg

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been
Guntram the Rich Guntram the Rich ( la, Guntramnus Dives, german: Guntram der Reiche, french: Gontran le Riche; 920 – March 26, 973) was a count in Breisgau, member of the noble family of the EtichonidsThe Etichonids were an important noble family, probably of ...

Guntram the Rich
, a count in the
Breisgau Breisgau () is an Gau (administrative division), area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. The district Breisga ...
who lived in the 10th century, and forthwith farther back as the medieval
Adalrich, Duke of Alsace Adalrich ( la, Adalricus; reconstructed Frankish: ''*Adalrik''; died after 683 AD), also known as Eticho, was the Duke of Alsace, the founder of the family of the Etichonids and of the Habsburg, and an important and influential figure in the pow ...
, from the
EtichonidsThe Etichonids were an important noble family, probably of Frankish, Burgundian or Visigothic origin, who ruled the Duchy of Alsace in the Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ag ...
from which Habsburg derives. His grandson
Radbot of KlettgauRadbod, Radbot, Ratbod, Ratpot, Redbod, Redbad, Radboud, Rapoto, or sometimes just Boddo, is a Germanic masculine given name that may refer to: *Redbad, King of the Frisians (died 719) *Radbod (prefect) (833–54), Frankish prefect *Ratbod (archbish ...
founded the
Habsburg Castle Image:Habsburg castle (1250) basic structure and stages.jpg, 250px, The castle in 1250, seen from the north. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built between 1100 and 1250. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 s ...
. That castle was the
family seat A family seat or sometimes just called seat is the principal house, residence of the landed gentry and Aristocracy (class), aristocracy. The residence usually denotes the social, economic, political, or historic connection of the family within a gi ...
during most of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. In the 12th century, the Habsburgs became increasingly associated with the
Staufer The Hohenstaufen ( , , ), also called Staufer, was a noble dynasty of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia from 1079 and to List of German Kings and Emperors, royal rule in the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages from 1138 u ...
Emperors, participating in the imperial court and the Emperor's military expeditions;
Werner II, Count of Habsburg Werner II of Habsburg (died 19 August 1167) was Count of Habsburg, Switzerland, Habsburg also called Werner III and a progenitor of the royal House of Habsburg. He was the great-great-grandfather of King Rudolph I of Germany. He was the son of Coun ...
died fighting for Emperor
Frederick I Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum ...
in Italy. This association helped them to inherit many domains as the Staufers caused the extinction of many dynasties, some of which the Habsburgs were heirs to. In 1198, Rudolf II, Count of Habsburg fully dedicated the dynasty to the Staufer cause by joining the
Ghibellines The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is ...
and funded the Staufer emperor
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
's war for the throne in 1211. The emperor was made godfather to his newly born grandson, the future king Rudolf. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and incestuous relations with family royalty and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Zürichgau,
Aargau Aargau (german: Kanton Aargau, links=no ; sometimes Latinized as ; see also List of European regions with alternative names#A, other names), more formally the Canton of Aargau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerl ...

Aargau
and
Thurgau Thurgau (; french: Thurgovie; it, Turgovia), anglicized as Thurgovia, more formally the Canton of Thurgau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of five districts and its capit ...

Thurgau
. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in
Upper Alsace Upper Alsace (southern Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects ...
and
Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg: ''Or, three lions passant sable'', the arms of the Duchy of Swabia, in origin the coat of arms of the House of Hohenstaufen. Also used for Swabia (and for Württemberg-Baden during 1945–1952) are ...

Swabia
. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the
House of Kyburg The Kyburg family (; ; also Kiburg) was a noble family of ''grafen'' (counts) in the Duchy of Swabia, a cadet line of the counts of Dillingen, who in the late 12th and early 13th centuries ruled the County of Kyburg, corresponding to much of what i ...
.


Pivot to Eastern Alpine Duchies

By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218–1291) had become an influential territorial lord in the area between the
Vosges Mountains The Vosges ( , ; german: Vogesen ;Franconian (linguistics), Franconian and gsw, Vogese) are a range of low mountains in Eastern France, near its France–Germany border, border with Germany. Together with the Palatine Forest to the north on the ...
and
Lake Constance Lake Constance (german: Bodensee, ) refers to three bodies of water A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorl ...

Lake Constance
. On 1 October 1273, he was elected as a compromise candidate as
King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple i ...
and received the name
Rudolph I of Germany Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election ...
.Heinz-Dieter Heimann: ''Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche''. . He then led a coalition against king
Ottokar II of Bohemia Ottokar II ( cs, Přemysl Otakar II; , in Městec Králové, Bohemia – 26 August 1278, in Dürnkrut, Austria, Dürnkrut, Lower Austria), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 12 ...

Ottokar II of Bohemia
who had taken advantage of the
Great InterregnumThere were many imperial interregna in the history of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central ...
in order to expand southwards, taking over the respective inheritances of the
Babenberg Babenberg was a noble dynasty of Austrian margraves and dukes. Originally from Bamberg Bamberg (, , ) is a town in Upper Franconia Upper Franconia (german: Oberfranken) is a ''Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is ...
(
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
,
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croat ...
,
Savinja The Savinja () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without r ...
) and of the
Spanheim Sponheim or Spanheim was a medieval Germans, German noble family, which originated in Rhenish Franconia. They were Imperial immediacy, immediate Counts of County of Sponheim, Sponheim until 1437 and Dukes of Duchy of Carinthia, Carinthia from 1122 ...
(
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...

