HOME

TheInfoList




The history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected the trade between various countries. In the era before the rise of the
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (news ...
, the term 'international' trade cannot be literally applied, but simply means trade over long distances; the sort of movement in goods which would represent international trade in the modern world.


Chronology of events


Ancient

* The domestication of the
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
around 4800 BCE allowed for the development of horse riding around 3700 BCE, and long distance travel across the
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
n steppes. * The
Maritime Jade Road Philippine jade artifacts, made from white and green nephrite and dating as far back as 2000–1500 BC, have been discovered at a number of excavation (archaeology), archeological excavations in the Philippines since the 1930s. The artifacts have ...
(2000 BCE to 1000 CE) was established by the animist indigenous peoples of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, and later expanded throughout Southeast Asia. The network operated for 3,000 years. * Indus–Mesopotamia trade * Records from the 19th century
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...
attest to the existence of an
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
n merchant colony at Kanesh in
Cappadocia Cappadocia (; also ''Capadocia''; grc, label=Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
. * The domestication of
Dromedary The dromedary (''Camelus dromedarius'') ( or ), also known as Arabian camel, is a large even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their ...

Dromedary
camels around 2,000 BCE allowed
Arabian The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciati ...

Arabian
nomads to control long distance trade in spices and silk from the Far East. * The
Egyptians Egyptians ( arz, المصريين, ; cop, ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, remenkhēmi) are an ethnic group of people originating from the country of Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning t ...

Egyptians
traded in the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
, importing spices from the "
Land of Punt Land is the solid surface of that is not permanently submerged in . Most but not all land is situated at s above (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of components such as , , , and sometimes . The vast majority of huma ...
" and from
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
.Rawlinson 2001: 11–12 *The
Olmec The Olmecs () were the earliest known major Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical and important region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characterist ...
(c 1200-400 BCE) developed a culture with a polytheistic pantheon, monumental architecture, and artisanal goods which was spread across
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical and important region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the ...
partly by long distance trade for obsidian, jade, and luxury feathers. *The Chavín (c 900-250 BCE) of the northern coast of
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
and
Tiwanaku Tiwanaku ( es, Tiahuanaco or ) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia near Lake Titicaca, about 70 kilometers from La Paz and it is one of the largest sites in South America. Surface remains currently cover around 4 square kilom ...
(c 550-1000 CE) in the
Andes The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the List of mountain ranges#Mountain ranges by length, longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of Sou ...

Andes
were able to build large cities and temples out of stone after growing wealthy from trade networks using llama trains. Trade across the Andes was able to transport maize, llama wool, and
coca Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-bei ...

coca
from the regions they were produced. * Indian goods were brought in Arabian vessels to
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' Yemeni Arabic, Yemeni: ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen, near the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of the strait Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately ...

Aden
. Cargo was shipped as part of the Indian and Egyptian trade. * The "ships of
Tarshish Tarshish (phoenician language, Phoenician: tršš, he, תַּרְשִׁישׁ ''Taršîš'', , ''Tharseis'') occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the ...
", a
Syrian Syrians ( ar, سُورِيُّون, ''Sūriyyūn''), also known as the Syrian people ( ar, الشَّعْب السُّورِيّ, : eş''-Şa‘b es-Sūrī''; syr, ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the majority inhabitants of and share common ine roots. The ...
fleet equipped at
Ezion-Geber Ezion-Geber ( Ancient: ''Ġeṣyōn Geḇer''; also Asiongaber) is a city only known from the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, includ ...
, made several trading voyages to the East bringing back gold, silver,
ivory Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusk Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcification, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to Mastica ...
and precious stones.


