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The House of Capet (french: Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (''Capétiens directs''), also called the
House of France The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a number of branches and their sub-branches. Some of its branches hav ...
(''la maison de France''), or simply the Capets, ruled the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the
Capetian dynasty The Capetian dynasty (), also known as the House of France The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a num ...
– itself a derivative dynasty from the
Robertians The Robertians (sometimes called the Robertines in modern scholarship) are the proposed Frankish family which was ancestral to the Capetian dynasty, and thus to the royal families of France and of many other countries. The Capetians appear first i ...
. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of
Hugh Capet Hugh Capet (; french: Hugues Capet ; c. 939 – 14 October 996) was the from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the . The son of the powerful duke and his wife , he was elected as the successor of the last king, . Hugh was des ...
( 939 – 996). Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian" (see
House of France The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a number of branches and their sub-branches. Some of its branches hav ...
). The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings" (following the
Merovingians The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks from the middle of the 5th century until 751. They first appear as "Kings of the Franks" in the Roman army of northern Gaul. By 509 they had united all the Franks and northern Gaulis ...
and the
Carolingians The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and ...

Carolingians
). The name "Capet" derives from the nickname (of uncertain meaning) given to Hugh, the first Capetian king. For discussion of the name ''Capet'', see the article on
Hugh Capet Hugh Capet (; french: Hugues Capet ; c. 939 – 14 October 996) was the from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the . The son of the powerful duke and his wife , he was elected as the successor of the last king, . Hugh was des ...
.
The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of
Philip IV
Philip IV
(reigned 1285–1314) all failed to produce surviving male heirs to the French throne. With the death of
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
(reigned 1322–1328), the throne passed to the
House of Valois The House of Valois ( , also , ) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet The House of Capet (french: Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (''Capétiens directs''), also called the House of F ...
, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. Royal power would later pass (1589) to another Capetian branch, the
House of Bourbon The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European of French origin, a branch of the , the royal . Bourbon kings first ruled France and in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the held thrones in , , , and . Spain and have monarchs ...

House of Bourbon
, descended from the youngest son of
Louis IX Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis or Louis the Saint, is the only king of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France ...

Louis IX
(reigned 1226–1270), and (from 1830) to a Bourbon
cadet branch #REDIRECT Cadet branch In history and heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, ...
, the
House of Orléans The 4th House of Orléans (french: Maison d'Orléans), sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans (french: link=no, Maison de Bourbon-Orléans) to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Hou ...
, always remaining in the hands of
agnatic Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship In , kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact ...
descendants of Hugh Capet, except for the 10-year reign of Emperor
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
.


History


Early Capetian kings

The first Capetian monarch was
Hugh Capet Hugh Capet (; french: Hugues Capet ; c. 939 – 14 October 996) was the from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the . The son of the powerful duke and his wife , he was elected as the successor of the last king, . Hugh was des ...
(c.939–996), a
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
nobleman from the
Île-de-France The Île-de-France (, ; literally "Isle of France") is the most populous of the eighteen regions of France France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in ...

Île-de-France
, who, following the death of
Louis VLouis V may refer to: * Louis V of France (967–987) * Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and V of Germany (1282–1347) * Louis V, Duke of Bavaria (1315–1361) * Louis V, Elector Palatine (ruled 1508–1544) * Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (rul ...

Louis V
(c.967–987) – the last
Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historic ...
king – secured the throne of France by election. He then proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and
coronation A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the stand ...

coronation
of his son,
Robert II
Robert II
(972–1031), as co-King. The throne thus passed securely to Robert on his father's death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors. The Capetian kings were initially weak rulers of the kingdom – they directly ruled only small holdings in the Île-de-France and the
Orléanais Orléanais () is a former province of France, around the cities of Orléans Orléans (;"Orleans"< ...

Orléanais
, all of which were plagued with disorder; the rest of France was controlled by potentates such as the
duke of Normandy In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western Kingdom of France, France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles the Simple, Charles III in 911 ...
, the
count of Blois The County of Blois was originally centred on Blois, south of Paris, France. One of the chief cities, along with Blois itself, was Chartres. History Blois was associated with Champagne (historical province), Champagne Province, the House of Chât ...
, the
duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the an ...
(himself a Capetian after 1032) and the
duke of Aquitaine The Duke of Aquitaine ( oc, Duc d'Aquitània, french: Duc d'Aquitaine, ) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ...
(all of whom faced to a greater or lesser extent the same problems of controlling their subordinates). The House of Capet was, however, fortunate enough to have the support of the
Church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the p ...

