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Hesiod (; grc-gre, Ἡσίοδος ''Hēsíodos'', 'he who emits the voice') was an ancient Greek poet generally thought to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was the presumed author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancient Greek literature. The ''Iliad'' is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year s ...

Homer
. He is generally regarded as the first written poet in the Western tradition to regard himself as an individual persona with an active role to play in his subject. Ancient authors credited Hesiod and Homer with establishing Greek religious customs. Modern scholars refer to him as a major source on
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. Modern study the myths t ...
, farming techniques, early economic thought, archaic Greek
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
and ancient time-keeping.


Life

The dating of Hesiod's life is a contested issue in scholarly circles (''see § Dating below''). Epic narrative allowed poets like
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was the presumed author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancient Greek literature. The ''Iliad'' is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year s ...

Homer
no opportunity for personal revelations. However, Hesiod's extant work comprises several
didactic poem Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature, art, and design. In art, design, architecture, and landscape, didacticism is an emerging conceptual approach that is driven by the urgent need to e ...
s in which he went out of his way to let his audience in on a few details of his life. There are three explicit references in ''
Works and Days The ''Works and Days'' ( grc, Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Érga kaì Hēmérai)The ''Works and Days'' is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, ''Opera et Dies''. Common abbreviations are ''WD'' and ''Op''. for ''Opera''. ...
'', as well as some passages in his ''
Theogony The ''Theogony'' (, , , i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the ") is a by (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and of the , composed c. 730–700 BC. It is written in the of and contains 1022 lines. Descriptions Hesiod's ''Theog ...
'' that support inferences made by scholars. The former poem says that his father came from Cyme in
Aeolis Aeolis (: , ''Aiolís''), or Aeolia (; , ''Aiolía''), was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of , mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly ), where the city-states were located. Aeolis incor ...
(on the coast of
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...

Asia Minor
, a little south of the island
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly conn ...
) and crossed the sea to settle at a hamlet, near
Thespiae Thespiae ( ; grc, Θεσπιαί, Thespiaí) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly ...
in
Boeotia Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920 ...

Boeotia
, named
Ascra Ascra or Askre ( grc, Ἄσκρη, Áskrē) was a town in ancient Boeotia which is best known today as the home of the poet Hesiod.W. Hazlitt (1858) ''The Classical Gazetteer'' (London)p. 54, s.v. Ascra It was located upon Mount Helicon, five miles ...
, "a cursed place, cruel in winter, hard in summer, never pleasant" (''Works'' 640). Hesiod's patrimony there, a small piece of ground at the foot of
Mount Helicon Mount Helicon ( grc, Ἑλικών; ell, Ελικώνας) is a mountain in the region of Thespiae, Thespiai in Boeotia, Greece, celebrated in Greek mythology. With an altitude of , it is located approximately from the north coast of the Gulf o ...
, occasioned
lawsuits A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil ...
with his brother Perses, who seems, at first, to have cheated him of his rightful share thanks to corrupt authorities or "kings" but later became impoverished and ended up scrounging from the thrifty poet (''Works'' 35, 396). Unlike his father, Hesiod was averse to sea travel, but he once crossed the narrow strait between the Greek mainland and
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
to participate in funeral celebrations for one Athamas of
Chalcis Chalcis (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myce ...

Chalcis
, and there won a
tripod using a surveyor's tripod A tripod is a portable three-legged frame or stand, used as a platform for supporting the weight In science and engineering, the weight of an object is the force acting on the object due to gravity. Some standard ...
in a singing competition. He also describes a meeting between himself and the
Muses In and , the Muses ( grc, Μοῦσαι, Moûsai, el, Μούσες, Múses) are the goddesses of , , and . They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the , , and s that were related orally for centuries in ancient Greek cultu ...

