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The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in
Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick") is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, California, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. The city is named after a Sequoia sempervirens, coast ...

Palo Alto, California
. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components, as well as software and related services to consumers, small and medium-sized businesses ( SMBs), and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health, and education sectors. The company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by
Bill Hewlett William Redington Hewlett ( ; May 20, 1913 – January 12, 2001) was an American engineer and the co-founder, with David Packard, of the Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Early life and education Hewlett was born in Ann Arbor, Mic ...
and
David Packard David Packard ( ; September 7, 1912 – March 26, 1996) was an American electrical engineer and co-founder, with Bill Hewlett, of Hewlett-Packard (1939), serving as president (1947–64), CEO (1964–68), and Chairman of the Board (1964–68 ...
in 1939, and initially produced a line of electronic test and measurement equipment. The
HP Garage The HP Garage is a private museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and oth ...
at 367 Addison Avenue is now designated an official California Historical Landmark, and is marked with a plaque calling it the "Birthplace of '
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
'". The company won its first big contract in 1938 to provide test and measurement instruments for
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of ...
's production of the animated film '' Fantasia'', which allowed Hewlett and Packard to formally establish the Hewlett-Packard Company on July 2, 1939. The company grew into a
multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whethe ...
widely respected for its products. HP was the world's leading PC manufacturer from 2007 until the second quarter of 2013, when
Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( , Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencie ...

Lenovo
moved ahead of HP. HP specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware; designing software; and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices, enterprise and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software, and a range of printers and other imaging products. The company directly marketed its products to households; small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises, as well as via online distribution; consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers; software partners; and major technology vendors. It also offered services and a consulting business for its products and partner products. In 1999, HP spun off its electronic and bio-analytical test and measurement instruments business into
Agilent Technologies Agilent Technologies, Inc. is an American analytical instrumentation development and manufacturing company that offers its products and services to markets worldwide. Its global headquarters is located in Santa Clara, California. Agilent was esta ...
; HP retained focus on its later products, including computers and printers. It
merged In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of Company, companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or Consolidation (business), consolidated with other entit ...
with
Compaq Compaq (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement ...

Compaq
in 2002, and acquired
Electronic Data Systems Electronic Data Systems (EDS) was an American multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Plano, Texas. History Electronic Data Systems (EDS) was founded in 1962 by H. Ross Perot, a graduate of the ...
in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion that year and a
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced its acquisition of
3Com 3Com Corporation was a digital electronics manufacturer best known for its computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. Th ...
, and closed the deal on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced its buyout of Palm, Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its
bidding war A bid price is the highest price that a buyer (i.e., bidder) is willing to pay for a goods. It is usually referred to simply as the "bid". In bid and ask, the bid price stands in contrast to the ask price or "offer", and the difference between t ...
for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion), which
Dell Dell is an American company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objecti ...

Dell
declined to match. On November 1, 2015, the company spun off its enterprise products and services business
Hewlett Packard Enterprise The Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company (HPE) is an American multinational enterprise information technology company based in Houston, Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United ...
. HP retained the personal computer and printer businesses and was renamed
HP Inc. HP Inc. is an American multinational information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The ...


History

Bill Hewlett William Redington Hewlett ( ; May 20, 1913 – January 12, 2001) was an American engineer and the co-founder, with David Packard, of the Hewlett-Packard, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Early life and education Hewlett was born in Ann Arbor, Mic ...
and
David Packard David Packard ( ; September 7, 1912 – March 26, 1996) was an American electrical engineer and co-founder, with Bill Hewlett, of Hewlett-Packard (1939), serving as president (1947–64), CEO (1964–68), and Chairman of the Board (1964–68 ...
graduated with degrees in
electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical enginee ...

electrical engineering
from
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
in 1935. The company started in a garage in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...

Palo Alto
during a fellowship they had with past professor
Frederick Terman Frederick Emmons Terman (; June 7, 1900 – December 19, 1982) was an American professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institutio ...
at Stanford during the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, who they considered a mentor in forming the company. In 1938, Packard and Hewlett began part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538, . In 1939, Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership. They tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard (HP) or Packard-Hewlett. HP was incorporated on August 18, 1947, and went public on November 6, 1957. Hewlett and Packard's first financially successful product was a precision audio
oscillator Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of Mechanical equilibrium, equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term ''vibration'' is precisely used to describe ...
known as the HP 200A, which used a small incandescent
light bulb An electric light is a device that produces visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum ...

light bulb
(known as a "pilot light") as a temperature dependent
resistor A resistor is a that implements as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to , active elements, and terminate s, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipat ...

resistor
in a critical portion of the circuit, and a negative feedback loop to stabilize the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed the HP 200A to be sold for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The 200 series of generators continued production until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. One of the company's earliest customers was Bud Hawkins, chief
sound engineer An audio engineer (also known as a sound engineer or recording engineer) helps to produce a sound recording, recording or a live performance, balancing and adjusting sound sources using equalization (audio), equalization, Dynamic range compress ...
for
Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), the Walt Disney Company's Studio Entertainment unit, which includes Disney's motion picture studios, mus ...
, who bought eight HP 200B audio oscillators (at $71.50 each) to be used in the animated film '' Fantasia''. HP's profit at the end of 1939, its first full year of business, was $1,563 on revenues of $5,369. Hewlett and Packard worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell
proximity fuze Image:MK53 fuze.jpg, 300px, Proximity fuze MK53 removed from shell, circa 1950s A proximity fuze (or fuse) is a Fuze (munitions), fuze that detonates an Explosive material, explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes sma ...
s during World War II; the work exempted Packard from the draft, but Hewlett had to serve as an officer in the
Army Signal Corps ) , colors = Orange and white , colors_label = Corps colors , march = , mascot = , equipment = , equipment_label = , ...
after being called to active duty. In 1942, they built their first building at 395 Page Mill Road and were awarded the
Army-Navy "E" Award The Army-Navy "E" Award was an honor presented to companies during World War II whose production facilities achieved "Excellence in Production" ("E") of war equipment. The award was also known as the Army-Navy Production Award. The award was creat ...
in 1943. HP employed 200 people and produced the audio oscillator, a wave analyzer, distortion analyzers, an audio-signal generator, and the Model 400A vacuum-tube voltmeter during the war. In 1947, the company was incorporated with Packard as president. He handed the presidency over to Hewlett when he became chairman in 1964, but remained CEO of the company. Sales reached $5.5 million in 1951 with 215 employees. In 1959, a manufacturing plant was established in
Böblingen Böblingen (; Swabian: ''Beblenga'') is a town in Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a States of Germany, state (''Land'') in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the southern part of Germany's western border with ...

Böblingen
and a marketing organization in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
.


