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The Hopi-Tewa (also Tano, Southern Tewa, Hano, Thano, or Arizona Tewa) are a
Tewa The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States ...
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States, region of the United States that generally inc ...
group that resides on the eastern part of the
Hopi Reservation The Hopi Reservation is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Indian reservation, reservation for the Hopi and Arizona Tewa people, surrounded entirely by the Navajo Nation, in Navajo County, Arizona, Navajo and Coconino Count ...
on or near
First Mesa First Mesa (Hopi language, Hopi: Wàlpi) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Navajo County, Arizona, Navajo County, Arizona, United States, on the Hopi Reservation. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the CDP population was 1,555, s ...
in northeastern
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
.


Synonymy

The name ''Tano'' is a Spanish borrowing of an older Hopi-Tewa
autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym An endonym (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( ...
''tʰáánu tééwa''. ''Tano'' is often encountered in the anthropological literature referring to the ancestors of the Arizona Tewa before they relocated to Hopi territory. The name ''Hano'', similarly, is a borrowing of ''tʰáánu'' into
Hopi The Hopi are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States. The Ho ...
as ''hááno'', ''háánòwɨ'', which was then
Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English English usually ...
. ''Hano'' in English also refers to
Tewa Village Hano is a Unincorporated area, populated place situated in the First Mesa, Arizona, First Mesa CDP in Navajo County, Arizona, Navajo County, Arizona, United States, on the Hopi Reservation. It is located on the southern end of First Mesa, approxi ...
, one of the main Arizona Tewa settlements. Other historical names include ''Tamos'', ''Tamones'', ''Atmues'', ''Tanos'', ''Thanos'', ''Tagnos'', ''Janos''. ''Tewa'' is the preferred autonym (over ''Hano'', ''Tano'', and ''Hopi-Tewa'') because the Tewa language refers to its people as "Tewas."


History

The Hopi-Tewa are related to the Tewa communities living in the
Rio Grande Valley The Lower Rio Grande Valley ( es, Valle del Río Grande), commonly known as the Rio Grande Valley or locally as The Valley, is a socio-cultural region spanning the border of Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or ...
, such as
Santa Clara Pueblo Santa Clara Pueblo (in Tewa language, Tewa: Kha'po Owingeh ɑ̀ʔp’òː ʔówîŋgè ″Singing Water Village″, also known as ″Village of Wild Roses″ is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Rio Arriba Count ...
and
Ohkay Owingeh Ohkay Owingeh (Tewa language, Tewa: ), known by its Spanish name as San Juan de los Caballeros from 1589 to 2005, is a pueblo and census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Ohkay Owingeh is also ...
. The long contact with Hopi peoples has led to similarities in social structure with their
kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states th ...

kinship
system and their organization to
clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of ...

clan
s being almost identical with the Hopi (the other
Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , Larg ...
Pueblo groups do not have clans). However, the Tewa dual
moiety Moiety may refer to: * Moiety (chemistry), a part or functional group of a molecule * Moiety (kinship), either of two groups into which a society is divided * A division of society in the Iroquois government and societal structure * An Australian A ...
has been preserved.


Language

Many Hopi-Tewa are trilingual in
Tewa The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States ...
,
Hopi The Hopi are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States. The Ho ...
, and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. Some speakers also speak
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
and/or
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and #Terminology differences, other terms, are the Indigenous peop ...
. Hopi-Tewa is a
variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hor ...
of the
Tewa language Tewa is a Tanoan language spoken by Pueblo people, mostly in the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, and in Arizona. It is also known as Tano, or (archaic) Tée-wah. Dialects and usage The 1980 census coun ...
of
Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , Larg ...
family and has been influenced by Hopi (which is an unrelated
Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan, Uto-Aztekan or (rarely) Uto-Nahuatl is a Language family, family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages. Uto-Aztecan languages are found almost entirely in the Western United States and Mexico. T ...
language). Arizona Tewa and the forms of Rio Grande Tewa in New Mexico are
mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the met ...
with difficulty. What is remarkable about this speech community is that the influence of the Hopi language on Hopi-Tewa is extremely small in terms of
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed la ...

