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This is a list of historical capitals of China.


Four Great Ancient Capitals

There are traditionally four major historical capitals of China referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China" (). The four are
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...

Beijing
,
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
,
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China ...

Luoyang
and
Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ( ...
(
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between th ...
).


List of historical capitals of China

Plot of major historical capitals of China prior to the 20th century :''Sorted in alphabetical order'' *
Acheng District Acheng District, formerly Acheng City, (Manchu Language Manchu (Manchu: , ) is a critically endangered language, endangered Languages of East Asia, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic language native to the historical region of Manchuria i ...
of the city of
Harbin Harbin (; ) is a sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependenc ...

Harbin
was the capital of the Jin dynasty from 1115 to 1153. It was called Shangjing () or
Huining Prefecture Huining Fu (), or Shangjing Huiningfu (), was a Fu in the Shangjing region of Northeast China. It served as the first superior capital of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234) from 1122 to 1153 (and was a secondary capital after 1173). It ...
at the time. It was destroyed in 1157 and reestablished as a secondary capital in 1173. *
Anyang Anyang (; ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''already'' wit ...

Anyang
was the capital of the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
(1600 BC – 1046 BC) at its peak. It was called Yin () by the Zhou. *
Balasagun Balasagun was an ancient Sogdia Sogdia () ( Sogdian: soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the R ...
in modern
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = "" ...

Kyrgyzstan
was the capital of the Western Liao dynasty from 1134 to 1218. *
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...

Beijing
(also romanized Peking), literally meaning "Northern Capital", previously also known as Beiping, was the capital of various dynasties and regional regimes, including: ::* The state of Yan (11th century BC – 222 BC) in the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscript ...
, when it was called Ji (). ::* The short-lived regional kingdom of Yan (911-914) established by
Liu Shouguang Liu Shouguang () (died February 12, 914) was a warlord early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial C ...
during
Five Dynasties The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
period. ::* The
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü ...
(907–1125), when it was a secondary capital called Yanjing (). (Liao Lang is used as another name for Dadu during Yuan dynasty. The city is called Nanjing (南京, not to be confused with city in Jiangsu) in Liao dynasty due to the southerly location.) ::* The
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
-led Jin dynasty, from the 1160s to 1215, when it was called
Zhongdu Zhongdu (, lit. "Central Capital") was the capitals of China, capital of the Jurchens, Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty in medieval China. It was located in the southwestern part of Beijing's Xicheng District. It had a population ...
("Central Capital"). ::* The
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
(1271–1368), when it was called Dadu () in Chinese, Daidu (direct translation from Chinese) in
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
, and
Khanbaliq Khanbaliq or Dadu of Yuan () was the winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an offic ...
("city of the Khan") in
Altaic Altaic (; also called Transeurasian) is a ''sprachbund'' (i.e. a linguistic area) and proposed language family that would include the Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolian and Tungusic languages, Tungusic language families and ...
, Mongolian and
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langua ...

Turkic languages
.
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a Venetian merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road The Silk Road was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and W ...

Marco Polo
called it Cambuluc. ::* The
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming dynasty
, from 1403 to 1644, when it was called Shuntian Prefecture () and then later simply as Jingshi (). ::* The
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
, from 1644 to 1912. ::* The
Beiyang government The Beiyang government (), officially the Republic of China (), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government or the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking between 1912 and 192 ...
of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
, from 1912 to 1927. ::* The
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...

People's Republic of China
since 1949. *
Changchun Changchun (, ; ), Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Ch'angch'un is the capital and largest city of Jilin, Jilin Province, China, People's Republic of China. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a , ...

Changchun
was the capital of Japanese puppet state
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 193 ...
during the Japanese occupation in WWII, then named
Hsinking Changchun (), Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Ch'angch'un is the capital and largest city of Jilin, Jilin Province, China, People's Republic of China. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a , comp ...
(; Japanese: ''Shinkyō'', Mandarin: ''Xīnjīng'', literally "New Capital"). *
Chengde Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area ...

Chengde
was the summer residence and capital of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
from 1703 to 1820. *
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplification, Simplify, or Simplified may refer to: Mathematics Simplification is the process of replacing a mathematical expression by an equivalent one, that is simpler (usually shorter), for example * S ...