Church
, and – with the exception of
Philip IPhilip I may refer to: * Philip I of Macedon (ruled 640–602 BC) * Philip I Philadelphus (1st century BC) * Philip the Arab (c. 204–249), Roman Emperor * Philip I of France (1052–1108) * Philip I (Archbishop of Cologne) (1130 – 13 August 1191 ...

Philip I
,
Louis IX Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis or Louis the Saint, is the only king of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France ...

Louis IX
and the short-lived
John IJohn I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem) * John Chrysostom (349 – c. 407), Patriarch of Constantinople * John of Antioch (died 441) * Pope John I Pope John I ( la, Ioannes I; died 18 May 526) was the bishop of Rome A bish ...

John I
– were able to avoid the problems of underaged kingship.


Capetian and Plantagenet

Briefly, under
Louis VII Louis VII (1120 – 18 September 1180), called the Younger or the Young (french: link=no, le Jeune), was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples ...

Louis VII
(1120–1180), the House of Capet rose in their power in France. Louis married Duchess
Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine ( – 1 April 1204) (french: Aliénor d'Aquitaine, ) was Queen of France Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen consort, the wife of a reigning king ...

Eleanor of Aquitaine
(1122–1204) and so became duke – an advantage which had been eagerly grasped by his father,
Louis VI
Louis VI
(1081–1137), when Eleanor's father,
William XWilliam X may refer to: * William X of Aquitaine (1099–1137) * Guglielmo X Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (1538–1587) {{hndis, William X ...
, had asked of the king in his will to secure a good marriage for the young duchess. However, the marriage – and thus one avenue of Capetian aggrandisement – failed. The couple produced only two daughters, and suffered marital discord. Driven to secure the future of the house, Louis divorced Eleanor, who went on to marry
Henry II of England Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (french: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 until his death in 1189. He was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. ...

Henry II of England
(1133–1189). Louis married twice more before finally having a son,
Philip IIPhilip II may refer to: * Philip II of Macedon (382–336 BC) * Philip II (emperor) (238–249), Roman emperor * Philip II, Prince of Taranto (1329–1374) * Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404) * Philip II, Duke of Savoy (1438-1497) * Philip ...

Philip II
(1165–1223). Philip II started to break the power of the
Plantagenets The House of Plantagenet () was a Dynasty, royal house which originated from the lands of County of Anjou, Anjou in France. The family held the English throne from 1154 (with the accession of Henry II of England, Henry II, at the end of The An ...
– the family of Eleanor and Henry II – in France.
Louis VIII Louis VIII (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226), nicknamed The Lion (french: Le Lion), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, R ...
(1187–1226) – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married
Blanche of Castile Blanche of Castile ( es, Blanca de Castilla; 4 March 1188 – 27 November 1252) was Queen consort of France This is a list of the women who were queen consort, queens or empresses as wives of French monarchs from the 843 Treaty of Verdun, ...

Blanche of Castile
(1188–1252), a granddaughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, invading at the invitation of the English barons, and briefly being acclaimed – though, it would later be stressed, not crowned – as
king of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Kingdom of Wessex, Wessex, one of the heptarchy, seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself Kin ...
. However, the Capetians failed to establish themselves in England – Louis was forced to sign the
Treaty of Lambeth The Treaty of Lambeth of 1217, also known as the Treaty of Kingston to distinguish it from the Treaty of Lambeth of 1212, was a peace treaty signed by Louis of France in September 1217 ending the campaign known as the First Barons' War The Fi ...
, which legally decreed that he had never been king of England, and the prince reluctantly returned to his wife and father in France. More importantly for his dynasty, he would during his brief reign (1223–1226) conquer
Poitou Poitou (, , ; Poitevin: ''Poetou'') was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first ...

Poitou
, and some of the lands of the
Pays d'Oc
Pays d'Oc
, declared forfeit from their former owners by the pope as part of the
Albigensian Crusade The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229; , ) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III ( la, Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (angl ...
. These lands were added to the French crown, further empowering the Capetian family.
Louis IX Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis or Louis the Saint, is the only king of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France ...