1960s

HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
, though it did not actively investigate
semiconductor devices A semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator (electricity), insulato ...
until a few years after the " traitorous eight" abandoned
William Shockley William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell ...
to create
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental pr ...
in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use. HP Associates was co-founded by another former
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
researcher,
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by th ...

MOSFET
inventor
Mohamed Atalla Mohamed M. Atalla ( ar, محمد عطاالله; August 4, 1924 – December 30, 2009) was an Egyptian-American engineer, physical chemist Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which ...
, who served as Director of Semiconductor Research. Instruments and
calculators An electronic calculator is typically a portable Electronics, electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. The first Solid-state electronics, solid-state electronic calculator was created ...

calculators
were some of the products using semiconductor devices from HP Associates. During the 1960s, HP partnered with
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
and
Yokogawa Electric is a Japanese multinational electrical engineering and software company, with businesses based on its measurement, control, and information technologies. It has a global workforce of over 19,000 employees, 84 subsidiary and 3 Affiliate (commerc ...
in Japan to develop several high-quality products. The products were not a huge success, as there were high costs involved in building HP-looking products in Japan. In 1963, HP and Yokogawa formed the joint venture Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off the small company Dynac to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo could be turned upside down to be a reflected image of the logo of the new company. Dynac was eventually renamed Dymec and folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using
Digital Equipment Corporation Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC ), using the trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights ...
(DEC) minicomputers with its instruments, but entered the computer market in 1966 with the
HP 2100 The HP 2100 is a series of 16-bit 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The range (computer programming), range of integer values that can be stored in ...
/ HP 1000 series of minicomputers after it decided that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC. The minicomputers had a simple accumulator-based design with two accumulator registers and, in the HP 1000 models, two
index register An index register in a computer's CPU A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB ...
s. The series was produced for 20 years in spite of several attempts to replace it, and was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and series of desktop and business computers. At the end of 1968, Packard handed over the duties of CEO to Hewlett to become
United States Deputy Secretary of Defense The deputy secretary of defense (acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lan ...
in the incoming Nixon administration. He resumed the chairmanship in 1972 and served until 1993, but Hewlett remained the CEO.


1970s

The
HP 3000 The HP 3000 series is a family of 16-bit 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The range (computer programming), range of integer values that can be s ...
was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server, later redesigned with
RISC In computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, v ...
technology. The
HP 2640 The HP 2640A and other HP 264X models were block-mode "smart" and intelligent ASCII standard serial Computer terminal, terminals produced by Hewlett-Packard using the Intel 8008 and Intel 8080, 8080 microprocessors. History The HP 2640A was intr ...
series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the stu ...
terminals, and also introduced screen labeled function keys, now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. The HP 2640 series included one of the first bit mapped graphics displays that, when combined with the
HP 2100 The HP 2100 is a series of 16-bit 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The range (computer programming), range of integer values that can be stored in ...
21MX F-Series microcoded Scientific Instruction Set, enabled the first commercial
WYSIWYG In computing, WYSIWYG ( ), an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, is a system in which editing software allows content to be edited in a form that resembles its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product, such as a printed d ...
Presentation Program In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwar ...
, , that later became the program HP-Draw on the HP 3000. Although scoffed at in the formative days of computing, HP surpassed IBM as the world's largest technology vendor in terms of sales. HP was identified by ''
Wired ''Wired'' (stylized as ''WIRED'') is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online magazine, online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquar ...
'' magazine as the producer of the world's first device to be called a personal computer: the
Hewlett-Packard 9100A The Hewlett-Packard 9100A (hp 9100A) is an early programmable calculator (or computer), first appearing in 1968. Hewlett-Packard, HP called it a desktop calculator because, as Bill Hewlett said, "If we had called it a computer, it would have been ...
, introduced in 1968. HP called it a desktop calculator because, as Hewlett said: "If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers' computer gurus because it didn't look like an
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...
. We therefore decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared." An engineering triumph at the time, the logic circuit was produced without any
integrated circuits An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indiv ...

integrated circuits
, and the CPU assembly was entirely executed in discrete components. With
CRT CRT may refer to: Science and technology Medicine * Calreticulin, a protein *Capillary refill time, the rate at which blood refills empty capillaries *Cardiac resynchronization therapy, a treatment for heart failure, and CRT defibrillator (CRT-D ...

CRT
display, magnetic-card storage, and printer, the price was around $5,000. The machine's keyboard was a cross between that of a scientific calculator and an adding machine. There was no alphabetic keyboard.
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
co-founder
Steve Wozniak Stephen Gary Wozniak (; born August 11, 1950), also known by his nickname "Woz", is an American electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications e ...

Steve Wozniak
originally designed the
Apple I The Apple Computer 1, originally released as the Apple Computer and known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. It was designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. T ...

Apple I
computer while working at HP and offered it to them under their
right of first refusal Right of first refusal (ROFR or RFR) is a contractual right A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity. Public services such as ...
to his work; they did not take it up as the company wanted to stay in scientific, business, and industrial markets. Wozniak said that HP "turned him down five times", but that his loyalty to HP made him hesitant to start Apple with
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
. The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They introduced the world's first handheld scientific electronic
calculator An electronic calculator is typically a portable device used to perform s, ranging from basic to complex . The first calculator was created in the early 1960s. Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the , the f ...

calculator
in 1972 (the
HP-35 The HP-35 was Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto () is a chart ...
), the first handheld programmable in 1974 (the
HP-65 HP-65 in original hard case with manuals, software "Standard Pac" of magnetic cards, soft leather case, and charger The HP-65 is the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator. Introduced by Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packar ...

HP-65
), the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable in 1979 (the
HP-41 The HP-41C series are programmable, expandable, HP Continuous memory, continuous memory handheld Reverse Polish Notation, RPN calculators made by Hewlett-Packard from 1979 to 1990. The original model, HP-41C, was the first of its kind to offer al ...
C), and the first symbolic and graphing calculator, the
HP-28C The HP-28C and HP-28S were two graphing calculators produced by Hewlett-Packard from 1986 to 1992. The HP-28C was the first handheld calculator capable of solving equations Symbolic computation#Expressions, symbolically. They were replaced by th ...
. Like their scientific and business calculators, their
oscilloscope model 475A portable analog oscilloscope, a typical instrument of the late 1970s An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digit ...

oscilloscope
s,
logic analyzer A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuitIn theoretical computer science Image:Maquina.png, An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines ...
s, and other measurement instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter products are now part of spin-off
Agilent Technologies Agilent Technologies, Inc. is an American analytical instrumentation development and manufacturing company that offers its products and services to markets worldwide. Its global headquarters is located in Santa Clara, California. Agilent was esta ...
' product line, which were later spun off from Agilent as
Keysight Technologies Keysight Technologies, or Keysight, is an American company that manufactures electronics test and measurement equipment and software. In 2014, Keysight was spun off from Agilent Technologies, taking with it the product lines focused on electronic ...
). The
HP 9800 series The HP 9800 is a family of what were initially called programmable calculator An electronic calculator is typically a portable device used to perform s, ranging from basic to complex . The first calculator was created in the early 1960 ...
of technical desktop computers started in 1975 with the 9815. The
HP series 80 The Hewlett-Packard series 80 of small scientific desktop computers was introduced in 1980, beginning with the popular HP-85 targeted at engineering and control applications. They provided the capability of the HP 9800 series desktop computers wi ...
started in 1979 with the 85. These machines used a version of the
BASIC programming language BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of General-purpose programming language, general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. The original version was designed by ...
, which was available immediately after they were switched on, and used a proprietary magnetic tape for storage. HP computers were similar in capabilities to the much later
IBM Personal Computer The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first computer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC The IBM ...
, though the limitations of available technology forced prices to be high. In 1978, Hewlett stepped down as CEO and was succeeded by John A. Young.


