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Hindustani (;
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
: , * * * * , / Perso-Arabic: , , ) is the ''
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
'' of
Northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on ...

Northern India
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
; in linguistics and some other contexts, it is also known as Hindi–Urdu, (Devanagari: , Perso-Arabic: ). Ancestors of the language were known as: ''Hindui'', ''Hindavi'', ''Zabān-e '' (), ''Zabān-e
Hindustan Hindustan (: ) pronounced as (ostn or hin-DOU-stan), along with its shortened form Hind (), is the name for India, broadly the , which later became used by its inhabitants in . Other toponyms of the subcontinent include , , and . After the , ...

Hindustan
'' (), ''Hindustan ki boli'' (),
Rekhta ''Rekhta'' ( ur, ; hi, रेख़्ता ) was the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...
, and
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
. Its regional dialects became known as ''Zabān-e Dakhani'' in southern India, ''Zabān-e Gujari'' () in Gujarat, and as ''Zabān-e Dehlavi'' or Urdu around Delhi. It is an
Indo-Aryan language The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages h ...
, deriving its base primarily from the
Western Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language varieties form the central part of the Indo-Aryan language family, itself a part of th ...

Western Hindi
dialect of
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
, also known as
Khariboli The Kauravi ( hi, कौरवी, ur, ), also known as Khariboli or the Delhi dialect, is any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi. It is believed to have initially developed contemporaneously with the neighbour ...
. Hindustani is a
pluricentric language A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard forms, often corresponding to different countries. Many examples of such languages can be found worldwide among the most-spoken languages, incl ...
, best characterised as a continuum between two standardised registers: and . Depending on the social context and geographical area, the language leans towards either side. The concept of a Hindustani language as a "unifying language" or "fusion language" was endorsed by Mahatma Gandhi. The conversion from Hindi to Urdu (or vice versa) is generally achieved just by transliteration between the two scripts, instead of translation which is generally only required for religious and literary texts. Some scholars trace the language's first written poetry, in the form of
Old Hindi Old Hindi ( hi, पुरानी हिन्दी, ur, پرانی ہندی; ''Purānī Hindī'') was the earliest stage of the Delhi dialect (Khariboli) of the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to ...
, to as early as 769 AD. However this view is not generally accepted. During the period of
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
, which covered most of today's India, eastern Pakistan, southern Nepal and Bangladesh and which resulted in the contact of Hindu and Muslim cultures, the
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publi ...
base of Old Hindi became enriched with loanwords from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, evolving into the present form of Hindustani. The Hindustani vernacular became an expression of Indian national unity during the
Indian Independence movement The Indian independence movement was a series of historic events with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', ...
, and continues to be spoken as the common language of the people of the northern Indian subcontinent, which is reflected in the Hindustani vocabulary of
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
films and songs. The language's core vocabulary is derived from
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publi ...
(a descendant of
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
), with substantial
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...
from Persian and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
(via Persian). The number of speakers can only be estimated. ''
Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living language A language is a structured system of communicat ...
'' reports that, as of 2020,
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
and
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
together constitute the 3rd-most-spoken language in the world after English and Mandarin, with 810 million native and second-language speakers, though this includes millions who self-reported their language as 'Hindi' on the Indian census but speak a number of other
Hindi languages The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language varieties form the central part of the Indo-Aryan language family, itself a part of th ...
than Hindustani. The total number of Hindi–Urdu speakers was reported to be over 300 million in 1995, making Hindustani the third- or fourth-most spoken language in the world.


History

Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan ''
apabhraṃśa Apabhraṃśa ( sa, अपभ्रंश, , Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi sa, 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari sa, प्राकृत, ; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ; Kannada: ''pāgada'') are a grou ...
''
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
s of present-day
North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...

North India
in the 7th–13th centuries, chiefly the Dehlavi dialect of the
Western Hindi The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language varieties spoken across North India and Central India. These language varieties form the central part of the Indo-Aryan language family, itself a part of th ...