Classical

*
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_ ...
attacked
Gaza Gaza may refer to: Places Palestine * Gaza Strip, a Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea ** Gaza City, a city in the Gaza Strip ** Gaza Governorate, a governorate in the Gaza Strip United States * Gaza, Iowa, an ...
in order to control trade along the
Incense Route The incense trade route was an ancient network of major land and sea trading routes linking the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Medi ...
. *The (559-330 BCE) incorporated Central Asia into Near Eastern and Indian Ocean trade networks. * The Greek
Ptolemaic dynasty The Ptolemaic dynasty (; grc, Πτολεμαῖοι, ''Ptolemaioi''), the Thirty-third dynasty of Egypt, sometimes referred to as the Lagid dynasty (Λαγίδαι, ''Lagidae;'' after Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy I's father, Lagus), was a Ancient ...
exploited trading opportunities with India prior to the Roman involvement.Young 2001: 19 * The
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
was established after the diplomatic travels of the
Han Dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han Dynasty
Chinese envoy
Zhang Qian Zhang Qian (; died c. 114) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the late 2nd century BC during the Han dynasty. He was one of the first official diplomats to bring back valuable inf ...

Zhang Qian
to Central Asia in the 2nd Century BCE, with Chinese goods making their way to India,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, and the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, and vice versa. * With the establishment of
Roman Egypt , conventional_long_name = Roman Egypt , common_name = Egypt , subdivision = Roman province, Province , nation = the Roman Empire , era = Late antiquity , capital = Alexandria , title_leader = Praefectus Augustalis , image_ ...

Roman Egypt
, the Romans initiated trade with India.Shaw 2003: 426 * The goods from the East African trade were landed at one of the three main Roman ports, Arsing, Berenice, and Moos Hormones, which rose to prominence during the 1st century BCE. * Hanger controlled the Incense trade routes across Arabia to the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
and exercised control over the trading of
aromatics Aromatic compounds are those chemical compounds (most commonly organic compound, organic) that contain one or more ring (chemistry), rings with pi electrons delocalized all the way around them. In contrast to compounds that exhibit aromaticity, al ...
to
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
in the 1st century BCE.Larsen 1983: 56 Additionally, it served as a port of entry for goods shipped from India to the East. * Due to its prominent position in the incense trade,
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
attracted settlers from the
fertile crescent The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an establishe ...

fertile crescent
. * Pre-Islamic Mecca used the old Incense Route to benefit from the heavy Roman demand for luxury goods. * In
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
and
Borneo Borneo (; id, Kalimantan) is the third-List of islands by area, largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java Is ...

Borneo
, the introduction of Indian culture created a demand for aromatics. These trading outposts later served the Chinese and Arab markets. * Following the demise of the incense trade, Yemen took to the export of coffee via the Red Sea port of ''la-Mocha.'' *The
Maya Maya may refer to: Civilizations * Maya peoples The Maya peoples () are an ethnolinguistic group of indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are cu ...
had a class of wealthy merchants who traded long distances and between city states, although despite their wealth they were separated from the ruling nobility. Markets convened on specific days of the
Maya calendar The Maya calendar is a system of calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specifi ...
, and at times traders used
cocoa bean The cocoa bean or simply cocoa (), also called the cacao bean or cacao (), is the dried and fully fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Li ...
s as currency. *The
Ghana Empire Wagadou ( ar, غانا), commonly known as the Ghana Empire, was a West Africa, West African empire based in the modern-day southeast of Mauritania and western Mali that existed from c. 300 until 1100. The Ghana empire, sometimes also known as ...
(c 300 - 1100 CE) grew rich from the
Trans-Saharan trade Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara between sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, i ...
of gold for salt with Arab and
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...

Berber
caravans from North Africa.


Medieval

* The
Sogdia Sogdia () ( sog, soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian civilization between between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Sogdiana was also a province of the Ac ...
n city of
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = Clockwise from the top: The Reg ...

Samarkand
exported unique foods, the
BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanis ...
city of
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...

Balkh
spread
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
to traders, and the Khwarazmian city of
Khwarazm Khwarazm , or Chorasmia (Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages ...