1980s

HP expanded into
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
in the 1980s. Activists supporting
divestment from South Africa Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest against History of South Africa in the apartheid era, South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-198 ...
accused HP of "automating
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

apartheid
". Sales reached $6.5 billion in 1985 with 85,000 employees. In 1984, HP introduced both
inkjet Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing File:Printer.ogv, A video showing an Inkjet printing, inkjet printer while printing a page. In computing, a printer is a peripheral machine which makes a persistent representation of graphic ...
and
laser printer Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively Electric charge, charged cylinder call ...

laser printer
s for the desktop. Along with its
scanner Scanner may refer to: Technology For invisible radiation * Scanner (radio), for searching for and receiving radio broadcasts * An outside broadcasting control vehicle * A rotating radar Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves ...
product line, the printers have later been developed into successful multifunction products, the most significant being single-unit printer/scanner/copier/fax machines. The print mechanisms in HP's
LaserJet LaserJet as a brand name A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making o ...
line of laser printers depend almost entirely on Canon Inc.'s components (print engines), which in turn use technology developed by
Xerox Xerox Holdings Corporation (; also known simply as Xerox) is an American corporation that sells print and digital document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program A computer program is a collectio ...
. HP developed the hardware, firmware, and software to convert data into dots for printing. On March 3, 1986, HP registered the HP.com domain name, making it the ninth Internet .com domain to be registered. In 1987, the Palo Alto garage where Hewlett and Packard started their business was designated as a
California Historical Landmark A California Historical Landmark (CHL) is a building, structure, site, or place in California that has been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Criteria Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of ...
.


1990s

In the 1990s, HP expanded their computer product line, which initially had been targeted at university, research, and business users, to reach consumers. HP also grew through acquisitions: it bought
Apollo Computer Apollo Computer Inc., founded in 1980 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer) and others, developed and produced Apollo/Domain workstation A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or ...
in 1989 and
Convex Computer Convex Computer Corporation was a company that developed, manufactured and marketed vector Vector may refer to: Biology *Vector (epidemiology) In epidemiology Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and wh ...
in 1995. In 1992, Young was succeeded by Lewis E. Platt, and in 1993 and Hewlett and Packard stepped down from the board with Platt succeeding Packard as chairman. Later in the decade, HP opened hpshopping.com as an independent subsidiary to sell online, direct to consumers; in 2005, the store was renamed "HP Home & Home Office Store". From 1995 to 1998, Hewlett-Packard were sponsors of the English football team
Tottenham Hotspur Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, commonly referred to as Tottenham () or Spurs, is an English professional association football, football club in Tottenham, London, that competes in the Premier League. Tottenham Hotspur Stadium has been the cl ...
. In 1999, all of the businesses not related to computers, storage, and imaging were spun off from HP to form
Agilent Technologies Agilent Technologies, Inc. is an American analytical instrumentation development and manufacturing company that offers its products and services to markets worldwide. Its global headquarters is located in Santa Clara, California. Agilent was esta ...
. Agilent's spin-off was the largest
initial public offering An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a public offering A public offering is the offering of securities A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal defi ...
in the history of
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
, and it created an $8 billion company with about 30,000 employees, manufacturing
scientific instruments A scientific instrument is a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research. History Historically, the definition of a scientific instrument has varied, based on usage, laws, and ...

scientific instruments
,
semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that measures how strongly it resists electric curre ...
s, optical networking devices, and
electronic test equipment Electronic test equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic Device under test, devices under test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electr ...
for telecom and wireless,
research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geogra ...
, and production. In July 1999, HP appointed
Carly Fiorina Cara Carleton "Carly" Fiorina ('' née'' Sneed; born September 6, 1954) is an American businesswoman and politician, known primarily for her tenure as CEO of Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Pa ...

Carly Fiorina
as the first female
CEO A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of Corporate Executive, corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent Legal person, legal entity ...

CEO
of a Fortune-20 company in the
Dow Jones Industrial Average The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Dow Jones, or simply the Dow (), is a price-weighted measurement stock market index In finance, a stock index, or stock market index, is an Index (economics), index that measures a stock market, or ...

Dow Jones Industrial Average
. Fiorina received a larger signing offer than any of her predecessors.


Sales to Iran despite sanctions

In 1997, HP started selling its products in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
through a European subsidiary and a
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
-based Middle Eastern distributor, despite U.S. export sanctions prohibiting such deals imposed by
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
's 1995 executive orders. The story was initially reported by ''
The Boston Globe ''The Boston Globe'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that ...

The Boston Globe
'', and it triggered an inquiry by the
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a large independent agency of the United States federal government, created in the aftermath of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash ...
(SEC). HP responded that products worth 120 million were sold in fiscal year 2008 for distribution via Redington Gulf, a company based in the Netherlands, and that as these sales took place through a foreign subsidiary, HP had not violated sanctions. HP named Redington Gulf "Wholesaler of the Year" in 2003, which in turn published a press release stating that " e seeds of the Redington-Hewlett-Packard relationship were sowed six years ago for one market — Iran." At the time, Redington Gulf had only three employees whose sole purpose was to sell HP products to the Iran market. According to former officials who worked on sanctions, HP used a loophole by routing their sales through a foreign subsidiary. HP ended its relationship with Redington Gulf after the SEC inquiry.


2000–2005

On September 3, 2001, HP announced that an agreement had been reached with
Compaq Compaq (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement ...