Louis IX
(1214–1270) – ''Saint Louis'' – succeeded Louis VIII as a child; unable to rule for several years, the government of the realm was undertaken by his mother, the formidable Queen Blanche. She had originally been chosen by her grandmother, Eleanor, to marry the French heir, considered a more suitable queen than her sister
UrracaUrraca (also spelled ''Hurraca'', ''Urracha'' and ''Hurracka'' in medieval Latin) is a female given name, first name. In Spanish language, Spanish, the name means magpie, derived perhaps from Latin ''furax'', meaning "thievish", in reference to the ...
; as
regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
, she proved this to be so, being associated in the kingship not only during her son's minority, but even after he came into his own. Louis, too, proved a largely acclaimed King – though he expended much money and effort on the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
, only for it to go to waste, as a French king he was admired for his austerity, strength, bravery, justice, and his devotion to France. Dynastically, he established two notable Capetian houses: the House of Anjou (which he created by bestowing the
County of Anjou The County of Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a small French county and predecessor to the better known Duchy of Anjou The Duchy of Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower river Loire The Loire (, also ; ...
upon his brother,
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...
(1227–1285)), and the
House of Bourbon The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European of French origin, a branch of the , the royal . Bourbon kings first ruled France and in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the held thrones in , , , and . Spain and have monarchs ...

House of Bourbon
(which he established by bestowing Clermont on his son
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...

Robert
(1256–1317) in 1268, before marrying the young man to the heiress of Bourbon, Beatrice (1257–1310)); the first house would go on to rule
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
,
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
; the second would eventually succeed to the French throne, collecting
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...
along the way.


Apogee of royal power

At the death of Louis IX (who shortly after was set upon the road to
beatification Beatification (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b ...
), France under the Capetians stood as the pre-eminent power in Western Europe. This stance was largely continued, if not furthered, by his son
Philip III
Philip III
(1245–1285), and ''his'' son
Philip IV
Philip IV
(1268–1314), both of whom ruled with the aid of advisors committed to the future of the House of Capet and of France, and both of whom made notable – for different reasons – dynastic marriages. Philip III married as his first wife
Isabel Isabel is a feminine given name of Spanish origin. It originates as the medieval Spanish form of '' Elisabeth'' (ultimately Hebrew '' Elisheba''), Arising in the 12th century, it became popular in England in the 13th century following the marriag ...
(1247–1271), a daughter of King
James I of Aragon James I the Conqueror ( es, Jaime el Conquistador, ca, Jaume el Conqueridor; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between ...
(1208–1276); long after her death, he claimed the throne of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...
for his second son,
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...

Charles
(1270–1325), by virtue of Charles' descent via Isabel from the kings of Aragon. Unfortunately for the Capetians, the endeavour proved a failure, and the King himself died of dysentery at
Perpignan Perpignan (, , ; ca, Perpinyà ; es, Perpiñán ; it, Perpignano ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Pyrénées-Orientales Departments of France, department in southern France, in the heart of the plain of Roussillon, at the foot ...

Perpignan
, succeeded by his son, Philip IV. Philip IV had married
Joan I
Joan I
(1271–1305), the
queen of Navarre This is a list of the kings and queens of kingdom of Pamplona, Pamplona, later kingdom of Navarre, Navarre. Pamplona was the primary name of the kingdom until its union with Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon (1076–1134). However, the territorial desi ...
and countess of Champagne. By this marriage, he added these domains to the French crown. He engaged in conflicts with the
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
, eventually kidnapping
Pope Boniface VIII Pope Boniface VIII ( la, Bonifatius PP. VIII; born Benedetto Caetani, c. 1230 – 11 October 1303) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...

Pope Boniface VIII
(c.1235–1303), and securing the appointment of the more sympathetic Frenchman, Bertrand de Goth (1264–1314), as
Pope Clement V Pope Clement V ( la, Clemens Quintus; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled ''de Guoth'' and ''de Goth''), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Cathol ...