Carinthia
and
Carniola Carniola (Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly li ...
). In 1278, Rudolph and his allies defeated and killed Ottokar at the
Battle of Marchfeld The Battle on the Marchfeld (''i.e. Morava (river), Morava Field''; german: Schlacht auf dem Marchfeld; cs, Bitva na Moravském poli; hu, Morvamezei csata) at Dürnkrut, Austria, Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen took place on 26 August 1278 and was a ...
, and the lands he had acquired reverted to the German crown. With the
Georgenberg Pact The Georgenberg Pact (also called Georgenberg Compact, german: Georgenberger Handfeste) was a treaty signed between Duke Leopold V of Austria and Duke Ottokar IV of Styria on 17 August 1186 at Enns Castle on the Georgenberg mountain. The treaty ...
of 1286, Rudolph secured for his family the duchies of Austria and Styria. The southern portions of Ottokar's former realm, Carinthia, Carniola, and Savinja, went to Rudolph's allies from the
House of Gorizia The Counts of Gorizia (german: Grafen von Görz; it, Conti di Gorizia; sl, Goriški grofje), also known as the Meinhardiner, were a comital and ducal dynasty in the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; germ ...
. Following Rudolph's death in 1291, 's assassination in 1308, and
Frederick the Fair Frederick the Fair (german: Friedrich der Schöne) or the Handsome (c. 1289 – 13 January 1330), from the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, ...
's failure to secure the German/Imperial crown for himself, the Habsburgs temporarily lost their supremacy in the Empire. In the early 14th century, they also focused on the
Kingdom of Bohemia The Kingdom of Bohemia ( cs, České království; german: link=no, Königreich Böhmen; la, link=no, Regnum Bohemiae), sometimes later in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval In the history of Europe ...
. After Václav III’s death on 4 August 1306, there were no male heirs remaining in the
Přemyslid dynasty The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid ( cs, Přemyslovci, german: Premysliden, pl, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia The Duchy of Bohemia, also later referred to in English as the Czech Duchy, ( ...
. Habsburg scion
Rudolph I Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election m ...

Rudolph I
was then elected but only lasted a year. The Bohemian kingship was an elected position, and the Habsburgs were only able to secure it on a hereditary basis much later in 1626, following their submission of the Czech lands during the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
. After 1307, subsequent Habsburg attempts to gain the Bohemian crown were frustrated first by
Henry of Bohemia Henry of Gorizia (german: Heinrich, cs, Jindřich; – 2 April 1335), a member of the House of Gorizia, was Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola, Landgrave of Carniola (as Henry VI) and Count of Tyrol from 1295 until his death, as well as ...
(a member of the House of Gorizia) and then by the
House of Luxembourg The House of Luxembourg (luxembourgish: D'Lëtzebuerger Haus; french: Maison de Luxembourg; german: Haus Luxemburg) or Luxembourg dynasty was a royal family A royal family is the immediate family of /, , /, or / and sometimes their extended ...
. Instead, they were able to expand southwards: in 1311, they took over
Savinja The Savinja () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without r ...
; after the death of Henry in 1335, they assumed power in
Carniola Carniola (Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly li ...
and
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...

Carinthia
; and in 1369, they succeeded his daughter
Margaret Margaret is a female first name, derived via French (''Marguerite (given name), Marguerite'') and Latin (''Margarita'') from grc, μαργαρίτης (''margarítēs'') meaning "pearl". The Greek is borrowed from Indo-Iranian languages, Persia ...
in
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
. After the death of
Albert III of Gorizia Albert III (died in 1374),Peter Štih & al., Slovenski zgodovinski atlas (Ljubljana, 2011), p. 75 a member of the House of Gorizia The Counts of Gorizia (german: Grafen von Görz; it, Conti di Gorizia; sl, Goriški grofje), also known as the Mein ...
in 1374, they gained a foothold at
Pazin Pazin ( it, Pisino, german: Mitterburg) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different pa ...
in central
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
, followed by
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
in 1382. Meanwhile, the original home territories of the Habsburgs in what is now Switzerland, including the
Aargau Aargau (german: Kanton Aargau, links=no ; sometimes Latinized as ; see also List of European regions with alternative names#A, other names), more formally the Canton of Aargau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerl ...

Aargau
with Habsburg Castle, were lost in the 14th century to the expanding
Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a translation of t ...
after the battles of (1315) and
Sempach Sempach is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Sursee (Amt), Sursee in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Lucerne (canton), Lucerne in Switzerland. History It has retained some traces of its medieval appearance, ...
(1386). Habsburg Castle itself was finally lost to the Swiss in 1415.