Compaq
to merge the two companies. In May 2002, after passing a shareholder vote, HP officially merged with Compaq. Prior to this, plans had been in place to consolidate the companies' product teams and product lines. As Compaq took over
Tandem Computers Tandem Computers, Inc. was the dominant manufacturer of fault-tolerant computer systems for Automated teller machine, ATM networks, banks, stock exchanges, telephone switching centers, and other similar commercial transaction processing applicatio ...
in 1997 and
Digital Equipment Corporation Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC ), using the trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights ...
in 1998, HP offers support for the former Tandem NonStop family and Digital Equipment products PDP-11, VAX and AlphaServer. The merger occurred after a proxy fight with Bill Hewlett's son Walter, who objected to the merger. HP became a major producer in
desktop computer A desktop computer is a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, ...
s, laptops, and servers for many different markets. After the merger with Compaq, the new
ticker symbol A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
became "HPQ", a combination of the two previous symbols, "HWP" and "CPQ", to show the significance of the alliance and also key letters from the two companies Hewlett-Packard and Compaq (the latter company being famous for its "Q" logo on all of its products). In 2004, HP released the DV 1000 Series, including the HP Pavilion dv 1658 and 1040. In May 2006, HP began its campaign, "The Computer is Personal Again"; the campaign was designed to bring back the personal computer as a personal product. The campaign utilized viral marketing, sophisticated visuals, and its own website. Some of the ads featured
Pharrell Pharrell Lanscilo Williams (; born April 5, 1973) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer and entrepreneur. Alongside close friend Chad Hugo, he formed the Hip hop music, hip hop and Contemporary R&B, R&B production ...

Pharrell
,
Petra Nemcova Petra ( ar, ٱلْبَتْرَاء, Al-Batrāʾ; grc, Πέτρα, "Rock"), originally known to its inhabitants in as Raqmu or Raqēmō (𐢚𐢛𐢓𐢈), is a historic and archaeological city in southern Jordan. Petra lies around Jebel al-Madhba ...
,
Mark Burnett Mark Burnett (born 17 July 1960) is a people of the United Kingdom, British television producer who is the current Chairman of MGM Television, MGM Worldwide Television Group. He is best known for creating and producing the reality show ''The App ...
,
Mark Cuban Mark Cuban (born July 31, 1958) is an American billionaire entrepreneur, television personality, and media proprietor whose net worth is an estimated $4.3 billion, according to ''Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned ...

Mark Cuban
,
Alicia Keys Alicia Augello Cook (born January 25, 1981), known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American singer-songwriter. A classically-trained pianist, Keys began composing songs by age 12 and was signed at 15 years old by Columbia Records Colu ...

Alicia Keys
,
Jay-Z Shawn Corey Carter (born December 4, 1969), known professionally as Jay-Z (stylized as JAY-Z), is an American rapper, songwriter, record executive, entrepreneur, and media proprietor A media proprietor, media mogul or media tycoon refers to ...

Jay-Z
,
Gwen Stefani Gwen Renée Stefani (; born October 3, 1969) is an American singer and songwriter. She is a co-founder, lead vocalist, and the primary songwriter of the band No Doubt, whose singles include " Just a Girl", "Spiderwebs (song), Spiderwebs", and "Do ...

Gwen Stefani
, and
Shaun White Shaun Roger White (born September 3, 1986) is an American professional snowboarder Snowboarding is a recreational and competitive activity that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard that is almost always atta ...

Shaun White
. In January 2005, following years of underperformance, which included HP's Compaq merger that fell short and disappointing earning reports, the board asked Fiorina to resign as chair and chief executive officer of the company, and she did on February 9, 2005. After her departure, HP's stock jumped 6.9 percent. Robert Wayman, chief financial officer of HP, served as interim CEO while the board undertook a formal search for a replacement.
Mark Hurd Mark Vincent Hurd (January 1, 1957 – October 18, 2019) was an American technology executive who served as Co-CEO and as a member of the board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an ...

Mark Hurd
of
NCR Corporation NCR Corporation, previously known as National Cash Register, is an American software, managed and professional services, consulting and technology company. It manufactures Self-checkout, self-service kiosks, point of sale, point-of-sale terminal ...
was hired to take over as CEO and president, effective April 1, 2005. Hurd was the board's top choice given the revival of NCR that took place under his leadership.


2006–2009

In 2006, HP unveiled several new products including desktops, enhanced notebooks, a workstation, and software to manage them—OpenView Client Configuration Manager 2.0. In the same year, HP's share price skyrocketed due to consistent results in the last couple quarters of the year with Hurd's plan to cut back HP's workforce and lower costs. In July 2007, HP signed a definitive agreement to acquire
Opsware Opsware, Inc. was a software company based in Sunnyvale, California Sunnyvale () is a city located in Santa Clara County, California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across ...
in a cash tender deal that values the company at $14.25 per share, which combined Opsware software with the
Oracle An oracle is a person or agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which go ...
enterprise IT management software. In the first few years of Hurd's tenure as CEO, HP's stock price more than doubled. By the end of the 2007 fiscal year, HP reached the $100 billion mark for the first time. The company's annual revenue reached $104 billion, allowing HP to overtake competitor IBM. On May 13, 2008, HP and
Electronic Data Systems Electronic Data Systems (EDS) was an American multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Plano, Texas. History Electronic Data Systems (EDS) was founded in 1962 by H. Ross Perot, a graduate of the ...
(EDS) announced that they had signed a definitive agreement under which HP would purchase EDS. On June 30, HP announced that the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 had expired. "The transaction still requires EDS stockholder approval and regulatory clearance from the European Commission and other non-U.S. jurisdictions and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the other closing conditions specified in the merger agreement." The agreement was finalized on August 26, 2008, at $13 billion, and it was publicly announced that EDS would be re-branded. The first targeted layoff of 24,600 former EDS workers was announced on September 15, 2008. (The company's 2008 annual report gave the number as 24,700, to be completed by end of 2009.) This round was factored into purchase price as a $19.5 billion liability against goodwill. As of September 23, 2009, EDS is known as
HP Enterprise Services DXC Technology is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate organization that owns or controls the production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dic ...
. On November 11, 2009,
3Com 3Com Corporation was a digital electronics manufacturer best known for its computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. Th ...
and Hewlett-Packard announced that the latter would be acquiring 3Com for $2.7 billion in cash. The acquisition was one of the biggest in size among a series of takeovers and acquisitions by technology giants to push their way to become one-stop shops. Since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2007, tech giants have constantly felt the pressure to expand beyond their current market niches.
Dell Dell is an American company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objecti ...

Dell
purchased
Perot Systems Perot Systems was an information technology services provider founded in 1988 by a group of investors led by Ross Perot and based in Plano, Texas, United States. Perot Systems provided information technology services in the industries of health ca ...
recently to invade into the technology consulting business area previously dominated by
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
. Hewlett-Packard's latest move marked its incursion into enterprise networking gear market dominated by
Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multin ...

Cisco
.