Pope Clement V
; and he boosted the power and wealth of the crown by abolishing the
Order of the Temple The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order (so ...
, seizing its assets in 1307. More importantly to French history, he summoned the first Estates General – in 1302 – and in 1295 established the so-called "
Auld Alliance The Auld Alliance ( Scots for "Old Alliance"; ; ) was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Brit ...
" with the
Scots
Scots
, at the time resisting English domination. He died in 1314, less than a year after the execution of the Templar leaders – it was said that he had been summoned to appear before God by
Jacques de Molay Jacques de Molay (; c. 1240–1250 – 11 or 18 March 1314), also spelled "Molai",Demurger, pp. 1-4. "So no conclusive decision can be reached, and we must stay in the realm of approximations, confining ourselves to placing Molay's date of birt ...

Jacques de Molay
(died 1314), the
Grand Master Grandmaster or Grand Master may refer to: People * Grandmaster Flash, Joseph Saddler (born 1958), hip-hop musician and disc jockey * Grandmaster Melle Mel, Melvin Glover (born 1961), hip-hop musician * "Grandmaster Sexay", nickname for profession ...
of the Templars, as the latter was burnt at the stake as a heretic; it was also said that de Molay had cursed the King and his family.


The succession crisis

Philip IV presided over the beginning of his House's end. The first quarter of the century saw each of Philip's sons reign in rapid succession:
Louis X
Louis X
(1314–1316),
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
(1316–1322) and
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
(1322–1328). Having been informed that his daughters-in-law were engaging in
adultery Adultery (from Latin ''adulterium'') is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds. Although the Human sexual activity, sexual activities that constitute adultery vary, as well as the social ...

adultery
with two
knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In so ...

knight
s – according to some sources, he was told this by his own daughter,
Isabella
Isabella
– he allegedly caught two of them in the act in 1313, and had all three shut up in royal prisons.
Margaret Margaret is a female first name, derived via French (''Marguerite (given name), Marguerite'') and Latin (''Margarita'') from grc, μαργαρίτης (''margarítēs'') meaning "pearl". The Greek is borrowed from Indo-Iranian languages, Persia ...
(1290–1315), the wife of his eldest son and heir apparent,
Louis X and I Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (french: le Hutin), was List of French monarchs, King of France from 1314 to 1316, succeeding his father Philip IV of France, Philip IV. After the ...
(1289–1316), had borne her husband only a daughter at this time, and the paternity of this girl,
Joan
Joan
, was with her mother's adultery now suspect. Accordingly, Louis – unwilling to release his wife and return to their marriage – needed to remarry. He arranged a marriage with his cousin,
Clementia of Hungary Clementia of Hungary (french: Clémence; 1293–13 October 1328) was queen of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metro ...
(1293–1328), and after Queen Margaret conveniently died in 1315 (strangled by order of the King, some claimed), he swiftly remarried to Clementia. She was pregnant when he died a year later, after an unremarkable reign; uncertain of how to arrange the succession (the two main claimants being Louis' daughter Joan – the suspected bastard – and Louis' younger brother
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...

Philip
(1293–1322),
Count of Poitiers Among the people who have borne the title of Count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have ...
), the French set up a regency under the Count of Poitiers, and hoped that the child would be a boy. This proved the case, but the boy –
King John I
King John I
(1316), known as ''the Posthumous'' – died after only 5 days, leaving a succession crisis. Eventually, it was decided based on several legal reasons (later reinterpreted as
Salic Law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
) that Joan was ineligible to inherit the throne, which passed to the Count of Poitiers, who became Philip V. He, however, produced no surviving sons with his wife, Countess
Joan II of Burgundy
Joan II of Burgundy
(1291–1330), who had been cleared of her charges of adultery; thus, when he died in 1322, the crown passed to his brother,
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...

Charles
(1294–1328),
Count of La Marche The County of La Marche (; oc, la Marcha) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past even ...
, who became Charles IV; the
County of Burgundy The Free County of Burgundy or Franche-Comté (french: Franche Comté de Bourgogne; german: Freigrafschaft Burgund) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the ...
, brought to the Capetians by the marriage of Joan and Philip V, remained with Joan, and ceased to be part of the royal domains. Charles IV swiftly divorced his adulterous wife,
Blanche of Burgundy Blanche of Burgundy (c. 1296 – 29 April 1326) was Queen of France This is a list of the women who were queen consort, queens or empresses as wives of French monarchs from the 843 Treaty of Verdun, which gave rise to West Francia, until ...