Khwarazm
traded for furs from
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
, while serving as key links in the Silk Road. *
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
was China's greatest international seaport during the
Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
(618–907), but its importance was eclipsed by the international seaport of
Lanzhou Lanzhou (, ; ; Postal romanisation Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by postal authorities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For many cities, the postal romanization was the most comm ...

Lanzhou
during the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
(960–1279). *At the eastern terminus of the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
, the
Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
Chinese capital at
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between ...
became a major metropolitan center for foreign trade, travel, and residence. This role would be assumed by
Kaifeng Kaifeng () is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Historical capitals of China, Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese ...

Kaifeng
and
Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ...

Hangzhou
during the
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
. *The
Baqt The Baqt (or Bakt) was a 7th-century CE treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes includ ...
was a treaty signed around 652 to regulate trade and travel between the Christian kingdoms of
Nubia Nubia () (Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubian") and literally means "(lan ...
and Muslim-ruled
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
, protecting traders from both regions but requiring tribute to be paid by the Nubians to uphold the treaty. *The city of
Sijilmasa Sijilmasa ( ar, سجلماسة; also transliterated Sijilmassa, Sidjilmasa, Sidjilmassa and Sigilmassa) was a medieval Moroccan city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara in Morocco. The ruins of the town extend for five miles alo ...
, ruled by the Islamic dynasties of
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, and the oasis city of Auodaghost to the south, ruled by nomadic
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...

Berber
confederacies, served as staging points for the long desert crossings of the Trans-Saharan trade. Copper, cowries, and salt were sent south by camel, while ivory, gold, and slaves were sent north. *The
Sahelian kingdoms #REDIRECT Sahelian kingdoms#REDIRECT Sahelian kingdoms The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of centralized kingdoms or African empires, empires that were centered on the Sahel, the area of grasslands south of the Sahara, from the 8th century to the 1 ...
stood between the Trans-Saharan trade with the
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar, المغرب, al-Maghrib, lit=the west), also known as Northwest Africa, is the western part of North Africa and the Arab world. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania (also considered part of West Africa), Morocco and ...

Maghreb
and gold fields to the south. The oasis city of
Oualata Oualata or Walata ( ar, ولاته) (also Biru in 17th century chronicles) is a small oasis town in southeast Mauritania ) , image_map = Mauritania (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Mauritania (dark green) in western ...
served as a trading post and customs station for Trans-Saharan caravans, though some North African traders went on to the larger cities of
Timbuktu Timbuktu ( ; french: Tombouctou; tmh, label=Tuareg languages, Tuareg, script=Tfng, ⵜⵏⴱⴾⵜ, Tin Buqt; Koyra Chiini: ) is a city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of the Tombouctou Region, one of the e ...

Timbuktu
and
Gao Gao , or Gawgaw/Kawkaw, is a city in Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali (french: République du Mali; bm, ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ, Mali ka Fasojamana, ff, 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤 ...
along the
Niger River The Niger River (; , ) is the main river of West Africa, extending about . Its drainage basin is in area. Its source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea near the Sierra Leone border. It runs in a crescent through Mali, Niger, ...

Niger River
. * *Merchants arriving from India in the port city of Aden paid tribute in the form of
musk Musk is a class of aromatic substances commonly used as base note Base or BASE may refer to: Brands and enterprises *Base (mobile telephony provider) Base (stylized as BASE) is the third largest of Belgium's three mobile telephone company, tel ...
,
camphor Camphor () is a wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The ...

camphor
,
ambergris Ambergris ( or , la, ambra grisea, fro, ambre gris), ''ambergrease'', or ''grey amber'', is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whale #REDIRECT Sperm whale#REDIRECT Spe ...

ambergris
and
sandalwood Sandalwood is a class of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting br ...

sandalwood
to Ibn Riyadh, the
sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

sultan
of Yemen. *After the first wave of the
Islamic conquests The early Muslim conquests ( ar, الفتوحات الإسلامية, ''al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya''), also referred to as the Arab conquests and the early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad ) , birth_date ...
in Persia and Central Asia in the 8th century, the Umayyad Arabs,
Tibetans The Tibetan people (; ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to Tibet. Their current population is estimated to be around 6.7 million. In addition to the majority living in Tibet Autonomous Region of Chin ...