2010–2012

On April 28, 2010, Palm, Inc. and HP announced that the latter would buy the former for $1.2 billion in cash and debt. Adding Palm handsets to the HP product line created some overlap with the
iPAQ The iPAQ is a Pocket PC A Pocket PC (P/PC, PPC) is a class of personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile devic ...
series of mobile devices, but was thought to significantly improve HP's mobile presence as iPAQ devices had not been selling well. Buying Palm, Inc. gave HP a library of valuable patents and the mobile operating platform,
webOS webOS, also known as LG webOS and previously known as Open webOS, HP webOS and Palm webOS, is a Linux kernel The Linux kernel is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-so ...

webOS
. On July 1, 2010, the acquisition of Palm, Inc. was finalized. Purchasing its webOS was a big gamble to build HP's own ecosystem. On July 1, 2011, HP launched its first tablet,
HP TouchPad The HP TouchPad is a tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single, thin and ...
, which brought webOS to tablet devices. On September 2, 2010, HP won the
bidding war A bid price is the highest price that a buyer (i.e., bidder) is willing to pay for a goods. It is usually referred to simply as the "bid". In bid and ask, the bid price stands in contrast to the ask price or "offer", and the difference between t ...
for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion) that Dell declined to match. After HP acquired Palm Inc., it phased out the Compaq brand. On August 6, 2010, Hurd resigned amid controversy and CFO Cathie Lesjak assumed the role of interim CEO. Hurd had turned HP around and was widely regarded as one of
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
's star CEOs, and under his leadership, HP became the largest computer company in the world when measured by total revenue. He was accused of
sexual harassment Sexual harassment is a type of involving the use of explicit or implicit sexual overtones, including the unwelcome and inappropriate promises of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Sexual harassment includes a range of actions from verbal ...
against a colleague, though the allegations were deemed baseless. The investigation led to questions concerning some of his private expenses and the lack of disclosure related to the friendship. Some observers have argued that Hurd was innocent, but the board asked for his resignation to avoid negative public relations. Public analysis was divided between those who saw it as a commendable tough action by HP in handling expenses irregularities, and those who saw it as an ill-advised, hasty, and expensive reaction in ousting a remarkably capable leader who had turned the business around. At HP, Hurd oversaw a series of acquisitions worth over $20 billion, which allowed the company to expand into services of networking equipment and smartphones. HP shares dropped by 8.4% in after-hours trading, hitting a 52-week low with $9 billion in market capitalization shaved off.
Larry Ellison Lawrence Joseph Ellison (born August 17, 1944) is an American business magnate, investor who is a co-founder, the executive chairman and chief technology officer (CTO) of Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation is an American Multinational ...
publicly attacked HP's board for Hurd's ousting, stating that the HP board had "made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago". On September 30, 2010, was named HP's new CEO and president. His appointment sparked a strong reaction from Ellison, who complained that Apotheker had been in charge of
SAP SAP SE () is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sove ...

SAP
when one of its subsidiaries was systematically stealing software from Oracle. SAP accepted that its subsidiary, which has now closed, illegally accessed Oracle intellectual property. Following Hurd's departure, HP was seen to be problematic by the market, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services. Apotheker's strategy was to broadly aim at disposing hardware and moving into the more profitable
software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ...

software
services Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of Faculty (academic staff), university faculty * Civil service, the body of employees of a governm ...
sector. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that it would strategically exit the
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
and
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
business, and focus on higher-margin "strategic priorities of Cloud, solutions and software with an emphasis on enterprise, commercial and government markets". It also contemplated selling off its personal computer division or spinning it off into a separate company, and quitting PC development while continuing to sell servers and other equipment to business customers, which was a strategy undertaken by IBM in 2005. HP's stock dropped by about a further 40% after the company abruptly announced a number of decisions: to discontinue its webOS device business (mobile phones and tablet computers), the intent to sell its
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician ...
division (at the time HP was the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world), and to acquire British
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...

big data
software firm
Autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...
for a 79% premium, seen externally as an "absurdly high" price for a business with known concerns over its accounts. Media analysts described HP's actions as a "botched strategy shift" and a "chaotic" attempt to rapidly reposition HP and enhance earnings.Why Hewlett-Packard's Impulse Buy Didn't Pay Off
Bloomberg BusinessWeek ''Bloomberg Businessweek'', previously known as ''BusinessWeek'', is an American weekly business magazine, published 50 times a year. Since 2009, the magazine is owned by New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish i ...
November 29, 2012: ''"Apotheker believed that HP's platform was sinking ... appeared to be in a hurry to transform the company ... In a rapid series of moves announced in August 2011, Apotheker killed HP's six-week-old TouchPad tablet, explored plans for a spin-out of its PC business, and championed the $10.3 billion acquisition of Autonomy. One former HP executive who worked there at the time says it appeared that Apotheker and the board didn't know what to do, and were trying anything they could think of. It wasn't a strategy, he says. It was chaos ... Oracle CEO Larry Ellison called Autonomy's asking price 'absurdly high'."''
' The Autonomy acquisition was objected to by HP's own CFO.Rage of the Titans: Whitman vs Lynch
''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
'', November 25, 2012
HP lost more than $30 billion in market capitalization during Apotheker's tenure, and on September 22, 2011, the HP Board of Directors fired him as chief executive and replaced him with fellow board member and former
eBay eBay Inc. ( ) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational sta ...
chief
Meg Whitman Margaret Cushing Whitman (born August 4, 1956) is an American business executive and former political candidate. She is a board member of Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A fina ...

Meg Whitman
, with Raymond J. Lane as executive chairman. Although Apotheker served barely ten months, he received over $13 million in compensation. Weeks later, HP announced that a review had concluded their PC division was too integrated and critical to business operations, and the company reaffirmed their commitment to the Personal Systems Group. In November 2012, HP wrote off almost $9 billion related to the Autonomy acquisition, which became the subject of intense litigation, as HP accused Autonomy's previous management of fraudulently exaggerating Autonomy's financial position and called in law enforcement and regulators in both countries, while Autonomy's previous management accused HP of "textbook"
obfuscation Obfuscation is the obscuring of the intended meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed ...
and finger pointing to protect HP's executives from criticism and conceal HP culpability, their prior knowledge of Autonomy's financial position, and gross mismanagement of Autonomy after acquisition.Motion by Hussain, 2014-08-11
p.1-6
On March 21, 2012, HP said its printing and PC divisions would become one unit headed by Todd Bradley from the PC division, and printing chief Vyomesh Joshi left the company. On May 23, 2012, HP announced plans to lay off approximately 27,000 employees, after posting a profit decline of 31% in the second quarter of 2012. Profits declined because of the growing popularity of smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices, which slowed down personal computer sales. On May 30, 2012, HP unveiled its first
net zero Carbon neutrality refers to achieving net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be done by balancing emissions of carbon dioxide with its removal (often through carbon offset A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or oth ...
energy data center, which uses solar energy and other renewable sources instead of traditional power grids. On July 10, 2012, HP's Server Monitoring Software was discovered to have a previously unknown security vulnerability. A security warning was given to customers about two vulnerabilities, and a
patch Patch may refer to: Places * Patch, St. Louis, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri * Patch, Gwbert, South Ceredigion, Wales People * Patch Adams, a.k.a. Hunter Adams (born 1945), founder of the Gesundheit! Institute * Alexander Patch (18 ...
addressing the issues was released. One month later, HP's official training center was hacked and defaced by a Pakistani hacker known as Hitcher to demonstrate a Web vulnerability. On September 10, 2012, HP revised their restructuring figures and started cutting 29,000 jobs.