Muses
on
Mount Helicon Mount Helicon ( grc, Ἑλικών; ell, Ελικώνας) is a mountain in the region of Thespiae, Thespiai in Boeotia, Greece, celebrated in Greek mythology. With an altitude of , it is located approximately from the north coast of the Gulf o ...
, where he had been pasturing sheep when the goddesses presented him with a
laurel Laurel may refer to: Plants * Lauraceae, the laurel family * Laurel (plant), including a list of trees and plants known as laurel People * Laurel (given name), people with the given name * Laurel (surname), people with the surname * Laurel (musi ...

laurel
staff, a symbol of poetic authority (''Theogony'' 22–35). Fanciful though the story might seem, the account has led ancient and modern scholars to infer that he was not a professionally trained
rhapsode A rhapsode ( el, ῥαψῳδός, "rhapsōidos") or, in modern usage, rhapsodist, refers to a classical Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ' ...
, or he would have been presented with a
lyre The lyre () is a string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when a performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some ...

lyre
instead.See discussion by M. L. West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', Oxford University Press (1966), p. 163 f., note 30, citing for example
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
IX, 30.3. Rhapsodes in post-Homeric times are often shown carrying either a laurel staff or a lyre but in Hesiod's earlier time, the staff seems to indicate that he was not a rhapsode, a professional
minstrel A minstrel was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of ...
. Meetings between poets and the Muses became part of poetic folklore: compare, for example,
Archilochus File:ArchilochusCapital.jpg, alt=Ionic capital from the grave of Archilochus.Paros Archaeological Museum, Ionic capital from the grave of Archilochus, with inscription:"Here lies Archilochus,son of Telesicles", Paros Archaeological Museum Arch ...
' account of his meeting the Muses while leading home a cow, and the legend of
Cædmon Cædmon (; ''fl. c.'' 657 – 684) is the earliest English poet whose name is known. A Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is now Northern Eng ...
.
Some scholars have seen Perses as a literary creation, a foil for the moralizing that Hesiod develops in ''Works and Days'', but there are also arguments against that theory. For example, it is quite common for works of moral instruction to have an imaginative setting, as a means of getting the audience's attention,Jasper Griffin, 'Greek Myth and Hesiod' in ''The Oxford History of the Classical World'', Oxford University Press (1986), cites for example the
Book of Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes (; he, קֹהֶלֶת, ''qōheleṯ'', Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, ''Ekklēsiastēs'') written c. 450–200 BCE, is one of the Ketuvim ("Writings") of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is ...
, a Sumerian text in the form of a father's remonstrance with a prodigal son, and Egyptian wisdom texts spoken by viziers, etc. Hesiod was certainly open to oriental influences, as is clear in the myths presented by him in ''Theogony''.
but it could be difficult to see how Hesiod could have travelled around the countryside entertaining people with a narrative about himself if the account was known to be fictitious.
Gregory Nagy Gregory Nagy ( hu, Nagy Gergely, ; born Budapest, October 22, 1942)"CV: Gregory Nagy"
''grego ...
, on the other hand, sees both ''Pérsēs'' ("the destroyer" from , ''pérthō'') and ''Hēsíodos'' ("he who emits the voice" from , ''híēmi'' and , ''audḗ'') as fictitious names for poetical
persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...

persona
e. It might seem unusual that Hesiod's father migrated from Asia Minor westwards to mainland Greece, the opposite direction to most colonial movements at the time, and Hesiod himself gives no explanation for it. However around 750 BC or a little later, there was a migration of seagoing merchants from his original home in Cyme in Asia Minor to
Cumae Cumae ( grc, Κύμη, (Kumē) or or ; it, Cuma) was the first ancient Greek colony on the mainland of Italy, founded by settlers from Euboea in the 8th century BC and soon becoming one of the strongest colonies. It later became a rich Roma ...