Tibetans
, Tang Chinese, and competed for control of the Silk Road in Central Asia. *The
Abbasids The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate or khilāfah ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under I ...

Abbasids
used
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, ,
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' Yemeni Arabic, Yemeni: ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen, near the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of the strait Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately ...

Aden
and Sirrah as entry ports to India and China.Donkin 2003: 91–92 *
Swahili Swahili may refer to: * Swahili language, a Bantu language official in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and widely spoken in the African Great Lakes * Swahili people, an ethnic group in East Africa * Swahili culture, the culture of the Swahili people * Sw ...
city states like
Kilwa Kilwa Kisiwani (English: ''Kilwa Island'') is an island, national historic site, and hamlet community located in the township of Kilwa Masoko, the district seat of Kilwa District in the Tanzanian region of Lindi Region in southern Tanzania. Kilw ...
,
Mombasa Mombasa ( , also ) is a coastal city in southeastern Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally writ ...

Mombasa
, and
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
took part in the
Indian Ocean trade Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Long-distance trade in dhows and proas made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Southeast Asia, Southeas ...
, acting as middlemen for trade with the East African interior as well as exporting
cowrie Cowrie or cowry () is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts ...
s,
ambergris Ambergris ( or , la, ambra grisea, fro, ambre gris), ''ambergrease'', or ''grey amber'', is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whale #REDIRECT Sperm whale#REDIRECT Spe ...

ambergris
, and animal skins. *Islamic caliphates began trading for slave soldiers or
mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

mamluk
s in the 9th century, including Turks and
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
, in the hopes that these enslaved foreigners would have no choice but to remain loyal. As they rose to command armies, many mamluk slaves gained power and prestige. *Indian exports of spices found mention in the works of Ibo Khurdadhbeh (850), AL-Afghani (1150) and Lakisha bin Trimaran (907). *The Trans-Saharan trade introduced kingdoms in the West African
Sahel The Sahel (; ar, ساحل ' , "coast, shore") is the ecoclimatic and of in between the to the north and the to the south. Having a , it stretches across the south-central latitudes of between the Atlantic Ocean and the . The Sahel part o ...

Sahel
to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
. * The
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely ...
secured trading privileges and market rights in England for goods from the League's trading cities in 1157. *The of the traded gold for manufactured products, like glass beads, iron goods, and jewelry, from the Middle East and China through middlemen on the . *The
kingdom of Benin The Kingdom of Benin, (also known as the Edo Kingdom, or the Benin Empire) was a kingdom in West Africa in what is now southern Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It borders Niger i ...
served as a regional center of trade in West Africa as well as with the Portuguese after their arrival, exporting finely made cloth produced by their women as well as trading metal goods, ivory, and slaves. *The
Mongol conquests The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire: the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest conti ...
in the 13th - 14th centuries created the largest contiguous empire in history, which also facilitated commerce and cultural exchange over vast distances. *
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
traded internationally in China *
Mansa Musa Musa I (c. 1280 – ), or Mansa Musa, was the ninth ''Mansa (title), Mansa'' of the Mali Empire, one of the most powerful Islamic West African states. At the time of Musa's ascension to the throne, Mali in large part consisted of the territo ...