Chengdu
was the capital city of various regional kingdoms in ancient China: ::* State of Shu in
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
::*
Shu Han Han (漢; 221–263), known in historiography as Shu Han (蜀漢; often shortened to Shu; ) or Ji Han (季漢) to disambiguate from the preceding Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty ...
(AD 221–263) during the
Three Kingdoms period The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancie ...
::* Kingdom of Cheng-Han during
Eastern Jin Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, wit ...
period ::* Qiao Shu, a short-lived kingdom during
Eastern Jin Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, wit ...
period ::*The kingdom of Li Shu, a short-lived regime established by Wang Xiaobo and Li Shun during
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
::*
Former Shu Great Shu (Chinese: 大蜀, Pinyin: Dàshǔ) called in retrospect Former Shu (Chinese: 前蜀, Pinyin: Qiánshǔ) or occasionally Wang Shu (王蜀), was one of the Ten Kingdoms formed during the chaotic period between the rules of the Tang dynast ...
, one of
Ten Kingdoms The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang d ...
between Tang and
Song A song is a musical composition intended to be performed by the human voice. This is often done at melody, distinct and fixed pitches (melodies) using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various song form, forms, such as those includi ...
dynasties ::*
Later Shu Later may refer to: * Future, the time after the present Television * Later (talk show), ''Later'' (talk show), a 1988–2001 American talk show * ''Later... with Jools Holland'', a British music programme since 1992 * ''The Life and Times of Eddi ...
, one of
Ten Kingdoms The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang d ...
between Tang and
Song A song is a musical composition intended to be performed by the human voice. This is often done at melody, distinct and fixed pitches (melodies) using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various song form, forms, such as those includi ...
dynasties ::* Da Xi established by
Zhang Xianzhong Zhang Xianzhong (张献忠 or Chang Hsien-chung, 18 September 1606 to 2 January 1647), nicknamed ''Yellow Tiger'', was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an Yan'an (; ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.j ...
during the transition between
Ming#REDIRECT Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...

Ming
and
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
dynasties ::*It was also briefly the seat of the Nationalist government of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
in late 1949 towards the end of the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. *
Chongqing Chongqing ( Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that em ...

Chongqing
was the capital city of Ba State during
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period i ...
.
Ming Yuzhen Ming Yuzhen (; 1331 – summer 1366) was a peasant who established the rebel Empire of Xia (大夏 "Great Xia") during the late Yuan dynasty in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It i ...
, the rebellion leader during the transition time between Yuan and
Ming#REDIRECT Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...

Ming dynasties, established the Xia kingdom and set the capital city in Chongqing. Chongqing was also the provisional capital of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China during the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Paci ...
(1937–1945), and briefly the seat of the Nationalist government in late 1949 towards the end of the Chinese Civil War. *
Datong Datong is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''already'' wit ...

Datong
was the capital of the
Northern Wei dynasty Maitreya, 443 AD. statue. Dated 489 AD. Tokyo National Museum. The Northern Wei (), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), was a Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty founded by the Tuoba (Tabgach) clan of the Xianbei, ...
from 398 to 493. * Emin was briefly the capital of the Western Liao dynasty from 1132 to 1134. *
Fenghao Fenghao () is the modern name of the twin city formed by the Western Zhou The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou ...
, located near present-day
Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ( ...
, was the capital of the
Western Zhou dynasty The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty at the Battle of Muye and ended when the Quanrong nomads sacked its ...
from 1046 BC to 771 BC. *
Fuzhou Fuzhou, alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mod ...

Fuzhou
was briefly the capital of the
Southern Ming dynasty The Southern Ming (), officially the Great Ming (), was a series of dynastic rump states ruled by the Zhu clan in southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate mega-regions within China China, official ...

Southern Ming dynasty
from 1645 to 1646. *
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
(also romanized Canton) was the capital of: ::*
Nanyue Kingdom
Nanyue Kingdom
(204–111 BC). More specifically, the Nanyue capital was in Guangzhou's
Panyu District Panyu, Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Punyu, is one of 11 District (China), urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong, Guangdong Province, China. It was a separate county-level city be ...
. ::*
Southern Ming dynasty The Southern Ming (), officially the Great Ming (), was a series of dynastic rump states ruled by the Zhu clan in southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate mega-regions within China China, official ...

Southern Ming dynasty
from 1646 to 1647. ::* Nationalist government of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
, before 1928 and in 1949 towards the end of the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. *
Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franc ...

Hangzhou
was the capital of: ::* Wuyue Kingdom (907–978) during the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
. ::*
Southern Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties a ...
, from 1127 to 1276, when it was called Lin'an (). *
Kaifeng Kaifeng () is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Historical capitals of China, Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese ...

Kaifeng
was the capital of various dynasties, including: ::* The state of Wei (443 BC – 225 BC) in the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscript ...
, when it was called Daliang. ::* Later Liang dynasty during the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
, from AD 913 to 923. ::* Later Jin dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, in AD 937. ::* Later Han dynasty (AD 947–951) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. ::*
Later Zhou dynasty The Later Zhou (; ) was the last in a succession of five Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between t ...