Western Hindi
category of Indo-Aryan languages that is known as
Old Hindi Old Hindi ( hi, पुरानी हिन्दी, ur, پرانی ہندی; ''Purānī Hindī'') was the earliest stage of the Delhi dialect (Khariboli) of the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to ...
. Hindustani emerged as a contact language around
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
, a result of the increasing linguistic diversity that occurred due to Muslim rule, while the use of its southern dialect,
Dakhani Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or , ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani language, Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India and the native languag ...
, was promoted by Muslim rulers in the .
Amir Khusrow Abu'l Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 AD) (Urdu:ابوالحسن یامین الدّین خُسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī (Urdu: امیر خُسرو دہلوی), was an Indian Sufi singer, musician, poet and scholar ...
, who lived in the thirteenth century during the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
period in North India, used these forms (which was the ''lingua franca'' of the period) in his writings and referred to it as ''Hindavi'' ( fa, ھندوی, lit=of ''Hind'' or ''India''). The Delhi Sultanate, which comprised several
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
and
Afghan Afghan (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iran ...

Afghan
dynasties that ruled much of the subcontinent from Delhi, was succeeded by the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
in 1526. Although the Mughals were of
TimuridTimurid refers to those descended from Timur (Tamerlane), a 14th-century conqueror: * Timurid dynasty, a dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from Timur who established empires in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent ** Timurid Empire of Ce ...
(''Gurkānī'')
Turco-Mongol The Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that dis ...
descent, they were
Persianised Persianization (), or Persification (), is a sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing ...
, and Persian had gradually become the state language of the Mughal empire after
Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Mughal emperors, Emperor of the Mughal dynasty () in the Indian subcontinent. He ...

Babur
,B.F. Manz, ''"Tīmūr Lang"'', in
Encyclopaedia of Islam The ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' (''EI'') is an encyclopaedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or dis ...
, Online Edition, 2006
''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'',
Timurid Dynasty
, Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation: "Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia. ... Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture.")
a continuation since the introduction of Persian by
Central Asian Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continent ...
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
rulers in the Indian Subcontinent, and the patronisation of it by the earlier Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. Hindustani began to take shape as a Persianised vernacular during the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
(1206–1526 AD) and
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
(1526–1858 AD) in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
. Hindustani retained the
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
and core vocabulary of the local Delhi dialect. However, as an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic loanwords, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India; this was a result of the contact of Hindu and Muslim cultures in Hindustan that created a composite Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. The language was also known as ''
Rekhta ''Rekhta'' ( ur, ; hi, रेख़्ता ) was the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...
'', or 'mixed', which implies that it was mixed with Persian. Written in the Perso-Arabic,
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
, and occasionally
Kaithi Kaithi (), also called Kayathi () or Kayasthi (), is a historical Brahmic scripts, Brahmic script that was used widely in parts of North India, Northern and East India, Eastern India, primarily in the present-day states of Uttar Pradesh, Jhark ...

Kaithi
or
Gurmukhi Gurmukhī ( pa, ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, , Shahmukhi: ) or Punjabi script is an abugida An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental Writing sy ...

Gurmukhi
scripts, it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India for the next four centuries, although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language. Alongside Persian, it achieved the status of a literary language in Muslim courts and was also used for literary purposes in various other settings such as
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
, Nirgun Sant, circles, and
Rajput Rajput (from Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Rajput
Hindu courts. Its majors centres of development included the Mughal courts of Delhi,
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
,
Agra Agra (, ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...

Agra
and
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of east ...

Lahore
as well as the Rajput courts of
Amber Amber is fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communi ...
and
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscu ...

Jaipur
. In the 18th century, towards the end of the Mughal period, with the fragmentation of the empire and the elite system, a variant of Hindustani, one of the successors of
apabhraṃśa Apabhraṃśa ( sa, अपभ्रंश, , Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi sa, 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari sa, प्राकृत, ; psu, 𑀧𑀸𑀉𑀤, ; pka, ; Kannada: ''pāgada'') are a grou ...
vernaculars at Delhi, and nearby cities, came to gradually replace Persian as the
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
among the educated elite
upper class Upper class in modern societies is the social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social rel ...
particularly in northern India, though Persian still retained much of its pre-eminence for a short period. The term ''Hindustani'' was given to that language. The Perso-Arabic script form of this language underwent a standardisation process and further Persianisation during this period (18th century) and came to be known as Urdu, a name derived from Persian: ''Zabān-e Urdū-e Mualla'' ('language of the court') or ''Zabān-e Urdū'' (, 'language of the camp'). The etymology of the word ''Urdu'' is of Chagatai origin, ''Ordū'' ('camp'), cognate with English ''
horde Horde may refer to: History * Orda (organization), a historic sociopolitical and military structure in steppe nomad cultures such as the Turks and Mongols ** Golden Horde, a Turkic-Mongol state established in the 1240s ** Wings of the Golden Horde ...
'', and known in local translation as ''Lashkari Zabān'' (), which is shorted to ''Lashkari'' (). This is all due to its origin as the common speech of the Mughal army. As a literary language, Urdu took shape in courtly, elite settings. Along with English, it became the first official language of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
in 1850. Hindi as a standardised literary
register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and media Music * Register (music), the relative "height" or range of a note, melody, part, instrument, etc. * ''Regis ...
of the
Delhi dialect The Kauravi ( hi, कौरवी, ur, ), also known as Khariboli or the Delhi dialect, is any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi. It is believed to have initially developed contemporaneously with the neighbour ...
arose in the 19th century; the Braj dialect was the dominant literary language in the Devanagari script up until and through the 19th century. Efforts to promote a Devanagari version of the Delhi dialect under the name of Hindi gained pace around 1880 as an effort to displace Urdu's official position.
John Fletcher Hurst 200px, John Fletcher Hurst John Fletcher Hurst (August 17, 1834 – May 4, 1903) was an American bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a posit ...