Mansa Musa
, sultan of the
Mali Empire The Mali Empire ( Manding: ''Mandé''Ki-Zerbo, Joseph: ''UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. IV, Abridged Edition: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'', p. 57. University of California Press, 1997. or Manden; ar, مالي, Mā ...
, made a
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
or pilgrimage in 1324 across the Saharan desert to
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
, the holy city of Islam, to demonstrate his piety and project his wealth to potential trading partners in North Africa. He brought with him a large retinue, gifts, and so much gold that his spending caused economic inflation in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. *
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
explored the far corners of the Islamic world from 1325 - 1354, including traveling with trade caravans to West Africa and following trade winds across the Indian Ocean to China. *
Zheng He Zheng He (; 1371 – 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to ...

Zheng He
made several voyages across the Indian Ocean and South China Sea from 1405 - 1433, going as far as the Swahili coast seeking the source of luxury goods which had previously reached
Ming China The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East ...

Ming China
through intermediaries. * Pochteca were the merchants of the Aztec Empire (1426-1521) who carried trade goods, tribute, and information about neighbors from beyond the empire's borders. Artisanal products produced in the city of
Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan ( nah, Tenōchtitlan ; es, Tenochtitlán), also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan ( nah, Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan ; es, México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica ''altepetl'' in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The exact ...

Tenochtitlan
served as valuable trade goods, while the city of Tlateloco was home to a large market serving thousands of people a day. *The early Portuguese slave trade with Africa traded iron goods, textiles, and horses for hundreds of West African laborers a year destined for the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
and
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...

Iberia
. Unlike in the African slave trade they came from, captives were taken far from their homelands and had less legal rights.


Early modern

* Due to the
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
hold on the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
during the second half of the 15th century, the traditional
Spice Route The spice trade involved historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, Cinnamomum aromaticum, cassia, cardamom, ginger, Black pepper, pepper, nutmeg, Illicium verum, star anise, clove and turmeric were kn ...
shifted from the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
to the Red Sea. *
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
's
Bengal Sultanate The Sultanate of Bengal ( bn, শাহী বাঙ্গালা, fa, شاهی بنگاله ''Shāhī Bangālah''), also known as the Bengal Sultanate or simply Bengal ( fa, بنگاله ''Bangālah'', bn, বাংলা, Bangla), was an e ...

Bengal Sultanate
, later absorbed into
Mughal Bengal The Bengal Subah (also known as Mughal Bengal) was the largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an Early modern period, early modern empire in South Asia. Quote: "Although the first two Timu ...