2013–2015

On December 31, 2013, HP revised the number of jobs cut from 29,000 to 34,000 up to October 2014. The number of jobs cut until the end of 2013 was 24,600. At the end of 2013 the company had 317,500 employees. On May 22, 2014, HP announced it would cut a further 11,000 to 16,000 jobs, in addition to the 34,000 announced in 2013. Whitman said: "We are gradually shaping HP into a more nimble, lower-cost, more customer and partner-centric company that can successfully compete across a rapidly changing IT landscape." During the June 2014 HP Discover customer event in
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambi ...

Las Vegas
, Whitman and Martin Fink announced a project for a radically new computer architecture called The Machine. Based on
memristor A memristor (; a portmanteau of ''memory resistor'') is a non-linear terminal (electronics), two-terminal electronic component, electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. It was described and named in 1971 by Leon C ...

memristor
s and
silicon photonics Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic l ...
, it was supposed to come into commercialization before the end of the decade, and represented 75% of the research activity in HP Labs at the time. On October 6, 2014, HP announced it was going to split into two separate companies to separate its personal computer and printer businesses from its technology services. The split, which was first reported by ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'' and confirmed by other media, resulted in two publicly traded companies on November 1, 2015:
Hewlett Packard Enterprise The Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company (HPE) is an American multinational enterprise information technology company based in Houston, Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United ...
and
HP Inc. HP Inc. is an American multinational information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The ...
The split was structured so that Hewlett-Packard changed its name to HP Inc. and spun off Hewlett Packard Enterprise as a new publicly traded company. HP Inc. is the legal successor of old Hewlett-Packard; it retains old Hewlett-Packard's stock price history and its longtime stock ticker symbol, , while Hewlett Packard Enterprise trades under its own symbol, . Whitman became chairman of HP Inc. and CEO of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, became chairman of the enterprise business, and
Dion Weisler Dion Joseph Weisler (born 20 August 1967) is an Australian-born businessman, and was the chief executive officer and president of HP Inc. from November 2015, when HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise The Hewlett Packard Enterprise Compan ...
became CEO of HP, Inc. On October 29, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced their new Sprout (computer), Sprout personal computer. In May 2015, the company announced it would be selling its controlling 51 percent stake in its China, Chinese data-networking business to Tsinghua Unigroup for a fee of at least $2.4 billion.


Facilities

HP's global operations were directed from its headquarters in Palo Alto, California. Its US operations were directed from its facility in an unincorporated area of Harris County, Texas, Harris County, Texas, near Houston. Its Latin America offices were in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County, Florida. Its Europe offices were in Meyrin, Switzerland, but it also had a research center in the Paris-Saclay cluster 20 km south of Paris, Paris, France. Its Asia-Pacific offices were in Singapore.Plan de commune
." Meyrin. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
It also had large operations in Leixlip, Ireland; Austin, Texas; Boise, Idaho; Corvallis, Oregon; Fort Collins, Colorado; Roseville, California; Saint Petersburg, Florida; San Diego, California; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Vancouver, Washington; Conway, Arkansas; and Plano, Texas. In the UK, HP was based at a large site in Bracknell, Berkshire with offices in various UK locations, including a landmark office tower in London, 88 Wood Street. Its acquisition of
3Com 3Com Corporation was a digital electronics manufacturer best known for its computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. Th ...
expanded its employee base to Marlborough, Massachusetts, where it has been manufacturing its convertible laptop series since late 2019. The company also had a large workforce and numerous offices in Bucharest, Romania, and at Bangalore, India, to address their back end and IT operations. MphasiS, which is headquartered at Bangalore, also enabled HP to increase their footprint in the city as it was a subsidiary of EDS which the company acquired.


Products and organizational structure

HP produced lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, personal digital assistants, servers, workstation computers, and computers for home and small-business use; many of the computers came from the 2002 merger with Compaq. HP promoted itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full range of services to design, implement, and support IT infrastructure. HP's Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) was described by the company in 2005 as "the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises". Products and technology associated with IPG include: * Inkjet printer, Inkjet and LaserJet printers * consumables and related products * Officejet multifunction printer, all-in-one multifunction printer/scanner/faxes * Designjet and Scitex Large Format Printers * Indigo Digital Press * HP Web Jetadmin printer management software * HP Output Management suite of software * LightScribe optical recording technology * HP Photosmart digital cameras and photo printers * HP SPaM * Snapfish, Snapfish by HP, a photo sharing and photo products service. On December 23, 2008, HP released iPrint Photo for iPhone. HP's Personal Systems Group (PSG) was claimed by HP in 2005 to be "one of the leading vendors of personal computers ("PCs") in the world based on unit volume shipped and annual revenue". PSG dealt with: * business PCs and accessories * consumer PCs and accessories, (e.g., HP Pavilion (computer), HP Pavilion, Compaq Presario, VoodooPC) * handheld computing (e.g., iPAQ Pocket PC) * digital "connected" entertainment (e.g., HP MediaSmart TVs, HP MediaSmart Servers, HP MediaVaults, DVD+RW drives) *Apple iPod+HP, iPod (until November 2005). HP Enterprise Business (EB) incorporated HP Technology Services and HP Enterprise Services, Enterprise Services (an amalgamation of the former Electronic Data Systems, EDS, and what was known as HP Services). HP Enterprise Security Services oversaw professional services such as network security, information security and information assurance/compliancy, HP Software Division, and Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN). The Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN) oversaw "back end" products like storage and servers. HP Networking (former ProCurve) was responsible for the NW family of products. HP Software Division was the company's enterprise software unit, which produced and marketed its brand of enterprise-management software, HP OpenView. From September 2005 HP purchased several software companies as part of a publicized, deliberate strategy to augment its software offerings for large business customers. HP Software sold several categories of software, including: * business service management software * application lifecycle management software * mobile apps *
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...

big data
and analytics * service and portfolio management software * automation and orchestration software * enterprise security software ** ArcSight ** Fortify Software ** HP Atalla, Atalla ** TippingPoint HP Software also provided software as a service (SaaS), cloud computing solutions, and software services, including consulting, education, professional services, and support. HP's Office of Strategy and Technology had four main functions: * To steer the company's $3.6 billion research and development investment * To foster the development of the company's global technical community * To lead the company's strategy and corporate development efforts * To perform worldwide corporate marketing activities The research arm of HP is called HP Labs. HP also offered managed services by which they provide complete IT-support solutions for other companies and organizations. Some examples of these include: * offering "Professional Support" and desktop "Premier Support" for Microsoft in the Europe, the Middle East and Africa, EMEA marketplace. This was done from the Leixlip campus near Dublin (Ireland), Dublin, Sofia and Israel. Support was offered for Microsoft Windows, Exchange, SharePoint, and some office applications. * outsourced services for companies like Bank of Ireland, some UK banks, the U.S. defense forces. * the computerisation project at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.