Albertinian / Leopoldian split and Imperial elections

Rudolf IV's brothers and Leopold III ignored his efforts to preserve the integrity of the family domains, and enacted the separation of the so-called Albertinian and Leopoldian family lines on 25 September 1379 by the
Treaty of Neuberg The Treaty of Neuberg, concluded between the Austrian duke Albert III and his brother Leopold III on 25 September 1379, determined the division of the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Hau ...
. The former would maintain Austria proper (then called ''Niederösterreich'' but comprising modern
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian w ...
and most of
Upper Austria Upper Austria (german: Oberösterreich ; bar, Obaöstareich) is one of the nine states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The Stat ...
), while the latter would rule over lands then labeled ''Oberösterreich'', namely
Inner Austria Inner Austria (german: Innerösterreich, sl, Notranja Avstrija, it, Austria Interiore) was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: ...
(''Innerösterreich'') comprising Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, and
Further Austria Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (german: Vorderösterreich, formerly ''die Vorlande'' (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively sp ...
(''Vorderösterreich'') consisting of Tyrol and the western Habsburg lands in Alsace and Swabia. By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of
Emperor Sigismund Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 – 9 December 1437) was prince-elector of Margraviate of Brandenburg, Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, king of Hungary and Croatia in union with Hungary, Croatia from 1387, king ...
in 1437, Duke
Albert VAlbert V may refer to: *Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (ca. mid-1330s–1370) *Albert V, Duke of Mecklenburg (1397–1423) *Albert II of Germany (1397–1439), Albert V as Duke of Austria *Albert V, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (died c. 1469) *Albert V ...
of the Albertine line (1397–1439) became the ruler of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
, again expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert was crowned as
King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple i ...
, known as such as Albert II. Following his early death in a battle against the Ottomans in 1439 and that of his son in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia once more as well as Hungary, for several decades. However, with the extinction of the
House of Celje The Counts of Celje ( sl, Celjski grofje) or the Counts of Cilli (german: Grafen von Cilli; hu, cillei grófok) were the most influential late medieval noble dynasty on the territory of present-day Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), off ...
in 1456 and the House of Wallsee-Enns in 1466/1483, they managed to absorb significant secular enclaves within their territories, and create a contiguous domain stretching from the border with Bohemia to the Adriatic sea. After the death of Leopold's eldest son William, Duke of Austria, William in 1406, the Leopoldian line was further split among his brothers into the Inner Austrian territory under Ernest, Duke of Austria, Ernest the Iron and a Tyrolean/Further Austrian line under Frederick IV, Duke of Austria, Frederick of the Empty Pockets. In 1440, Ernest's son Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III was chosen by the Prince-elector, electoral college to succeed Albert II as the king. Several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial dignity over the years, but success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliarism, conciliar movement. While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress, Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. Frederick was rather distant to his family; Eleanor, by contrast, had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously until 1806.


Archdukes

Through the forged document called ''privilegium maius'' (1358/59), Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, Duke Rudolf IV (1339–1365) introduced the title of Archduke to place the Habsburgs on a par with the Prince-electors of the Empire, since Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles IV had omitted to give them the electoral dignity in his Golden Bull of 1356. Charles, however, refused to recognize the title, as did his immediate successors. Duke Ernest of Austria (Habsburg), Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "archduke". That title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Frederick III, himself a Habsburg. Frederick himself used just "Duke of Austria", never ''Archduke'', until his death in 1493. The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria (died 1463), who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick granted the title ''archduke'' to his first cousin Sigismund of Austria, ruler of
Further Austria Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (german: Vorderösterreich, formerly ''die Vorlande'' (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively sp ...
. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, apparently only started to use the title after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy in 1482, as ''Archduke'' never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe forming ...
(where Maximilian is still titled "Duke of Austria"). The title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and Philip I of Castile, Philip (his under-age son) in the Low Countries. ''Archduke'' was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg territory, i.e., only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. These "junior" ''archdukes'' did not thereby become independent hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. Occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward, ''archduke'' and its female form, ''archduchess'', came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg (e.g., Queen Marie Antoinette of France was born ''Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria''.


Re-unification and expansion

In 1457 Duke Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick V of Inner Austria also gained the Austrian archduchy after his Albertine cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous had died without issue. 1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines when Archduke Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favor of Frederick's son Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I. As emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the ''privilegium maius''. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tyrolean branch of the Leopoldian line. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from the Rhine to the Mur (river), Mur and Leitha. On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), in which he coerced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian. The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477 and ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe forming ...
. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children Philip I of Castile, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favor of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493. After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new
King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple i ...
, receiving the name Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor," and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that, in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. Emperor Charles V would be the last to be crowned by the Pope himself, at Bologna in 1530. Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of dramatic expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son Philip I of Castile, Philip, known as the Handsome or the Fair, married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of the Crown of Castile, Castile. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles V and ruled the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in the New World), Southern Italy, Austria, and the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe forming ...
. The foundations for the later empire of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a and in between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the and was dissolved following its defeat in the . At its core was the which was a between th ...

Austria-Hungary
were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Ferdinand and Louis's sister Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515. All these children were still minors, so the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but the latter's designs were ultimately successful: upon Louis's death in battle in 1526, Ferdinand became king of Bohemia and Hungary. The Habsburg dynasty achieved its highest position when
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
was elected Holy Roman Emperor. Much of Charles's reign was dedicated to the fight against Protestantism, which led to its eradication throughout vast areas under Habsburg control.


Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs

After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg dynasty split into the branch of the Austrian (or German) Habsburgs, led by Ferdinand, and the branch of the Spanish Habsburgs, initially led by Charles's son Philip II of Spain, Philip. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and archduke of Austria in the name of his brother Charles V became suo jure monarch as well as the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor (designated as successor already Imperial election, 1531, in 1531). Philip became King of Spain and its colonial empire as Philip II of Spain, Philip II, and ruler of the Habsburg domains in Italy and the Low Countries. The Spanish Habsburgs also ruled Portugal for a time, known there as the Philippine dynasty (1580–1640). The Seventeen Provinces and the Duchy of Milan were in personal union under the King of Spain, but remained part of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
. Furthermore, the Spanish king had claims on Hungary and Bohemia. In the secret Oñate treaty of 29 July 1617, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs settled their mutual claims.


Habsburg inbreeding and extinction of the male lines

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by frequent consanguineous marriages, resulting in a cumulatively deleterious effect on their gene pool. Health impairments due to inbreeding included epilepsy, insanity, and early death. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests inbreeding may have played a role in their extinction. Numerous members of the family showed specific facial deformities: an enlarged lower jaw with an extended chin known as mandibular prognathism or "Habsburg jaw", a large nose with hump and hanging tip ("Habsburg nose"), and an everted lower lip ("Habsburg lip"). The latter two are signs of Maxillary hypoplasia, maxillary deficiency. A 2019 study found that the degree of mandibular prognathism in the Habsburg family shows a statistically significant correlation with the degree of inbreeding. A correlation between maxillary deficiency and degree of inbreeding was also present but was not statistically significant. Other scientific studies, however, dispute the ideas of any linkage between fertility and consanguinity. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line, Charles II of Spain, Charles II, who was severely disabled from birth (perhaps by genetic disorders) possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, probably because of "remote inbreeding". The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 led to the War of the Spanish Succession, and that of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Charles VI in 1740 led to the War of the Austrian Succession. In the former, the House of Bourbon won the conflict and put a final end to the Habsburg rule in Spain. The latter, however, was won by
Maria Theresa Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (german: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position. She was the ...
and led to the succession of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German language, German: ''Haus Habsburg-Lothringen'') becoming the new main branch of the dynasty, in the person of Maria Theresa's son, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II. This new House was created by the marriage between Maria Theresa, Maria Theresa of Habsburg and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) this new House being a cadet branch of the female line of the House of Habsburg and the male line of the House of Lorraine. It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within Spanish and Austrian lines contributed to the extinction of the main line.


House of Habsburg-Lorraine

On 6 August 1806, Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire, Emperor Francis I dissolved the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
under pressure from Napoleon's reorganization of Germany. In anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis had declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on 11 August 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804. Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire, Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "Majestic plural, We, Francis the First, by the grace of God, Emperor of Austria; Kings of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
,
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine (province), Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria (duchy), Styria, Carinthia (duchy), Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Grand Duchy of Cracow, Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomierz, Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Oświęcim, Auschwitz and Zator, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Zator, Cieszyn, Teschen, and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca d'Isonzo, Gradisca and of the German Tyrol, Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
". The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a real union, whereby the Kingdom of Hungary was granted co-equality with the Austrian Empire, Empire of Austria, that henceforth didn't include the Kingdom of Hungary as a crownland anymore. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status. Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see Imperial and Royal, k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I. On 11 November 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I of Austria (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdication, abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law that revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until
Otto von Habsburg Otto von Habsburg (given names: ''Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius''; 20 November 1912 4 July 2011), was the last crown prince of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, of ...

Otto von Habsburg
, the eldest son of Charles I, on 31 May 1961 renounced all claims to the throne. In the interwar period, the House of Habsburg was a vehement opponent of National Socialism and Communism. In Germany, Adolf Hitler diametrically opposed the centuries-old Habsburg principles of largely allowing local communities under their rule to maintain traditional ethnic, religious and language practices, and he bristled with hatred against the Habsburg family. During the Second World War there was a strong Habsburg resistance movement in Central Europe, which was radically persecuted by the Nazi Party, Nazis and the Gestapo. The unofficial leader of these groups was Otto von Habsburg, who campaigned against the Nazis and for a free Central Europe in France and the United States. Most of the resistance fighters, such as Heinrich Maier, who successfully passed on production sites and plans for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft to the Allies of World War II, Allies, were executed. The Habsburg family played a leading role in the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Communist Eastern Bloc.