Mughal Bengal
, a major trading nation in the world, was responsible for 12% of Global industrial output between the 15th and 17th centuries, signaling
Proto-industrialization Proto-industrialization is the regional development, alongside commercial agriculture Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture Agricult ...
. *The
kingdom of Kongo Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...
was introduced to Christianity by trade with the Portuguese, leading to the conversion of the soon-to-be king
Afonso I Afonso IOr also ''Affonso'' (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or ''Alphonso'' (Portuguese-Galician languages, Portuguese-Galician) or ''Alphonsus'' (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as ''Alphonzo'' or ''Alphonse'', depending on the Spani ...
in 1491. However, despite early friendly relations with the Portuguese, the constant warfare and loss of population from the slave trade to Portuguese Brazil led the kingdom to decline. * In 1492 a Spanish expedition commanded by
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
arrived in America. * Portuguese diplomat Pero de Covilha (1460 – after 1526) undertook a mission to explore the trade routes of the Near East and the adjoining regions of Asia and Africa. The exploration commenced from Santarém, Portugal, Santana (1487) to Barcelona, Naples,
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
,
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
and ultimately to India. * Portuguese explorer and adventurer Vasco da Gama is credited with establishing another sea route from Europe to India by sailing around Africa from 1497-99. *The places in the Americas where indigenous populations were most decimated by Old World disease epidemics starting in the 1520s, like Brazil, the Caribbean, and Thirteen Colonies, British North America, were where colonial empires relied most on the Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade to provide laborers for plantations and mines. This trade, in turn, was destructive to the societies of West Africa where slaves were captured and sold. *The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade transported unprecedented numbers of captive slaves, numbering in the millions, from Africa to colonial empires in the Americas. Conditions in transport ships were extremely inhumane and many slaves died in their attempted capture and in transit. Slaves were able to start families and established new populations in the Americas, although families could be broken up when family members were sold away. * In the 1530s, the Portuguese shipped spices to Ormus, Hormuz.Donkin 2003: 170 *The Spanish empire had to establish coastal patrols and forts in the late 1500s to protect gold and silver transported in trading ships across the Atlantic from foreign pirates. *The Manila galleon, Manila Galleon was a fleet of Spanish trading ships annually sent across the Pacific between Spanish possessions in Mexico and the Philippines from 1565 - 1815 to trade with China. American silver was traded for Chinese silk and other goods, with some estimates saying that half of the silver of the Americas ended up in Ming China. *While Spanish Empire, Spain tried to monopolize transatlantic trade with its empire in the Americas using the Spanish treasure fleet, fleet system, smuggling with other countries like the Dutch Republic, Dutch was extremely common. This weakened economic control by the Spanish crown but at times strengthened local economies in the Americas. * Japan introduced a system of foreign trade licenses to prevent smuggling and piracy in 1592. * The first Dutch expedition left Amsterdam (April 1595) for South East Asia.Donkin 2003: 169 * A Dutch convoy sailed in 1598 and returned one year later with 600,000 pounds of spices and other East Indian products. * The Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602 and received huge imports from Mughal India, especially Bengal Subah.Om Prakash (historian), Om Prakash,
Empire, Mughal
, ''History of World Trade Since 1450'', edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237–240, ''World History in Context''. Retrieved 3 August 2017
* The first English outpost in the East Indies was established in Sumatra in 1685. * Japan introduced the closed door policy regarding trade (Japan was sealed off to foreigners and only very selective trading to the Dutch and Chinese was allowed) in 1639. * The 17th century saw military disturbances around the Ottawa river trade route. During the late 18th century, the French built military forts at strategic locations along the main trade routes of Canada.Easterbrook 1988: 127 These forts checked the British advances, served as trading posts which included Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native Americans in the fur trade, and acted as communications posts. * In 1799, The Dutch East India company, formerly the world's largest company went bankrupt, partly due to the rise of competitive free trade.


Later modern

* Japan was served by the Portuguese from Macau, Macao and later by the Dutch.Donkin 2003: 170 * Despite the late entry of the United States into the spice trade, merchants from Salem, Massachusetts traded profitably with Sumatra during the early years of the 19th century. * In 1815, the first commercial shipment of nutmegs from Sumatra arrived in Europe.Corn 1999: 217 "The first commercial shipment of Sumatran nutmegs reaching Europe in 1815 ... Similar experiments were tried in ... as well as Grenada in the West Indies. The tests were successful to the point where by the mid-nineteenth century these upstart colonies collectively rivaled Banda's exports. * Grenada became involved in the spice trade. * The Siamese-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce, Siamese-American Treaty of 1833 called for free trade, except for export of rice and import of munitions of war. * Opium War (1840) – Britain invaded China to overturn the Chinese ban on opium imports. * Britain unilaterally adopted a policy of free trade and abolished the Corn Laws in 1846. * The first international free trade agreement, the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty, was finalized in 1860 between the United Kingdom and France, prepared by Richard Cobden and Michel Chevalier; it sparked off successive agreements between other countries in Europe. * The Japanese Meiji Restoration (1868) led the way to Japan opening its borders and quickly industrializing through free trade. Under bilateral treaties restraint of trade imports to Japan were forbidden. * In 1873, the Wiener Berserk slump signaled the start of the continental Long Depression, during which support for protectionism grew.


