HOME
TheInfoList



The Hoklo people are descendants of
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleancestral homes are in southern part of Fujian,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
. They are speakers of
Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunciation: ) or Banlam (), ...
, a prestige
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunciation: ) or Banlam (), is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages that form a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Fujian (especially the Minnan region), ...
language on the basis of preponderance of their Bamboo network billionaires, in the
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunciation: ) or Banlam (), is a group of linguistically similar and historically related Sinitic languages that form a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Fujian (especially the Minnan region), ...
language family, and known by various
endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either unique ...
s (), or other related terms such as Banlam (Minnan) people () or Hokkien people (). There are significant populations in
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main islan ...
,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two reg ...

Malaysia
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bord ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
, and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republik ...
.


Etymology

In Taiwan, there are three common ways to write ''Hoklo'' in
Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other East-Asian languages, and remain a key component of the Japanese writing system The modern Jap ...
s, although none have been established as etymologically correct: * mistakenly used by outsiders to emphasize their native connection to Fujian province. It is not an accurate transliteration in terms from Hokkien itself although it may correspond to an actual usage in Hakka. * emphasizes their purported long history originating from the area south of the Yellow River. This term does not exist in Hokkien. The transliteration is a phonologically inaccurate
folk etymology Folk etymology – sometimes called popular etymology, analogical reformation, or etymological reinterpretation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. The form or the meani ...
, though the Mandarin pronunciation ''Héluò'' has gained currency through the propagation of the inaccurate transliteration. * emphasizes the modern pronunciation of the characters (without regard to the meaning of the Chinese characters); phonologically accurate. Meanwhile, Hoklo people self-identify as . In Hakka, Teochew, and
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale: ''Gwóngdūng wá'') is a language within the Varieties of Chinese, Chinese (Sinitic) branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) an ...
, Hoklo may be written as ''Hoglo'' () and 學佬 (). Despite the many ways to write ''Hoklo'' in Chinese, the term ''Holo'' () is used in Taiwan to refer to the language (
Taiwanese Hokkien Taiwanese, also known as Taigi,, Taiwanese Minnan, Holo, Taiwanese Hokkien (), is a variety of the Hokkien language spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Hoklo Taiwanese, Taiwanese Hoklo people, who desce ...
), and those people who speak it.


Culture


Architecture

Hoklo architecture is, for the most part, similar to any other traditional Chinese architectural styles. Hoklo shrines and temples have tilted sharp eaves just like the architecture of Han Chinese due to superstitious beliefs. However, Hoklo shrines and temples do have special differences from the styles in other regions of China: the top roofs are high and slanted with exaggerated, finely-detailed decorative inlays of wood and porcelain. The main halls of Hoklo temples are also a little different in that they are usually decorated with two dragons on the rooftop at the furthest left and right corners and with a miniature figure of a pagoda at the center of the rooftop. One such example of this is the Kaiyuan Temple (Quanzhou), Kaiyuan Temple in Fujian, China. Other than these minor differences, Hoklo architecture is basically the same as any other traditional Chinese architecture in any other Han Chinese region.


Language

The Hoklo people speak the mainstream
Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunciation: ) or Banlam (), ...
(Minnan) dialect which is mutually intelligible to the Teochew dialect but to a small degree. Hokkien can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty, and it also has roots from earlier periods such as the Northern and Southern Dynasties and also a little influence from other dialects as well. Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Standard Chinese, Mandarin or
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale: ''Gwóngdūng wá'') is a language within the Varieties of Chinese, Chinese (Sinitic) branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) an ...
. Vowels are more-or-less similar to that of Standard Mandarin. Hokkien varieties retain many pronunciations that are no longer found in other Chinese varieties. These include the retention of the initial, which is now (Pinyin 'zh') in Mandarin (e.g. 'bamboo' 竹 is ''tik'', but ''zhú'' in Mandarin), having disappeared before the 6th century in other Chinese varieties. Hokkien has 5 to 7 tones, or 7 to 9 tones according to traditional sense, depending on the variety. The Amoy dialect for example, has 7-8 tones.


Diaspora


Taiwan

About 70% of the Taiwanese people descend from Hoklo immigrants who arrived to the island prior to the start of Taiwan under Japanese rule, Japanese rule in 1895. They could be categorized as originating from Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou based on their dialects and districts of origin. People from the former two areas (Quanzhou dialect, Quanzhou-speaking) were dominant in the north of the island and along the west coast, whereas people from the latter two areas (Zhangzhou dialect, Zhangzhou-speaking) were dominant in the south and perhaps the central plains as well.


Southeast Asia

The Hoklo or Hokkien-lang (as they are known in these countries) are the largest dialect group among the Malaysian Chinese, Singapore and southern part of Thailand. They constitute the highest concentrations of Hoklo or Hokkien-lang in the region. The various Hokkien dialects/Minnan are still widely spoken in these countries but the daily use are slowly decreasing in favor of Mandarin Chinese, English or local language. The Hoklo or Hokkien-lang are also the largest group among the Chinese Indonesians. Most speak only Indonesian. In the Philippines, the Hoklo or Hokkien-lang form the majority of the Chinese people in the country. The Hokkien dialect/Minnan is still spoken there.


Hailufeng Hokkiens

The Minnan speaking people in Haifeng and Lufeng, Guangdong, Lufeng are known as Hailufeng Hokkiens or Hailufeng Minnan, in a narrow scope, but are often mistaken by outsiders as Chaozhou/Teochew people in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia. Chen Jiongming is a famous Hailufeng Hokkien who served as the governor of the Guangdong and Guangxi provinces during the Republic of China (1912-1949), Republic of China.


United States

After the 1960s, many Hoklo Taiwanese, Hokkiens from Taiwan began immigrating to the United States and Canada.


Hong Kong


Notable Hoklo people


See also

* Hokkien honorifics * Demographics of Taiwan * Taiwanese people * Teochew people


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Hoklo People Ethnic groups in Fujian Ethnic groups in Taiwan Hokkien people,