Multilingualism

As they accumulated crowns and titles, the Habsburgs developed a unique family tradition of multilingualism that evolved over the centuries. The
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
had been multilingual from the start, even though most of its emperors were native German speakers. The language issue within the Empire became gradually more salient as the non-religious use of Latin declined and that of Languages of Europe, national languages gained prominence during the High Middle Ages. Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV of Luxembourg was known to be fluent in Czech, French, German, Italian and Latin. The last section of his Golden Bull of 1356 specifies that the Empire's secular prince-electors "should be instructed in the varieties of the different dialects and languages" and that "since they are expected in all likelihood to have naturally acquired the German language, and to have been taught it from their infancy, [they] shall be instructed in the grammar of the Italian and Slavic tongues, beginning with the seventh year of their age so that, before the fourteenth year of their age, they may be learned in the same". In the early 15th century, Strasbourg-based chronicler Jakob Twinger von Königshofen asserted that Charlemagne had mastered six languages, even though he had a preference for German. In the early years of the family's ascendancy, neither Rudolf I of Germany, Rudolf I nor appear to have spoken French. By contrast, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Habsburg is well known some having been fluent in several languages. He was native in French language, French and also knew Dutch language, Dutch from his youth in Flanders. He later added some Spanish language, Castilian Spanish, which he was required to learn by the Old Castile, Castilian ''Cortes Generales''. He could also speak some Basque language, Basque, acquired by the influence of the History of the Basques, Basque secretaries serving in the royal court. He gained a decent command of German language, German following the Imperial election of 1519, though he never spoke it as well as French. A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles was: "I speak Spanish/Latin [depending on the source] to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." Latin was the administrative language of the Empire until the aggressive Josephinism, promotion of German by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II in the late 18th century, which was partly reversed by his successors. From the 16th century, most if not all Habsburgs spoke French as well as German, and many also spoke Italian. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II and Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II addressed the Bohemian Diet, Bohemian Assembly in Czech, even though it is not clear that they were fluent. By contrast, there is little evidence that later Habsburgs in the 17th and 18th centuries spoke Czech, with the probable exception of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III who made several stays in Bohemia and appears to have spoken Czech while there. In the 19th century, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I had notions of Czech, and Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand I spoke it decently. Franz Joseph I of Austria, Franz Joseph received a bilingual early education in French and German, then added Czech and Hungarian and later Italian and Polish. He also learned Latin and Greek. After the end of the Habsburg Monarchy,
Otto von Habsburg Otto von Habsburg (given names: ''Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius''; 20 November 1912 4 July 2011), was the last crown prince of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, of ...

Otto von Habsburg
was fluent in English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.


Burials


List of Habsburg rulers

The Habsburgs' monarchical positions included: * Holy Roman Emperors (intermittently from 1273 until 1806) and List of German monarchs, Roman-German kings * Rulers of Austria (as dukes from 1278 until 1453; as archdukes from 1453 and as emperors from 1804 until 1918) * List of rulers of Bohemia, Kings of Bohemia (1306–1307, 1437–1439, 1453–1457, 1526–1918) * List of Spanish monarchs, Kings of Spain (1516–1700) * King of Hungary, Kings of Hungary and King of Croatia, Croatia (1526–1918) * King of England and List of Irish Monarchs, Ireland (1554-1558) * List of Portuguese monarchs, Kings of Portugal (1581–1640) * List of rulers of Transylvania, Grand princes of Transylvania (1690–1867) * Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772–1918) * Emperor of Mexico (1864–1867)


Ancestors

* Guntram, Count of Habsburg, Guntram the Rich (ca. 930–985 / 990) Father of:Hugh Massingberd, Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke's Peerage, Burke’s Royal Families of the World: ''Volume I Europe & Latin America'', 1977, pp. 18, 32. The chronology of the Muri Abbey, burial place of the early Habsburgs, written in the 11th century, states that ''Guntramnus Dives'' (Guntram the Rich), was the ancestor of the House of Habsburg. Many historians believe this indeed makes Guntram the progenitor of the House of Habsburg. However, this account was 200 years after the fact, and much about him and the origins of the Habsburgs is uncertain. If true, as Guntram was a member of the Etichonids, Etichonider family, it would link the Habsburg lineage to this family. * Lanzelin, Count of Habsburg, Lanzelin of Altenburg (died 991). Besides Radbot, below, he had sons named Rudolph I, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph I, Werner I, Bishop of Strasbourg, Wernher, and Landolf.


Before the Albertine/Leopoldine division


Counts

Before Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph rose to Holy Roman Emperor, German king, the Habsburgs were Counts of Baden in what is today southwestern Germany and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = under an , leader_title1 = , leader_name1 = , leader_title2 = , leader_name2 = , legislatur ...

Switzerland
. * Radbot, Count of Habsburg, Radbot of Klettgau, built the
Habsburg Castle Image:Habsburg castle (1250) basic structure and stages.jpg, 250px, The castle in 1250, seen from the north. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built between 1100 and 1250. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 s ...
(c. 985 – 1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, Count of Habsburg, Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albert I, Count of Habsburg, Albrecht I. Founded the Muri Abbey, which became the first burial place of members of the House of Habsburg. It is possible that Radbot founded the castle Habsburg Castle, Habichtsburg, the residence of the House of Habsburg, but another possible founder is Werner I, Count of Habsburg, Werner I. * Werner I, Count of Habsburg, Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025/1030–1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, Count of Habsburg, Albert II, who was Vogt, reeve of Muri, Aargau, Muri from 1111–1141 after the death of Otto II. *
Otto II Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (''Rufus''), was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer) during the middle ages ...
of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (died 1111) Father of: * Werner II, Count of Habsburg, Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; died 1167) Father of: * Albert III, Count of Habsburg, Albrecht III of Habsburg (''the Rich''), died 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German language, German-speaking part of
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = under an , leader_title1 = , leader_name1 = , leader_title2 = , leader_name2 = , legislatur ...