Blanche of Burgundy
(c.1296–1326) (sister of Countess Joan), who had given him no surviving children, and who had been locked up since 1313; in her place, he married Marie of Luxembourg (1304–1324), a daughter of
Emperor Henry VII Henry VII (German language, German: ''Heinrich''; c. 1273–24 August 1313)Kleinhenz, pg. 494 was the King of Germany (or ''King of the Romans, Rex Romanorum'') from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of ...
(c.1275–1313). Marie died in 1324, giving birth to a stillborn son. He then remarried to his cousin, Joan of Évreux (1310–1371), who however bore him only daughters; when he died in 1328, his only child was Marie, a daughter by Jeanne, and the unborn child his wife was pregnant with.
Philip of Valois Philip VI (french: Philippe; 17 November 1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (french: le Fortuné, link=no) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois, reigning from 1328 until his death. Philip's reign was do ...

Philip of Valois
(1293–1350),
Count of Anjou The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the County of Anjou The County of Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a small French county and predecessor to the better known Duchy of Anjou. Its capital was Angers and it was roughly coextensive with the dioc ...
and Valois, Charles' cousin, was set up as regent; when the Queen produced a daughter, Blanche, Philip by assent of the great magnates became Philip VI, of the
House of Valois The House of Valois ( , also , ) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet The House of Capet (french: Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (''Capétiens directs''), also called the House of F ...
, cadet branch of the Capetian Dynasty.


Last heirs

The last of the direct Capetians were the daughters of Philip IV's three sons, and Philip IV's daughter, Isabella. The wife of
Edward II of England Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. A ...

Edward II of England
(1284–1327), Isabella (c.1295–1358) overthrew her husband in favour of her son (
Edward III Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring roy ...

Edward III
, 1312–1377) ruling as regent with her cohort and lover (
Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March Roger Mortimer, 3rd Baron Mortimer of Wigmore, 1st Earl of March (25 April 128729 November 1330), was an English nobleman and powerful Marcher lord A Marcher Lord () was a noble appointed by the King of England This list of kings and q ...
, 1287–1330). On the death of her brother, Charles IV, in 1328 she claimed to be her father's heiress, and demanded the throne pass to her son (who as a male, an heir to Philip IV, and of adult age, was considered to have a good claim to the throne); however, her claim was refused, eventually providing a cause for the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of and during the . It originated from disputed claims to the between the English and the French roy ...
.
Joan
Joan
(1312–1349), the daughter of Louis X, succeeded on the death of Charles IV to the throne of Navarre, she now being – questions of paternity aside – the unquestioned heiress. She was the last direct Capetian ruler of that kingdom, being succeeded by her son,
Charles II of Navarre Charles II (10 October 1332 – 1 January 1387), called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. Besides the Pyrenees, Pyrenean Kingdom of Navarre, he had extensive lands in Normandy, inherited from his f ...

Charles II of Navarre
(1332–1387); his father,
Philip of Évreux
Philip of Évreux
(1306–1343) had been a member of the Capetian House of Évreux. Mother and son both claimed on several occasions the throne of France, and later the Duchy of Burgundy. Of the daughters of Philip V and Joan II of Burgundy, the elder two had surviving issue.
Joan III, Countess of Burgundy Joan III of Burgundy (1/2 May 1308 – 10/15 August 1347), also known as Joan of France was a reigning Countess of Burgundy and Artois in 1330–1349, She was also Duchess of Burgundy by marriage to Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy Odo IV or Eudes I ...
(1308–1349), married
Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy Odo IV or Eudes IV (1295 – 3 April 1349) was Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bo ...
(1295–1350), uniting the Duchy and County of Burgundy. Her line became extinct with the death of her sole grandchild,
Philip I, Duke of Burgundy Philip of Rouvres (1346 – 21 November 1361) was the Count of Burgundy (as Philip II) and Count of Artois (as Philip III) from 1347, Duke of Burgundy (as Philip I) from 1349, and Count of Auvergne and Count of Boulogne, Boulogne (as Philip III ...
(1346–1361), whose death also served to break the union between the Burgundys once more. Her sister,
Margaret Margaret is a female first name, derived via French (''Marguerite (given name), Marguerite'') and Latin (''Margarita'') from grc, μαργαρίτης (''margarítēs'') meaning "pearl". The Greek is borrowed from Indo-Iranian languages, Persia ...

