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Hesse-Hanau was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire. It emerged when the former county of Hanau-Münzenberg became a secundogeniture of Hesse-Cassel in 1760. When the reigning count, William I, Elector of Hesse, William IX, also became landgrave of Hesse-Cassel in 1785, the two governments began to merge, although the process was delayed first by French occupation, and later by incorporation into the French satellite duchy of Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, Frankfurt. The incorporation of Hesse-Hanau with Electorate of Hesse, Hesse-Cassel was not completed until 1821.


Secundogeniture

When the hereditary prince of Hesse-Cassel, the later Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Frederick II, converted to Roman Catholicism, his father, the reigning landgrave William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, William VIII decided to do what he could to limit his son's future realm. He therefore made the county of Hanau-Münzenberg, incorporated with Hesse-Cassel in 1736, a secundogeniture of Hesse-Cassel, transferring it to the oldest son of Frederic, the hereditary count William I, Elector of Hesse, William.


Sovereignty

As count William was underage, his mother the landgravine, princess Princess Mary of Great Britain, Mary of Great Britain, ruled as his legal guardian. After his access to the throne of Hesse-Cassel in 1760, landgrave Frederick II repeatedly tried to reunite Hesse-Hanau with Hesse-Cassel, but his efforts failed due to the resistance of Great Britain and the Protestant The Estates, estates. As further protection, troops from Electorate of Hanover, Hanover were garrisoned in Hanau. When William came of age in 1764 he took over the government of the county. At the death of Frederick II in 1785, William became landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. The government of Hesse-Hanau remained in general separate from Hesse-Cassel. Cabinet (government), Cabinet and war office were, however, merged with those in Hesse-Cassel, and the court of appeal of Cassel got jurisdiction over Hanau in 1792. Until then Hesse-Hanau was ruled as an independent state, undergoing extensive modernizations with the erection of significant buildings in the capital of Hanau. Means for this came from the subsidy, subsidies the reigning count received from his uncle, king George III of the United Kingdom, George III of Great Britain. In return, Hesse-Hanau made available a Germans in the American Revolution, contingent of 2,400 soldiers for the use of the British Crown in the American Revolutionary War.


Hesse-Hanau Contingent

The Hesse-Hanau contingent in the American Revolutionary War, contained the following units: * Hessen-Hanauisches Regiment Erbprinz 1776 * Creuzbourg's Jäger Corps, Hessen-Hanauisches Jägerkorps Creutzburg 1777 * Hessen-Hanauische Artillerie-Kompanie Pausch 1777 * Hessen-Hanauisches Freikorps Janecke 1781


Napoleonic Wars

With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803, Hesse-Cassel became an Electorate of Hesse, electorate, while Hesse-Hanau became the principality of Hanau. In 1806, however, Hesse-Cassel was incorporated into the French satellite kingdom of Westphalia, while Hanau came under French military occupation, then in 1810 being incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, another French satellite. It was first after the German War of Liberation in 1813, that the sovereignty of Hesse-Cassel was restored. The incorporation of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel was, however, not completed until the death of William I, Elector of Hesse, prince-elector William in 1821, and the administrative reforms under his successor William II, Elector of Hesse, William II, when the county became the landkreis of Hanau.Arnd 1858, pp. 349-357.


References


Citations


Cited literature

* Arnd, Carl (1858). ''Geschichte der Provinz Hanau und der unteren Maingegend.'' Hanau. * Kügler, Detmar (1980). ''Die deutschen Truppen in amerikanischen Unabhängigleitskrieg.'' Stuttgart. *Nöding, Caspar (1836). ''Statistik, Topographie und Geschichte des Landgräflichen und Kurfürstlichen Hauses Hessen-Kassel.'' Kassel. *Dietrich, Reinhard (1993). " … wegen geführten großen Staats, aber schlechter Zahlung der Schulden …. Zur finanziellen Lage der Grafschaft Hanau im 17. Jahrhundert." ''Hanauer Geschichtsblätter,'' 31. {{DEFAULTSORT:Hesse-Hanau, County Counties of the Holy Roman Empire, Hesse-Hanau Principalities of Hanau, Hesse-Hanau Early Modern history of Germany 1760 establishments in the Holy Roman Empire