John Fletcher Hurst
in his book published in 1891 mentioned that the Hindustani or camp language of the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
's courts at Delhi was not regarded by philologists as a distinct language but only as a dialect of
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...
with admixture of Persian. He continued: "But it has all the magnitude and importance of separate language. It is linguistic result of Muslim rule of eleventh & twelfth centuries and is spoken (except in rural
Bengal Bengal (; bn, বাংলা/বঙ্গ, translit=Bānglā/Bôngô, ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region located in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, p ...

Bengal
) by many
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
s in
North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...

North India
and by population in all parts of India." Next to English it was the official language of
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
, was commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately 100,000,000 people. When the British colonised the Indian subcontinent from the late 18th through to the late 19th century, they used the words 'Hindustani', 'Hindi', and 'Urdu' interchangeably. They developed it as the language of administration of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
, further preparing it to be the official language of modern India and Pakistan. However, with independence, use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific. More recently, the word 'Hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
films, which are popular in both India and Pakistan and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi or Urdu.


Registers

Although, at the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu are considered registers of a single language, Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu, as they share a common
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
and core vocabulary, they differ in literary and formal vocabulary; where literary Hindi draws heavily on Sanskrit and to a lesser extent
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publi ...
, literary Urdu draws heavily on Persian and Arabic loanwords. The grammar and base vocabulary (most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc.) of both Hindi and Urdu, however, are the same and derive from a Prakritic base, and both have Persian/Arabic influence. The standardised registers Hindi and Urdu are collectively known as ''Hindi-Urdu''. Hindustani is perhaps the ''
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
'' of the north and west of the Indian subcontinent, though it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas. This has led it to be characterised as a continuum that ranges between Hindi and Urdu. A common vernacular sharing characteristics with Sanskritised Hindi, regional Hindi and Urdu, Hindustani is more commonly used as a vernacular than highly Sanskritised Hindi or highly Persianised Urdu. This can be seen in the popular culture of
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both ''Hindi'' and ''Urdu'' speakers. Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the Hindustani closer to Urdu or to Hindi. One might reasonably assume that the Hindustani spoken in
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
,
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
(known for its usage of Urdu) and
Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as Kashi, is a city on the Ganges river in North India, northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death ...

Varanasi
(a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly Sanskritised Hindi) is somewhat different.


Modern Standard Hindi

Standard Hindi, one of the 22 officially recognised languages of India and the
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

official language
of the Union, is usually written in the indigenous
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
script of India and exhibits less Persian and Arabic influence than Urdu. It has a literature of 500 years, with prose, poetry, religion and philosophy. One could conceive of a wide spectrum of dialects and registers, with the highly Persianised Urdu at one end of the spectrum and a heavily Sanskritised variety spoken in the region around
Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as Kashi, is a city on the Ganges river in North India, northern India that has a central place in pilgrimage, death ...

Varanasi
, at the other end. In common usage in India, the term ''Hindi'' includes all these dialects except those at the Urdu spectrum. Thus, the different meanings of the word ''Hindi'' include, among others: # standardised Hindi as taught in schools throughout India (except some states such as Tamil Nadu), # formal or official Hindi advocated by
Purushottam Das Tandon Purushottam Das Tandon (; 1 August 1882 – 1 July 1962) was a freedom fighter A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying powe ...
and as instituted by the post-independence Indian government, heavily influenced by Sanskrit, # the vernacular dialects of Hindustani as spoken throughout India, # the neutralised form of Hindustani used in popular television and films (which is nearly identical to colloquial Urdu), or # the more formal neutralised form of Hindustani used in television and print news reports.