Margaret
(1310–1382), married Louis I of Flanders, Louis I, Counts of Flanders, Count of Flanders (1304–1346), and inherited the County of Burgundy after the death of Philip I; their granddaughter and heiress, Margaret III, Countess of Flanders (1350–1405), married the son of John II of France (1319–1364), Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404), uniting the two domains once more. Of Charles IV's children, only Blanche of France, Duchess of Orléans, Blanche (1328–1382) – the youngest, the baby whose birth marked the end of the House of Capet – survived childhood. She married Philip of Valois, Duke of Orléans (1336–1376), the son of Philip VI, but they produced no children. With her death in 1382, the House of Capet finally came to an end.


List of direct Capetian kings of France

* 987–996,
Hugh Capet Hugh Capet (; french: Hugues Capet ; c. 939 – 14 October 996) was the from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the . The son of the powerful duke and his wife , he was elected as the successor of the last king, . Hugh was des ...
(''Hugues Capet''), Count of Paris, crowned King of the Franks * 996–1031,
Robert II
Robert II
, the Pious (''Robert II le Pieux'') * 1031–1060, Henry I of France, Henry I (''Henri Ier'') * 1060–1108,
Philip IPhilip I may refer to: * Philip I of Macedon (ruled 640–602 BC) * Philip I Philadelphus (1st century BC) * Philip the Arab (c. 204–249), Roman Emperor * Philip I of France (1052–1108) * Philip I (Archbishop of Cologne) (1130 – 13 August 1191 ...

Philip I
(''Philippe Ier'') * 1108–1137,
Louis VI
Louis VI
, the Fat (''Louis VI le Gros'') * 1137–1180, Louis VII of France, Louis VII, the Young (''Louis VII le Jeune'') * 1180–1223, Philip II of France, Philip II Augustus, the God-Given (''Philippe II Auguste Dieudonné'') * 1223–1226,
Louis VIII Louis VIII (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226), nicknamed The Lion (french: Le Lion), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, R ...
, the Lion (''Louis VIII le Lion'') * 1226–1270, Louis IX of France, Louis IX, the Saint, ("Saint Louis") (''Louis IX le Saint'', ''Saint Louis'') * 1270–1285,
Philip III
Philip III
, the Bold (''Philippe III le Hardi'') * 1285–1314,
Philip IV
Philip IV
, the Fair (''Philippe IV le Bel'') * 1314–1316,
Louis X
Louis X
, the Quarrelsome (''Louis X le Hutin'') * 1316–1316,
John IJohn I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem) * John Chrysostom (349 – c. 407), Patriarch of Constantinople * John of Antioch (died 441) * Pope John I Pope John I ( la, Ioannes I; died 18 May 526) was the bishop of Rome A bish ...

John I
, the Posthumous (''Jean Ier le Posthume'') * 1316–1322,
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
, the Tall (''Philippe V le Long'') * 1322–1328,
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
, the Fair (''Charles IV le Bel'')


List of direct Capetian kings and queens of Navarre

* 1285–1314, Philip IV of France, Philip I, the Fair (Philip IV of France), husband of Queen Joan I of Navarre * 1314–1316, Louis X of France, Louis I, the Quarrelsome (Louis X of France) * 1316–1316,
John IJohn I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem) * John Chrysostom (349 – c. 407), Patriarch of Constantinople * John of Antioch (died 441) * Pope John I Pope John I ( la, Ioannes I; died 18 May 526) was the bishop of Rome A bish ...

John I
, the Posthumous (John I of France) * 1316–1322, Philip V of France, Philip II, the Tall (Philip V of France) * 1322–1328, Charles IV of France, Charles I, the Fair (Charles IV of France) * 1328–1349, Joan II of Navarre, Joan II


Sources

* * H. M. Gwatkin, Gwatkin, H. M., J. P. Whitney, Whitney, J. P. (ed) et al. (1926) ''The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. *


See also

* France in the Middle Ages * French monarchs family tree * List of French monarchs * List of Navarrese monarchs#Capetian dynasty, 1284–1441, List of Navarrese monarchs from the Capetian dynasty * Kings of Navarre family tree, Navarre monarchs family tree * Cape


External links

*
Genealogies of the Bastards of French Monarchs



References

, - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Capet, House of House of Capet, Kingdom of Navarre