Later Zhou dynasty
(AD 951–960) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. ::*
Northern Song dynasty#REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty The Northern Song (北宋; 4 February 960 – 20 March 1127) is an era during the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty. It came to an end when its capital city, the city of Kaifeng, was conquered by enemies from the north. Lat ...
(960–1127), when it was called Bianjing (). *
Karakorum Karakorum ( Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум, ''Kharkhorum''; Mongolian Script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian l ...

Karakorum
in modern
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Traditional Mongolian: '; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...

Mongolia
was the capital of the
Northern Yuan dynasty The Northern Yuan () was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongols, Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau. It operated as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty of China in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen ...

Northern Yuan dynasty
from 1371 to 1388. *
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan Henan (; Chinese postal romanization, alternatively Honan) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of China, in the Central China ...

Luoyang
was the capital of various dynasties, including: ::* The
Eastern Zhou dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh, c=, p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynas ...
, from 510 BC to 314 BC. ::* The
Eastern Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Eastern Han dynasty
from AD 25 to 190 and then briefly in AD 196. ::* The
Cao Wei Wei (Hanzi Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other East-Asian languages, and remain a key component of the Japanese writing system ...
(AD 220–265) during the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancie ...

Three Kingdoms
period. ::* The
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 187 ...
, from AD 265 to 311. ::* The
Northern Wei dynasty Maitreya, 443 AD. statue. Dated 489 AD. Tokyo National Museum. The Northern Wei (), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), was a Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty founded by the Tuoba (Tabgach) clan of the Xianbei, ...
from AD 493 to 534. ::* The Wu Zhou from AD 690 to 705. ::* The
Later Tang dynasty Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China. The first three of Later Tang's four emperor of China, emperors were ...

Later Tang dynasty
during the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
, from AD 923 to 936. ::* The Later Liang dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, from AD 907 to 913. *
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
(also romanized Nanking), literally meaning "Southern Capital", was the capital of various dynasties and governments, including: ::* All the
Six Dynasties __NOTOC__ Six Dynasties ( Chinese: 六朝; Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is o ...
from AD 220 to 589, when Nanjing was called Jianye () or
Jiankang Jiankang (), or Jianye (), as it was originally called, was capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552), including the Chen dynasty (55 ...
(). The Six Dynasties were: :::*
Eastern Wu Wu (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous count ...
during the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu Shu may refer to: China * Sichuan, China, officially abbreviated as Shu (蜀) * Shu (state) (conquered by Qin in 316 BC), an ancie ...

Three Kingdoms
period, from AD 229 to 265, and then from AD 266 to 280. :::*
Eastern Jin dynasty Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, wit ...
, from AD 317 to 420. :::*
Liu Song dynasty The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi. The dynasty was founded ...
(AD 420–479) :::* Southern Qi dynasty (AD 479–502) :::*
Liang dynasty The Liang dynasty () (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang (), was the third of the Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuou ...
, from AD 502 to 552, and then from AD 555 to 557. :::*
Chen dynasty The Chen dynasty (; 557–589), also known as the Southern Chen (南陳 / 南朝陈), was the fourth and last of the Southern Dynasties in China. Following the Liang dynasty, the Chen dynasty was founded by Chen Baxian (Emperor Wu of Chen, Emperor ...
(AD 557–589) ::* The Southern Tang dynasty (AD 937–976) during the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were e ...
::* The
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming dynasty
, from 1368 to 1644, when it was also called Yingtian Prefecture () ::* The
Southern Ming dynasty The Southern Ming (), officially the Great Ming (), was a series of dynastic rump states ruled by the Zhu clan in southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate mega-regions within China China, official ...

Southern Ming dynasty
from 1644 to 1645. ::* The
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, unrecognized oppositional state in China and Christianity, Christian-Shenism, Shenic Theocracy, ...
(1851–1864) during the
Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an ...
in the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, wi ...
, when it was called Tianjing (). ::* The Nationalist government of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...
from 1928 to 1949. ::* The
Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China ( zh, t=中華民國國民政府, p=Zhōnghuá mínguó guómín zhèngfǔ), the government of the puppet state A puppet state, puppet ré ...
(1940–1945), a pro-Japanese collaborationist government headed by
Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944), born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician. He was initially a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT), ...

Wang Jingwei
during the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Paci ...
. *
Ruijin Ruijin () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a Administrative divisions of China#County level (3 ...
in Jiangxi was the capital of the self-declared
Chinese Soviet Republic The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR) was established in November 1931 by future Communist Party of China The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and One-party state, sole Ruling ...

Chinese Soviet Republic
from 1931 to 1934, the start of the
Long March The Long March (, lit. ''Long Expedition'') was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialis ...
. *
Shenyang Shenyang (, ; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a ...