Modern Standard Urdu

Urdu is the
national language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
and
state language An official language, also called state language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have ...
of Pakistan and one of the 22 officially recognised languages of India. It is written, except in some parts of India, in the
Nastaliq in a Naskh (script), Naskh styled typeface: Nastaʼlīq (; fa, , ) is one of the main calligraphic hands used to write the Perso-Arabic script in the Persian language, Persian and Urdu languages, and traditionally the predominant style i ...

Nastaliq
style of the
Urdu alphabet The Urdu alphabet (), is the right-to-left In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * ...
, an extended Perso-Arabic script incorporating Indic phonemes. It is heavily influenced by
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
vocabulary and was historically also known as
Rekhta ''Rekhta'' ( ur, ; hi, रेख़्ता ) was the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...
. As
Dakhini Deccani (also known as Deccani Urdu and Deccani Hindi) or Dakni, Dakhni, Dakhini, Dakkhani and Dakkani (, ''dekanī'' or ''dakhanī''), is a variety of Hindustani spoken in the Deccan region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Repu ...
(or Deccani) where it also draws words from local languages, it survives and enjoys a rich history in the and other parts of
South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

South India
, with the prestige dialect being
Hyderabadi Urdu Hyderabadi ( ur, ) is a dialect of Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, eth ...
spoken in and around the capital of the
Nizams File:Usman Ali Khan.jpg, 230px, Mir Osman Ali Khan The Nizams were the 18th-through-20th-century rulers of Hyderabad. Nizam of Hyderabad (Niẓām ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State ( divide ...
and the
Deccan Sultanates#REDIRECT Deccan sultanates The Deccan sultanates were five late-medieval Indian kingdoms—on the Deccan Plateau between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range—that were ruled by Muslim dynasties: namely Ahmadnagar, Berar, Bidar, Bija ...
. Earliest forms of the language's literature may be traced back to the 13th-14th century works of Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī, often called the "father of
Urdu literature Urdu literature ( ur, , ) is literature in the Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and cul ...
" while Walī Deccani is seen as the progenitor of
Urdu poetry Urdu poetry ( ur, ) is a tradition of poetry and has many different forms. Today, it is an important part of the cultures of South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture ...

Urdu poetry
.


Bazaar Hindustani

The term ''
bazaar A bazaar or souk, is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term bazaar originates from the Persian language, Persian word ''bāzār''. The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer ...

bazaar
Hindustani'', in other words, the 'street talk' or literally 'marketplace Hindustani', has arisen to denote a simplified version of the language, resembling a
pidgin A pidgin , or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several lan ...

pidgin
. It has emerged in various South Asian cities where Hindustani is not the main language, in order to facilitate communication across language barriers. It is characterised by loanwords from local languages.


Names

Amir Khusro Abu'l Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 AD) (Urdu:ابوالحسن یامین الدّین خُسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī (Urdu: امیر خُسرو دہلوی), was an Indian Sufi singer, musician, poet and scholar ...

Amir Khusro
referred to this language of his writings as ''Dehlavi'' ( / , 'of Delhi') or ''Hindavi'' ( / ). During this period, Hindustani was used by
Sufis Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism Mysticism is popularly known as becoming one with God or the Absolute, but may refer to any kind of Religious ecstasy, ecstasy or altered state of consciousne ...
in promulgating their message across the Indian subcontinent. After the advent of the
Mughals The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. ...
in the subcontinent, Hindustani acquired more Persian loanwords. ''
Rekhta ''Rekhta'' ( ur, ; hi, रेख़्ता ) was the Hindustani language Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms ...
'' ('mixture'), ''Hindi'' ('Indian'), Hindustani, Hindvi, Lahori, and Dakni (amongst others) became popular names for the same language until the 18th century. The name ''Urdu'' (from ''Zabān-i-Ordu'', or ''Orda'') appeared around 1780. It is believed to have been coined by the poet Mashafi. In local literature and speech, it was also known as the ''Lashkari Zabān'' or ''Lashkari''. Mashafi was the first person to simply modify the name ''Zabān-i-Ordu'' to ''
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
''. During the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
, the term ''Hindustani'' was used by British officials. In 1796, John Borthwick Gilchrist published a "A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language". Upon partition of India, partition, India and Pakistan established national standards that they called ''Hindi'' and ''Urdu,'' respectively, and attempted to make distinct, with the result that ''Hindustani'' commonly, but mistakenly, came to be seen as a "mixture" of Hindi and Urdu. George Abraham Grierson, Grierson, in his highly influential ''Linguistic Survey of India'', proposed that the names ''Hindustani, Urdu,'' and ''Hindi'' be separated in use for different varieties of the Hindustani language, rather than as the overlapping synonyms they frequently were:


Literature


Official status

Prior to 1947, Hindustani was officially recognised by the British Raj. In the post-independence period however, the term Hindustani has lost currency and is not given any official recognition by the Indian or Pakistani governments. The language is instead recognised by its standard forms, Hindi and Urdu.


Hindi

Hindi is declared by Article 343(1), Part XVII of the Constitution of India, Part 17 of the Constitution of India, Indian Constitution as the "official language (, ) of the Union." (In this context, "Union" means the Federal Government and not the entire country—India has languages with official status in India, 23 official languages.) At the same time, however, the definitive text of federal laws is officially the English text and proceedings in the higher appellate courts must be conducted in English. At the state level, Hindi is one of the official languages in 10 of the 29 Indian states and three Union territory, Union Territories, respectively: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand,
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
and West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Delhi. In the remaining states, Hindi is not an official language. In states like Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, studying Hindi is not compulsory in the state curriculum. However, an option to take the same as second or third language does exist. In many other states, studying Hindi is usually compulsory in the school curriculum as a third language (the first two languages being the state's official language and English), though the intensiveness of Hindi in the curriculum varies.


Urdu

Urdu is the national language (, ''qaumi zabān'') of Pakistan, where it shares
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

official language
status with Pakistani English, English. Although English is spoken by many, and Punjabi language, Punjabi is the native language of the majority of the population, Urdu is the ''lingua franca''. Urdu is also one of the languages recognised in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and is an official language of the Indian states of Bihar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir (state), Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana,
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (; , 'Northern Province') is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

Uttar Pradesh
and West Bengal. Although the government school system in most other states emphasises Modern Standard Hindi, at universities in cities such as
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh and Hyderabad, Urdu is spoken and learnt, and ''Saaf'' or ''Khaalis'' Urdu is treated with just as much respect as ''Shuddha'' Hindi.


Geographical distribution

Besides being the ''
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
'' of North India and Pakistan in South Asia, Hindustani is also spoken by many in the South Asian diaspora and their descendants around the world, including North America (e.g., in Canada, Hindustani is one of the fastest growing languages), Europe, and the Middle East. * A sizeable population in Afghanistan, especially in Kabul, can also speak and understand Hindi-Urdu due to the popularity and influence of
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
films and songs in the region, as well as the fact that many Afghan refugees spent time in Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s. * Fiji Hindi was derived from the Hindustani linguistic group and is spoken widely by Fijians of Indian people, Indian origin. * Hindustani was also one of the languages that was spoken widely during British rule in Burma. Many older citizens of Myanmar, particularly Anglo-Indians and the Anglo-Burmese people, Anglo-Burmese, still know it, although it has had no official status in the country since Myanmar#Military rule (1962–2011), military rule began. * Hindustani is also spoken in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, where migrant workers from various countries live and work for several years.


Phonology


Grammar


Vocabulary

Hindi-Urdu's core vocabulary has an Indic base, being derived from
Prakrit The Prakrits (; Early Brahmi 𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀓𑀾𑀢, ''prākṛta''; Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publi ...
, which in turn derives from
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
, as well as a substantial amount of
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...
from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
(via Persian). Hindustani contains around 5,500 words of Persian and Arabic origin.


Writing system

Historically, Hindustani was written in the
Kaithi Kaithi (), also called Kayathi () or Kayasthi (), is a historical Brahmic scripts, Brahmic script that was used widely in parts of North India, Northern and East India, Eastern India, primarily in the present-day states of Uttar Pradesh, Jhark ...