Post-World War II

* In 1946. the Bretton Woods system goes into effect; it had been planned since 1944 as an international economic structure to prevent further Great depression, depressions and wars. It included institutions and rules intended to prevent national trade barriers being erected, as the lack of free trade was considered by many to have been a principal cause of World War II, war. * In 1947, 23 countries agree to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to rationalize trade among the nations. * In Europe, six countries form the European Coal and Steel Community (SPECS) in 1951, the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism, supranational ism. * The European Economic Community (EEC) is established by the Inner Six European countries with a Common Commercial Policy (EU), common commercial policy in 1957. * The European Free Trade Association (FEAT) is established in 1960 as a trade bloc-alternative by the Outer Seven European countries who did not join the EEC. * Four important ISO (International Organization for Standardization) recommendations standardized containerization globally:Rushton, A., Oxley, J., Croucher, P. (2004). ''The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management''. Kogan Page: London. ** January 1968: R-668 defined the terminology, dimensions and ratings ** July 1968: R-790 defined the identification markings ** January 1970: R-1161 made recommendations about corner fittings ** October 1970: R-1897 set out the minimum internal dimensions of general purpose freight containers * The Ranger Committee is formed in 1971 to advise on the interpretation of nuclear goods in relation to international trade and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NOT). * 16 October 1973: OPEC raises the Saudi Arabia, Saudi light crude export price, and mandate an export cut the next day, plus an Embargo on oil exports to nations allied with Israel in the course of the Yom Kippur War, Yom Kipper War. (also see Oil depletion, Oil crisis) * The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NEG) was created in 1974 to moderate international trade in nuclear related goods, after the explosion of a nuclear device by a non-nuclear weapon State. * The breakdown of the Soviet Union leads to a reclassification of within-country trade to international trade, which has a small effect on the rise of international trade. * After expanding its membership to 12 countries, the European Economic Community becomes the European Union (EU) on 1 November 1993. * 1 January 1994: The European Economic Area (SEA ) is formed to provide for the Freedom of movement, free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the internal market of the European Union as well as three of the four member states of the European Free Trade Association. * 1 January 1994: the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) takes effect. ** November 2018 - the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement is signed which replaces NAFTA * 1 January 1995: World Trade Organization is created to facilitate free trade, by mandating mutual most favored nation trading status between all signatories. * 1 January 2002: Twelve countries of the European Union launch the Euro zone (euro in cash), which instantly becomes the second most used currency in the world. * 2008-2009 : during the Great Trade Collapse, a drop of world GDP of 1% surprisingly caused a drop of international trade of 10%. * In 2013, China began its economic integration and infrastructure project, called the Belt and Road Initiative. * 2014: India launches its Make in India initiative and announces its Look East policy (India)#Act East policy, Act East Policy. * Timeline of Brexit: the United Kingdom votes in 2016 to leave European Union, which it formally does in January 2020. * 30 October 2016: the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the European Union is signed * 30 December 2018: the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership enters into force * 1 February 2019: the Japan–European Union relations, European Union–Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) enters into force.


See also

* Arms industry, Arms trade * Economic history of the world * Fur trade * Industrial archaeology * Slave trade * Spice trade * Triangle trade * Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *Needham, Joseph (1986). ''Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering''. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. *Ebrey, Walthall, Palais, (2006). ''East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. *Morton, Scott and Charlton Lewis (2005). ''China: Its History and Culture: Fourth Edition''. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. * Krugman, Paul., 1996 ''Pop Internationalism''. Cambridge: MIT Press, * Mill, John Stuart., 1844 ''Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy'' * Mill, John Stuart., 1848 ''Principles of Political Economy with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy''
Full text
* Smith, A. 1776, ''An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations''


External links


The BBC's illustrated history of free trade

Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities
a dictionary of trade in Britain, 1550–1820. Part of British History Online, by permission of the University of Wolverhampton. {{DEFAULTSORT:Timeline of International Trade History of international trade, * International trade-related lists Ancient international relations Medieval international relations Society-related timelines he:סחר בינלאומי#התפתחות הסחר הבינלאומי