Shenyang
in the northern state of
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost co ...
briefly served as the capital of the Qing dynasty (who referred to it as Mukden) from 1625 until Qing takeover of Beijing in 1644. *
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...

Taipei
in Taiwan has been the ''de facto'' capital and the seat of government of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and No ...

Republic of China
since 1949. *
Tongwancheng Tongwancheng () was the capital of the Xiongnu-led Hu Xia dynasty in northern China during the Sixteen Kingdoms period in the early 5th century. The city is at the southern edge of the Maowusu Sands of the Ordos Desert, on what was formerly a st ...
was the capital of the Hu Xia dynasty from 419 to 427. *
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of t ...

Wuhan
was the capital of a government formed by
Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944), born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician. He was initially a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT), ...

Wang Jingwei
and leftist members of the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Ch ...
in 1927. It opposed the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang leader
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and Romanization of Chinese, romanized via Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese Kuomintang, Nationalist politician, ...

Chiang Kai-shek
. * Xanadu / Shangdu (), located northwest of present-day
Dolon Nor Dolon Nor (; mn, Долоон нуур, Doloon nuur, ''seven lakes''; also: To-lun, Dolonnur), is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to dist ...
in Inner Mongolia, China, was the summer capital of the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succe ...
. After the fall of the Yuan dynasty, it briefly became the capital of the
Northern Yuan dynasty The Northern Yuan () was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongols, Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau. It operated as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty of China in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen ...

Northern Yuan dynasty
between 1368 and 1369. It was destroyed in 1369. *
Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ( ...
(also romanized Sian), previously called
Chang'an Chang'an (; ) is the traditional name of Xi'an Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between th ...
, and including its surrounding areas in present-day Shaanxi, Shaanxi Province, was the capital of various dynasties, including: ::* The
Western Zhou dynasty The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty at the Battle of Muye and ended when the Quanrong nomads sacked its ...
, from around 1046 BC to 771 BC. See also
Fenghao Fenghao () is the modern name of the twin city formed by the Western Zhou The Western Zhou ( zh, c=, p=Xīzhōu; c. 1045 BC – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou ...
. ::* The state of Qin (state), Qin (9th century  BC – 221 BC) and the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC). The Qin capital, called Xianyang (), was located near present-day Xi'an. It was destroyed in 206 BC. ::* The Han dynasty, Western Han dynasty, from 206 BC to AD 9. ::* The Xin dynasty (AD 9–23) ::* The
Eastern Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Eastern Han dynasty
, from AD 190 to 195. ::* The Jin dynasty (265–420), Western Jin dynasty, from AD 312 to 316. ::* The state of Former Zhao during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, from AD 318 to 329. ::* The State of Former Qin during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, from AD 351 to 385. ::* The State of Later Qin during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, from AD 384 to 417. ::* The Western Wei, Western Wei dynasty (AD 535–557) ::* The Northern Zhou, Northern Zhou dynasty (AD 557–581) ::* The Sui dynasty, from AD 581 to 605. ::* The Tang dynasty, from AD 618 to 684, and then from AD 705 to 904. * Ye (ancient China), Ye, located within the present-day city of Handan, was one of secondary capital cities of
Cao Wei Wei (Hanzi Chinese characters, also called ''Hanzi'' (), are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other East-Asian languages, and remain a key component of the Japanese writing system ...
(220-265), and the capital city of several regional kingdoms during
Eastern Jin Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, wit ...
period: Later Zhao (319-351), Ran Wei (350-352) and Former Yan (337-370). It was also the capital city of two major dynasties in Southern and Northern dynasties period: Eastern Wei, Eastern Wei dynasty (534-550), and the Northern Qi, Northern Qi dynasty (550–577). * Yinchuan was the capital of the Western Xia from 1038 to 1227, when it was called Xingqing (). * Yingchang was briefly the capital of the
Northern Yuan dynasty The Northern Yuan () was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongols, Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau. It operated as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty of China in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen ...

Northern Yuan dynasty
from 1369 to 1370. * Zhaoge was the secondary capital city during last years of
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
when it was ruled by King Zhou of Shang, King Zhou. Later, it was the capital city of Wey (state), Wey during the Eastern Zhou period. * Zhaoqing was the capital of the
Southern Ming dynasty The Southern Ming (), officially the Great Ming (), was a series of dynastic rump states ruled by the Zhu clan in southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate mega-regions within China China, official ...

Southern Ming dynasty
from 1646 to 1662.


Chronology


See also

* List of the current and former capitals of the subdivisions of China * Chinese palace * Dynasties in Chinese history


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Historical Capitals Of China Ancient Chinese capitals, Lists of historical capitals, China