Kaithi
, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabets. Kaithi and Devanagari are two of the Brahmic scripts native to India, whereas the Urdu alphabet is a derivation of the Perso-Arabic script written in Nastaʿlīq, which is the preferred calligraphic style for Urdu. Today, Hindustani continues to be written in the Urdu alphabet in Pakistan. In India, the Hindi register is officially written in Devanagari, and Urdu in the Urdu alphabet, to the extent that these standards are partly defined by their script. However, in popular publications in India, Urdu is also written in Devanagari, with slight variations to establish a Devanagari Urdu alphabet alongside the Devanagari Hindi alphabet. Because of Indian English, anglicisation in South Asia and the international use of the Latin script, Hindustani is occasionally written in the Latin script. This adaptation is called Roman Urdu or Romanised Hindi, depending upon the register used. Since Urdu and Hindi are mutual intelligibility, mutually intelligible when spoken, Romanised Hindi and Roman Urdu (unlike Devanagari Hindi and Urdu in the Urdu alphabet) are mostly mutually intelligible as well.


Sample text


Colloquial Hindustani

An example of colloquial Hindustani: *Devanagari: *Urdu: *Romanisation: *English: How much is it? The following is a sample text, Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the two official registers of Hindustani, Hindi and Urdu. Because this is a formal legal text, differences in vocabulary are most pronounced.


Literary Hindi


Literary Urdu


Hindustani and Bollywood

The predominant Indian film industry
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
, located in Mumbai, Maharashtra uses Modern Standard Hindi, colloquial Hindustani, Bombay Hindi, Urdu, Awadhi language, Awadhi, Rajasthani language, Rajasthani, Bhojpuri language, Bhojpuri, and Braj Bhasha, along with Punjabi language, Punjabi and with the liberal use of English language, English or Hinglish in scripts and soundtrack lyrics. Film titles are often screened in three scripts: Latin, Devanagari and occasionally Perso-Arabic. The use of Urdu or Hindi in films depends on the film's context: historical films set in the
Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
or
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
are almost entirely in Urdu, whereas films based on Hindu mythology or Middle kingdoms of India, ancient India make heavy use of Hindi with Sanskrit vocabulary.


See also

* Hindustan, Hindustan (Indian subcontinent) * Languages of India * Languages of Pakistan * List of Hindi authors * List of Urdu writers * Hindi–Urdu transliteration * Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation


Notes

This will only display in a
Nastaliq in a Naskh (script), Naskh styled typeface: Nastaʼlīq (; fa, , ) is one of the main calligraphic hands used to write the Perso-Arabic script in the Persian language, Persian and Urdu languages, and traditionally the predominant style i ...

Nastaliq
font if you will have one installed, otherwise it may display in a modern Arabic font in a style more common for writing
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
and most other non-Urdu languages such as Naskh (script), Naskh. If this and this looks like this then you are not seeing it in Nastaliq.


References


Bibliography

* Asher, R. E. 1994. "Hindi." Pp. 1547–49 in ''The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics'', edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press. . * Bailey, Thomas G. 1950. ''Teach yourself Hindustani''. London: English Universities Press. * Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. ''Indo-Aryan and Hindi'' (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. * Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language." In ''Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations'', edited by M. G. Clyne. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. . * Dua, Hans R. 1994a. "Hindustani." Pp. 1554 in ''The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics'', edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press. * —— 1994b. "Urdu." Pp. 4863–64 in ''The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics'', edited by R. E. Asher. Oxford: Pergamon Press. * Rai, Amrit. 1984. ''A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani''. Delhi: Oxford University Press.


Further reading

*the University of Michigan * the University of Michigan * * Oxford University * the New York Public Library * Oxford University * Shakespear, John
A Dictionary, Hindustani and English.
3rd ed., much enl. London: Printed for the author by J.L. Cox and Son: Sold by Parbury, Allen, & Co., 1834. * Taylor, Joseph.
A dictionary, Hindoostanee and English
'. Available at Hathi Trust. (A dictionary, Hindoostanee and English / abridged from the quarto edition of Major Joseph Taylor; as edited by the late W. Hunter; by William Carmichael Smyth.)


External links


Bolti Dictionary (Hindustani)

Hamari Boli (Hindustani)

Khan Academy (Hindi-Urdu):
academic lessons taught in Hindi-Urdu

*




Hindi/Urdu-English-Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani-Pashtu Comparative Word List

GRN Report for Hindustani

Hindustani Poetry



National Language Authority (Urdu), Pakistan (muqtadera qaumi zaban)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hindustani Language Hindustani language, Languages attested from the 8th century Indo-Aryan languages