Switzerland
. Father of: * Rudolph II, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph II of Habsburg (b. c. 1160, died 1232) Father of: * Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (died 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king
Rudolph I of Germany Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election ...
. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, Count of Habsburg, Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the
Aargau Aargau (german: Kanton Aargau, links=no ; sometimes Latinized as ; see also List of European regions with alternative names#A, other names), more formally the Canton of Aargau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerl ...

Aargau
and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria


Kings of the Romans

*Rudolph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph I, emperor 1273–1291 (never crowned) *Albert I, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert I, emperor 1298–1308 (never crowned)


King of Bohemia

*
Rudolph I Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election m ...

Rudolph I
, king of Bohemia 1306–1307


Dukes/Archdukes of Austria

* ''Rudolph II of Austria, Rudolph II'', son of Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282–1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons. * Albert I of Austria, Albert I (''Albrecht I''), son of Rudolph I of Germany, Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282–1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298–1308. See also #House of Habsburg, below. * ''Rudolph III of Austria, Rudolph III'', the oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298–1307 * Frederick I of Austria (Habsburg), Frederick ''the Handsome'' (''Friedrich der Schöne''), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308–1330; officially co-regent of the emperor Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled. * Leopold I of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308–1326. * Albert II of Austria, Albert II (''Albrecht II''), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326–1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335. * Otto, Duke of Austria, Otto ''the Jolly'' (''der Fröhliche''), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330–1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335. * Rudolph IV of Austria, Rudolph IV ''the Founder'' (''der Stifter''), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358–1365, Duke of German Tyrol, Tirol after 1363.


Division of Albertinian and Leopoldian lines

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III of Austria, Albert III and Leopold III of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the
Treaty of Neuberg The Treaty of Neuberg, concluded between the Austrian duke Albert III and his brother Leopold III on 25 September 1379, determined the division of the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Hau ...
, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croat ...
,
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...

Carinthia
, Carniola, the Windic March, German Tyrol, Tirol, and
Further Austria Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (german: Vorderösterreich, formerly ''die Vorlande'' (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively sp ...
.


Kings of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors (Albertinian line)

*Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert II, emperor 1438–1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia *Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III, emperor 1440–1493


Kings of Hungary and Bohemia (Albertinian line)

* Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1437–1439) * Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary (1444–1457) and Bohemia (1453–1457)


Kings of Bohemia (Albertinian line)

* Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert, king of Bohemia 1438–1439 * Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 1453–1457


Dukes of Austria (Albertinian line)

* Albert III of Austria, Albert III (''Albrecht III''), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions. * Albert IV of Austria, Albert IV (''Albrecht IV''), duke of Austria 1395–1404, in conflict with Leopold IV. * Albert V of Austria, Albert V (''Albrecht V''), duke of Austria 1404–1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438–1439 as Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, Albert II. See also #House of Habsburg, below. * Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440–1457.


Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol / Inner Austria (Leopoldian line)

* Leopold III of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach. * William of Austria, William (''Wilhelm''), son of the above, 1386–1406 duke in
Inner Austria Inner Austria (german: Innerösterreich, sl, Notranja Avstrija, it, Austria Interiore) was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: ...
(Carinthia, Styria) * Leopold IV of Austria (Habsburg), Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395–1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406–1411 duke of Inner Austria


=Leopoldian-Inner Austrian sub-line

= :* Ernest of Austria (Habsburg), Ernest ''the Iron'' (''der Eiserne''), 1406–1424 duke of
Inner Austria Inner Austria (german: Innerösterreich, sl, Notranja Avstrija, it, Austria Interiore) was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: ...
, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV. :* Frederick V of Austria, Frederick V (''Friedrich''), son of Ernst, became Holy Roman Emperor, emperor Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund of Austria, Sigismund 1439–1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislaus Posthumus 1440–1452. See also #House of Habsburg, below. :* Albert VI of Austria, Albert VI (''Albrecht VI''), brother of the above, 1446–1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 1458–1463 :* ''Ernestine line'' of Rulers of Saxony, Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918


=Leopoldian-Tyrol sub-line

= :* Frederick IV of Austria, Frederick IV (''Friedrich''), brother of Ernst, 1402–1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria :* Sigismund of Austria, Sigismund, also spelled ''Siegmund'' or ''Sigmund'', 1439–1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.


Reunited Habsburgs until extinction of agnatic lines

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label= ) is the , largest city, and one of of . Vienna is Austria's , with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the , nearly one third of the country's population), and its , , and centre. It ...

Vienna
and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485–1490.


Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

*Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, emperor 1508–1519 *
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
, emperor 1519–1556, his arms are explained in an Coat of arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, article about them The abdications of Charles V in 1556 ended his formal authority over Ferdinand and made him ''suo jure'' ruler in
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
,
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, o ...
,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
, as well as Holy Roman Emperor. *Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, emperor 1556–1564 (Imperial Crypt#Founders' Family, →Family Tree) *Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, emperor 1564–1576 *Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, emperor 1576–1612 *Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, emperor 1612–1619 Ferdinand's inheritance had been split in 1564 among his children, with Maximilian taking the Imperial crown and his younger brother Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Archduke Charles II ruling over
Inner Austria Inner Austria (german: Innerösterreich, sl, Notranja Avstrija, it, Austria Interiore) was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: ...
(i.e. the Duchy of Styria, the Duchy of Carniola with March of Istria, the Duchy of Carinthia, the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Trieste, Imperial City of Trieste, ruled from Graz). Charles's son and successor Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II in 1619 became Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor as well as Kingdom of Bohemia, King of Bohemia and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
in 1620. The Further Austrian/Tyrolean line of Ferdinand's brother Archduke Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, Leopold V survived until the death of his son Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Further Austria, Sigismund Francis in 1665, whereafter their territories ultimately returned to common control with the other Austrian Habsburg lands. Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa in the 18th century. *Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, emperor 1619–1637 *Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, emperor 1637–1657 (Imperial Crypt#Emperor Ferdinand III's family, →Family Tree) *Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, emperor 1658–1705 *Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Josef I, emperor 1705–1711 *Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, emperor 1711–1740 *Maria Theresa of Austria, Habsburg heiress and wife of emperor Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I Stephen, reigned as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
and
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
1740–1780.


Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (Spanish Habsburgs)

Habsburg Spain was a personal union between the Crowns of Crown_of_Castile, Castile and Crown_of_Aragon, Aragon; Aragon was itself divided into the Kingdoms of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Majorca, Naples, Sicily, Malta and Sardinia. From 1581, they were kings of Portuguese_Restoration_War, Portugal until they renounced this title in the Treaty_of_Lisbon_(1668), 1668 Treaty of Lisbon. They were also Dukes of Milan, Lord of the Americas, and holder of multiple titles from territories within the Habsburg Netherlands. A full listing can be seen Philip II of Spain#Titles, honours and styles, here. *Philip I of Castile, Philip I of Castile the Handsome, second son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna of Castile, Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son: *Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I 1516–1556, ''aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines'' The meanings of his arms are analyzed Coat of arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, here. *Philip II of Spain, Philip II the Prudent 1556–1598, also Philip II of Spain, Philip I of Portugal 1581–1598 and Philip I of England with his wife Mary I of England 1554–1558. The meanings of his arms are analyzed Philip II of Spain#Heraldry, here. . *Philip III of Spain, Philip III the Pious also Philip III of Spain, Philip II of Portugal 1598–1621 *Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV the Great 1621–1665, also Philip IV of Spain, Philip III of Portugal 1621–1640 *Charles II of Spain, Charles II the Bewitched ("El Hechizado") 1665–1700 The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.


Kings of Hungary (Austrian Habsburgs)

* Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, king of Hungary 1526–1564 * Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, king of Hungary 1563–1576 * Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf I, king of Hungary 1572–1608 * Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias II, king of Hungary 1608–1619 * Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, king of Hungary 1618–1637 * Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, king of Hungary 1625–1657 * Ferdinand IV of Germany, Ferdinand IV, king of Hungary 1647–1654 * Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, king of Hungary 1655–1705 * Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I, king of Hungary 1687–1711 * Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles III, king of Hungary 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary 1741–1780


Kings of Bohemia (Austrian Habsburgs)

* Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I, king of Bohemia 1526–1564 * Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, king of Bohemia 1563–1576 * Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, king of Bohemia 1572–1611 * Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias, king of Bohemia 1611–1618 * Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia 1620–1637 * Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, king of Bohemia 1625/37–1657 * Ferdinand IV of Germany, Ferdinand IV, king of Bohemia 1647–1654 (joint rule) * Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, king of Bohemia 1655–1705 * Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1687–1711 * Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, king of Bohemia 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia 1743–1780


Titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Seventeen Provinces, Netherlands

Charles the Bold controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county) but also Flanders and the broader Burgundian Netherlands. Frederick III managed to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. The wedding took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles.Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. . pp. 38–45. Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest what became the 17 provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. After Mary's death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son Philip the Handsome. *Philip the Handsome (1482–1506) *
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
(1506–1555) *Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, regent (1507–1515) and (1519–1530) *Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Mary of Hungary, dowager queen of Hungary, sister of Charles V, governor of the Netherlands, 1531–1555 *Margaret of Parma, illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Duchess of Parma, and mother of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, governor 1559–1567 *John of Austria, Don John of Austria, illegitimate son of Charles V, victor of Lepanto, governor of the Netherlands, 1576–1578 *Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, son of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, 1578–1592 The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a List of Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands, regent or governor-general, who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 Charles V combined the Netherlands into one administrative unit, to be inherited by his son Philip II. Charles effectively united the Netherlands as one entity. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the second half of the 16th century, when they lost the seven northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern Catholic part (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg) as the Spanish Netherlands, Spanish and Austrian Netherlands until they were conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795. The one exception to this was the period of (1601–1621), when shortly before Philip II of Spain, Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia, Isabella and her fiancé, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Archduke Albert of Austria, a younger son of Emperor Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II. The territories reverted to Spain on the death of Albert in 1621, as the couple had no surviving offspring, and Isabella acted as regent-governor until her death in 1633: *the Archdukes Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Albert and Isabella Clara Eugenia, Isabella, 1601-1621


Habsburg-Lorraine

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled ''of House of Habsburg-Lorraine, Habsburg-Lorraine''.


Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria (House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line)

*Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I Stephen, emperor 1745–1765 (→Imperial Crypt#Emperor Ferdinand III's family, Family Tree) *Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, emperor 1765–1790 *Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, emperor 1790–1792 (→Imperial Crypt#Empress Maria Theresia's Family, Family Tree) *Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, emperor 1792–1806 (→Imperial Crypt#Emperor Leopold II's family, Family Tree) Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line . The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below. A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria, Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Maria Adelaide of Austria, Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of House of Bonaparte, Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ; Savoy ; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.


Emperors of Austria (House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line)

*Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804–1835: formerly ''Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor'' (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree) *Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 1835–1848 *Francis Joseph of Austria, Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 1848–1916. *Charles I of Austria, Charles I, Emperor of Austria 1916–1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the Bourbon-Parma, House of Bourbon-Parma.


Kings of Hungary (Habsburg-Lorraine)

* Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, king of Hungary 1780–1790 * Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, king of Hungary 1790–1792 * Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis, king of Hungary 1792–1835 * Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand V, king of Hungary and Bohemia 1835–1848 * Francis Joseph of Austria, Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 1867–1916 * Karl of Austria, Charles IV, king of Hungary 1916–1918


Kings of Bohemia (Habsburg-Lorraine)

* Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, king of Bohemia 1780–1790 * Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, king of Bohemia 1790–1792 * Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, king of Bohemia 1792–1835 * Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 1835–1848 * Francis Joseph of Austria, Francis Joseph, king of Bohemia 1848–1916 * Karl of Austria, Charles I, king of Bohemia 1916–1918


Italian branches


Grand dukes of Tuscany (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

*Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis Stephen 1737–1765 ''(later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor)'' Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification. *Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Peter Leopold 1765–1790 ''(later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor)'' *Ferdinand III of Tuscany, Ferdinand III 1790–1800, 1814–1824 (→Imperial Crypt#Tuscan line, Family Tree) *Leopold II of Tuscany, Leopold II 1824–1849, 1849–1859 *Ferdinand IV of Tuscany, Ferdinand IV 1859–1860


Dukes of Modena (Austria-Este branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification. The Dukes named their line the House of Austria-Este, as they were descended from the daughter of the last D'Este Duke of Modena. *Francis IV of Modena, Francis IV 1814–1831, 1831–1846 (→Imperial Crypt#Empress Maria Theresia's Family, Family Tree) *Francis V, Duke of Modena, Francis V 1846–1848, 1849–1859


Duchess of Parma (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favor. *Marie Louise of Austria, Maria Luisa 1814–1847 (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree)


Other monarchies


King of England

*Philip II of Spain (''Jure uxoris'' King, with Mary I of England 1554–1558)


Empress consort of Empire of Brazil, Brazil and Queen consort of

Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, ...
(House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

Don (honorific), Dona Maria Leopoldina of Austria (22 January 1797 – 11 December 1826) was an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Empire of Brazil, Brazil and Queen consort of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, ...
.


Empress consort of France (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

* Marie Louise of Austria 1810–1814


Emperor of Mexico (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and a princess of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Charlotte of Belgium, Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in Cerro de las Campanas, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez. *Maximilian of Mexico, Maximilian I (1864–1867) (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree)


List of post-monarchical Habsburgs


Main Habsburg-Lorraine line

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished. *Karl of Austria, Charles I (1918–1922) (→Imperial Crypt#ZegelChartFranz57, Family Tree) *
Otto von Habsburg Otto von Habsburg (given names: ''Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius''; 20 November 1912 4 July 2011), was the last crown prince of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, of ...

Otto von Habsburg
(1922–2007) *Zita of Bourbon-Parma, guardian (1922–1930) *
Karl von Habsburg Karl von Habsburg (given names: ''Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam''; born 11 January 1961) is an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no ...
(2007–present)


House of Habsburg-Tuscany

* Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand IV 1860–1908 * Archduke Josef Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany, Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1908–1942 * Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1942–1948 * Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany 1948–1984 * Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany 1984–1993 * Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1993–present


House of Habsburg-Este

* Francis V, Duke of Modena, Francis V (1859–1875) * Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este & Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary (1875–1914) * Karl I of Austria, Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este (1914–1917) * Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1917–1996) * Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este (1996–Present)


See also

* A.E.I.O.U. * Habsburg Monarchy * Habsburg Spain * Royal intermarriage * Habsburg family tree * Heraldry of the House of Habsburg * French–Habsburg rivalry * Habsburg Myth


Notes


References


Sources

* Agamov, A. M. ''Dynasties of Europe 400–2016: Complete Genealogy of Sovereign Houses'' (in Russian). Moscow, 2017. pp. 27-33. * * Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. ''The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia''. Clearfield, 1996. * Crankshaw, Edward. ''The Fall of the House of Habsburg''. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (First published by Longmans in 1963.) * Evans, Robert J. W. ''The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation''. Clarendon Press, 1979. * * McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. ''The Habsburgs''. Doubleday, 1966. * * Palmer, Alan. ''Napoleón and Marie Louise: The Emperor's Second Wife''. St. Martin's Press, 2001. * Rady, Martyn. ''The Habsburgs: To Rule the World''. Basic Books, 2020. * Wandruszka, Adam. ''The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty''. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Publishing Group, Greenwood Press, 1975).


External links

*
The World of the Habsburgs
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