vocabulary
. Arizona Tewa speakers, although they are trilingual, maintain a strict separation of the languages (see also Code-switching: Example). These attitudes of linguistic purism may be compared with other Tewa speech communities in New Mexico where there has been very little borrowing from
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
even though the Tewa and Spanish have had long periods of contact and the Tewa were also bilingual in Tewa and Spanish. Traditionally, the Hopi-Tewa were translators for Hopi leaders and thus also had command of Spanish and
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and #Terminology differences, other terms, are the Indigenous peop ...
. This contrasts with the Hopi who generally can not speak Tewa (although they may have limited proficiency in Navajo).


Notable people

*
Nampeyo Nampeyo (1859 –1942) was a Hopi-Tewa potter who lived on the Hopi Reservation The Hopi Reservation is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Indian reservation, reservation for the Hopi and Arizona Tewa people, surrounde ...
, potter *
Fannie Nampeyo Fannie Nampeyo (1900–1987) (also known as Fannie Lesou Polacca and Fannie Nampeyo Polacca) was a modern and contemporary fine arts In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthet ...
, potter, daughter of Nampeyo *
Elva Nampeyo Elva Nampeyo (1926–1985) (also known as Elva Tewaguna) was an American studio potter. Biography She was born in the Corn Clan house where her grandmother Nampeyo resided, atop Hopi First Mesa, Arizona. She was the daughter of Fannie Nampeyo and ...
, potter, granddaughter of Nampeyo * Priscilla Namingha Nampeyo, potter, great-granddaughter of Nampeyo *
Joy Navasie Joy Navasie (1919, Hopi-Tewa - 2012) (also known as second Frog Woman or Yellow Flower) is a Puebloans, Pueblo potter. As well as the art of pottery, the name Frog Woman was passed down from her mother, Paqua Naha. Navasie carries on the white w ...
, second Frog Woman, potter *
Dextra Quotskuyva Dextra Quotskuyva Nampeyo (born September 7, 1928, Polacca, Arizona) is a Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American potter and artist. She is in the fifth generation of a distinguished ancestral line of Hopi potters. In 1994 Dextra Quot ...

Dextra Quotskuyva
, potter, great-granddaughter of Nampeyo * Neil David Sr, artist; katsina figure carver


See also

*
Hopi The Hopi are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States. The Ho ...

Hopi
*
Hopi Reservation The Hopi Reservation is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Indian reservation, reservation for the Hopi and Arizona Tewa people, surrounded entirely by the Navajo Nation, in Navajo County, Arizona, Navajo and Coconino Count ...
*
Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Colonial Spanis ...
*
Pueblo Revolt The Pueblo Revolt of 1680, also known as Popé's Rebellion or Popay's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common ...
*
Tewa language Tewa is a Tanoan language spoken by Pueblo people, mostly in the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, and in Arizona. It is also known as Tano, or (archaic) Tée-wah. Dialects and usage The 1980 census coun ...


Bibliography

* * Dozier, Edward P. (1954). ''The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona''. Berkeley: University of California. * * * * Dozier, Edward P. (1966). Hano: A Tewa Indian Community in Arizona. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. * Kroskrity, Paul V. (2000). Language ideologies in the expression and representation of Arizona Tewa identity. In P. V. Kroskrity (Ed.), ''Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities'' (pp. 329–359). Santa Fe: School of American Research Press. * Stanislawski, Michael B. (1979). Hopi-Tewa. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), ''Southwest'' (pp. 587–602). W. C. Sturtevant (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 9). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.


External links

* Encyclopedia of North American Indians
Pueblo Languages
* Encyclopedia of North American Indians

{{authority control Tewa Native American tribes in Arizona Native American history of Arizona
Tewa The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural list of regions of the United States ...
Pueblo history Colonial New Mexico 1680s in New Spain 17th century in New Mexico