Staff and culture


Notable people

* Michael Capellas (Compaq CEO/Chairman – HP President) * Barney Oliver, founder and director of HP laboratories *
Steve Wozniak Stephen Gary Wozniak (; born August 11, 1950), also known by his nickname "Woz", is an American electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications e ...

Steve Wozniak
* Thomas Perkins (businessman), Tom Perkins *
Carly Fiorina Cara Carleton "Carly" Fiorina ('' née'' Sneed; born September 6, 1954) is an American businesswoman and politician, known primarily for her tenure as CEO of Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Pa ...

Carly Fiorina
, Republican Party presidential candidates, 2016, 2016 Republican presidential candidate * Matt Shaheen, management consultant executive at
HP Enterprise Services DXC Technology is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate organization that owns or controls the production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dic ...
in Plano, Texas, Plano, Texas; Republican Party (United States), Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives


Corporate social responsibility

In July 2007, the company announced that it had met its 2004 target to recycle one billion pounds of electronics, toner, and ink cartridges. It set a new goal of recycling a further two billion pounds of hardware by the end of 2010. In 2006, the company recovered 187 million pounds of electronics. In 2008, HP released its supply chain emissions data. In September 2009, ''Newsweek'' ranked HP No. 1 on its 2009 Green Rankings of America's 500 largest corporations. According to Environmental Leader (now Environment + Energy Leader), "Hewlett-Packard earned its number one position due to its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs, and was the first major IT company to report GHG emissions associated with its supply chain, according to the ranking. In addition, HP has made an effort to remove toxic substances from its products, though Greenpeace has targeted the company for not doing better." HP took the top spot on ''Corporate Responsibility Magazine''s 100 Best Corporate Citizens List for 2010. HP beat out other Russell 1000 Index companies because of its leadership in seven categories including environment, climate changes and corporate philanthropy. In 2009, HP was ranked fifth. ''Fortune'' magazine named HP one of the World's Most Admired Companies in 2010, placing it No. 2 in the computer industry and No. 32 overall in its list of the top 50. This year in the computer industry HP was ranked No. 1 in social responsibility, long-term investment, global competitiveness, and use of corporate assets. In May 2011, HP released a Global Responsibility report covering accomplishments in 2010. It provides a comprehensive view of HP's global citizenship programs, performance, and goals and describes how HP used its technology, influence, and expertise to make a positive impact on the world. The company's 2009 report won best corporate responsibility report of the year, and claims HP decreased its total energy use by 9 percent when compared with 2008. HP recovered a total of 118,000 tonnes of electronic products and supplies for recycling in 2009, including 61 million print cartridges. In an April 2010 ''San Francisco Chronicle'' article, HP was one of 12 companies commended for "designing products to be safe from the start, following the principles of green chemistry". The commendations came from Environment California, an environmental advocacy group, who praised select companies in the Golden State and the Bay Area for their conservational efforts. In May 2010, HP was named one of the World's Most Ethical Companies by Ethisphere Institute. It was one of 100 companies to earn the distinction of top winner and was the only computer hardware vendor to be recognized. HP was listed in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics manufacturers according to their policies on sustainability, energy and climate, and green products. In November 2011, HP secured first place (out of 15) in this ranking with a score of 5.9. It scored the most points on the new Sustainable Operations criteria, having the best program for measuring and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from its suppliers and scoring maximum points for its thorough paper procurement policy. In the November 2012 report, HP was ranked second with a score of 5.7. HP earned recognition of its work in data privacy and security. In 2010 the company ranked No. 4 in the Ponemon Institute's annual study of the most trusted companies for privacy. Since 2006, HP has worked directly with the U.S. Congress, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Department of Commerce to establish a new strategy for federal legislation. HP played a key role in work toward the December 2010 FTC report "Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change". After winning nine straight annual "Most Respected Company in China" awards from the Economic Observer and Peking University, HP China added the "10 Year Contribution" award to its list of accolades. In its 2012 rankings of consumer electronics companies on progress relating to conflict minerals, the Enough Project rated HP second out of 24 companies.


Brand

According to a 2009 BusinessWeek study, HP was the world's 11th most valuable brand. HP had many sponsorships, such as Mission: SPACE in Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort. From 1995 to 1999, and again from 2013, HP had been the shirt sponsor of Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur F.C. From 1997 to 1999 they sponsored Australian Football League club North Melbourne Football Club. They also sponsored the BMW Williams Formula 1 team until 2005 (a sponsorship formerly held by Compaq), and since 2010 sponsored Renault F1. HP also had the naming rights arrangement for the HP Pavilion at San Jose, whose naming rights were acquired by SAP AG and consequently renamed SAP Center at San Jose. HP also maintained a number of corporate sponsorships in the business sector, including sponsorships of trade organisations including Fespa (print trade exhibitions), and O'Reilly Media's Velocity (web development) conference. After the acquisition of Compaq in 2002, HP maintained the Compaq Presario brand on low-end home desktops and laptops, the HP Compaq brand on business desktops and laptops, and the ProLiant, HP ProLiant brand on Intel-architecture servers. The HP Pavilion brand was used on home entertainment laptops and all home desktops. Tandem's "NonStop" servers were rebranded as "HP Integrity NonStop".


Controversies


Restatement

In March 2003, HP restated its first-quarter cash flow from operations, reducing it by 18 percent because of an accounting error. The actual cash flow from operations was $647 million, and not $791 million as reported; HP shifted $144 million to net cash used in investing activities.


Spying scandal

On September 5, 2006, Shawn Cabalfin and David O'Neil of ''Newsweek'' wrote that HP's general counsel, at the behest of chairwoman Patricia C. Dunn, Patricia Dunn, contracted a team of independent security experts to investigate board members and several journalists to identify the source of an information leak. In turn, those security experts recruited private investigators who used pretexting, which involved investigators impersonating HP board members and nine journalists (including reporters for CNET, ''The New York Times'' and ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'') in order to obtain their phone records. The information leaked related to HP's long-term strategy and was published as part of a CNET article in January 2006. Most HP employees accused of criminal acts have since been acquitted.


Hardware

In November 2007, HP released a BIOS update covering a wide range of laptops with the intent to speed up the computer fan and have it run constantly while the computer was on or off to prevent the overheating of defective Nvidia graphics processing units (GPUs) that had been shipped to many of the original equipment manufacturers, including HP, Dell, and Apple. The defect concerned the new packaging material used by Nvidia from 2007 onwards in joining the graphics chip onto the motherboard, which did not perform well under thermal cycling and was prone to develop stress cracks – effectively severing the connection between the GPU and the motherboard that led to a blank screen. In July 2008, HP issued an extension to the initial one-year warranty to replace the motherboards of selected models. However this option was not extended to all models with the defective Nvidia chipsets, despite research showing that these computers were also affected by the fault. Furthermore, the replacement of the motherboard was a temporary fix, since the fault was inherent in all units of the affected models from the point of manufacture, including the replacement motherboards offered by HP as a free "repair". Since then, several websites have been documenting the issue. There have been several small-claims lawsuits filed in several states, as well as suits filed in other countries. HP also faced a class-action lawsuit in 2009 over its i7 processor computers: the complainants stated that their systems consistently locked up within 30 minutes of powering on. Even after being replaced with newer i7 systems, the lockups continued.


Lawsuit against Oracle

HP filed a lawsuit in California Superior Court in Santa Clara, claiming that Oracle had breached an agreement to support the Itanium microprocessor used in HP's high-end enterprise servers. On June 15, 2011, HP sent a "formal legal demand" letter to Oracle in an attempt to force them to reverse its decision to discontinue software development on Intel Itanium microprocessors and build its own servers. HP won the lawsuit in 2012, which required Oracle to continue producing software compatible with the Itanium processor. HP was awarded $3 billion in damages against Oracle on June 30, 2016, arguing that Oracle canceling support damaged HP's Itanium server brand. Oracle said it would appeal both the decision and damages.


HP wage and hour lawsuit

Several class action firms filed a class action lawsuit on January 12, 2012 against HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise (“HP”), entitled "Jeffrey Wall, etc. v. HP, Inc." (formerly known as Hewlett-Packard Company, et al.), Case No. 30-2012-00537897, pending in the Superior Court of California, County of Orange. According to the lawsuit, HP allegedly failed to pay commission payments and incentive compensation that its California sales employees were owed within the timeframes proscribed by California law (Labor Code §§ 201, 202 and 204). In 2017, FDAzar obtained a settlement of $25 million for class participants and changed the way HP pays incentive compensation and commission payments.


Takeover of Autonomy

In November 2012, HP recorded a write-down of around $8.8 billion related to its acquisition a year earlier of the UK-based Autonomy Corporation Public limited company, PLC. HP accused Autonomy of deliberately inflating the value of the company prior to its takeover, which the former management team of Autonomy denied. At the time, HP had fired its previous CEO for expenses irregularities a year before, and appointed Apotheker as CEO and president. HP was seen as problematic by the market, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services. As part of Apotheker's strategy, Autonomy was acquired by HP in October 2011. HP paid $10.3 billion for 87.3% of the shares, valuing Autonomy at around $11.7 billion (£7.4 billion) overall, a Control premium, premium of around 79% over market price. The deal was widely criticized as "absurdly high", a "botched strategy shift" and a "chaotic" attempt to rapidly reposition HP and enhance earnings, and had been objected to even by HP's own CFO. Within a year, Apotheker was fired, major cultural conflict, culture clashes became apparent, and HP wrote off $8.8 billion of Autonomy's value. HP claim this resulted from "accounting improprieties, misrepresentations and disclosure failures" by the previous management, who in turn accused HP of a "textbook example of gaming the system, defensive stalling" to conceal evidence of its own prior knowledge, gross management, mismanagement, and undermining of the company, noting public awareness since 2009 of its financial reporting issues and that even HP's CFO disagreed with the price paid. External observers generally stated that only a small part of the write-off appears to be due to accounting mis-statements, and that HP had previously overpaid for businesses.The mysterious case of Hewlett-Packard's Autonomy deal
''Marketwatch'', August 19, 2014
The Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom), Serious Fraud Office (SFO) and the SEC joined the Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI in investigating the potential anomalies. HP incurred damage with its stock falling to its lowest in decades. Three lawsuits were brought by shareholders against HP for the fall in value of HP shares. In August 2014, a United States district court judge threw out a proposed settlement, which Autonomy's previous management had argued would be collusive lawsuit, collusive and intended to divert scrutiny of HP's own responsibility and knowledge. It essentially engaged the plaintiff's attorneys from the existing cases and redirected them against the previous Autonomy vendors and management for a fee of up to $48 million, with plaintiffs agreeing to end any claims against HP's management and similarly redirect those claims against the previous Autonomy vendors and management. In January 2015 the SFO closed its investigation as the likelihood of a successful prosecution was low. The dispute continued in the US, and is being investigated by the UK and Ireland Financial Reporting Council. On June 9, 2015, HP agreed to pay $100 million to investors who bought HP shares between August 19, 2011, and November 20, 2012, to settle the lawsuits over the Autonomy purchase. Another term of the shareholder settlement was to sue Autonomy management, which occurred in London in 2019. HP "failed to produce a smoking gun for the fraud it alleges", and its accountants admitted that they "never formally prepared anything to attribute the irregularities to the amount of the fraud".


Israeli settlements

On October 25, 2012, Richard Falk, the United Nations Human Rights Council's Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967, called to boycott HP and other businesses that profit from Israeli settlements on occupied Palestinian lands until they brought their operations in line with international human rights and humanitarian law. In 2014, the Presbyterian Church (USA), Presbyterian Church voted to move forward with divestment from HP to pressure Israeli in regards to their policies toward Palestinians. In 2015, the Human Rights Commission of Portland, Oregon, requested to place Caterpillar Inc, Caterpillar, G4S, HP, and Motorola Solutions on the city's "Do Not Buy" list.


Bribery

On April 9, 2014, an administrative proceeding before the SEC was settled by HP consenting to an order acknowledging that HP had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) when HP subsidiaries in Russia, Poland, and Mexico made improper payments to government officials to obtain or retain lucrative public contracts. The SEC's order found that HP's subsidiary in Russia paid more than $2 million through agents and various shell companies to a Russian government official to retain a multimillion-dollar contract with the federal prosecutor's office; in Poland, HP's subsidiary provided gifts and cash bribes worth more than $600,000 to a Polish government official to obtain contracts with the national police agency; and to win a software sale to Mexico's state-owned petroleum company, HP's subsidiary in Mexico paid more than $1 million in inflated commissions to a consultant with close ties to company officials, one of whom was funneled money. HP agreed to pay $108 million to settle the SEC charges and a parallel criminal case.


See also

* ArcSight * Fortify Software, Fortify * HP calculators * HP Linux Imaging and Printing * HP Software & Solutions * Connect (users group), HP User Group * List of acquisitions by Hewlett-Packard * List of computer system manufacturers * List of Hewlett-Packard products * TippingPoint


References


External links

*
The Museum of HP Calculators



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