Cumae
in Campania (a colony they shared with the Euboeans), and possibly his move west had something to do with that, since
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
is not far from Boeotia, where he eventually established himself and his family. The family association with Aeolian Cyme might explain his familiarity with eastern myths, evident in his poems, though the Greek world might have already developed its own versions of them.A. R. Burn, ''The Pelican History of Greece'', Penguin (1966), p. 77. In spite of Hesiod's complaints about poverty, life on his father's farm could not have been too uncomfortable if ''Works and Days'' is anything to judge by, since he describes the routines of prosperous
yeoman Yeoman was first documented in mid-14th-century England, referring to the middle ranks of servants in an English royal or noble household. was the name applied to groups of freeborn engaged as household guards, or raised as an army during ti ...

yeoman
ry rather than peasants. His farmer employs a friend (''Works and Days'' 370) as well as servants (502, 573, 597, 608, 766), an energetic and responsible ploughman of mature years (469 ff.), a slave boy to cover the seed (441–6), a female servant to keep house (405, 602) and working teams of oxen and mules (405, 607f.). One modern scholar surmises that Hesiod may have learned about world geography, especially the catalogue of rivers in ''Theogony'' (337–45), listening to his father's accounts of his own sea voyages as a merchant. The father probably spoke in the Aeolian dialect of Cyme but Hesiod probably grew up speaking the local Boeotian, belonging to the same dialect group. However, while his poetry features some Aeolisms there are no words that are certainly Boeotian. His basic language was the main literary dialect of the time, Homer's Ionian. It is probable that Hesiod wrote his poems down, or dictated them, rather than passed them on orally, as
rhapsode A rhapsode ( el, ῥαψῳδός, "rhapsōidos") or, in modern usage, rhapsodist, refers to a classical Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ' ...
s did—otherwise the pronounced personality that now emerges from the poems would surely have been diluted through oral transmission from one rhapsode to another.
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
asserted that
Boeotia Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920 ...

Boeotia
ns showed him an old tablet made of lead on which the ''Works'' were engraved. If he did write or dictate, it was perhaps as an aid to memory or because he lacked confidence in his ability to produce poems extempore, as trained rhapsodes could do. It certainly wasn't in a quest for immortal fame since poets in his era had probably no such notions for themselves. However, some scholars suspect the presence of large-scale changes in the text and attribute this to oral transmission. Possibly he composed his verses during idle times on the farm, in the spring before the May harvest or the dead of winter. The personality behind the poems is unsuited to the kind of "aristocratic withdrawal" typical of a rhapsode but is instead "argumentative, suspicious, ironically humorous, frugal, fond of proverbs, wary of women." He was in fact a "misogynist" of the same calibre as the later poet
Semonides Semonides of Amorgos (; grc-gre, Σημωνίδης ὁ Ἀμοργῖνος, variantly ; fl. 7th century BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hel ...
. He resembles
Solon Solon ( grc-gre, Σόλων Solon ( grc-gre, wikt:Σόλων, Σόλων ''Sólōn'' ;  BC) was an Archaic Greece#Athens, Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, e ...

Solon
in his preoccupation with issues of good versus evil and "how a just and all-powerful god can allow the unjust to flourish in this life". He recalls
Aristophanes Aristophanes (; grc, Ἀριστοφάνης, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme 250px, Pinakia, identification tablets (name, father's name, deme) used for tasks like jury selection, Museum at the Ancient Agora of Athen ...

Aristophanes
in his rejection of the idealised hero of epic literature in favour of an idealised view of the farmer. Yet the fact that he could eulogise kings in ''Theogony'' (80 ff., 430, 434) and denounce them as corrupt in ''Works and Days'' suggests that he could resemble whichever audience he composed for. Various legends accumulated about Hesiod and they are recorded in several sources: *the story about the ''
Contest of Homer and Hesiod The ''Contest of Homer and Hesiod'' (Greek: ''Ἀγὼν Oμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου'', Latin: ''Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi'' or simply ''Certamen'') is a Greek narrative that expands a remark made in Hesiod's ''Works and Days'' to construct ...
''; *a ''
vita Vita or VITA (plural vitae) is Latin for "life", and may refer to: * ''Vita'', the usual start to the title of a biography in Latin, by which (in a known context) the work is often referred to; frequently of a saint, then called hagiography A hag ...

vita
'' of Hesiod by the Byzantine grammarian
John Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), T ...
; *the entry for Hesiod in the ''
Suda The ''Suda'' or ''Souda'' (; grc-x-medieval, Σοῦδα, Soûda; la, Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman ...

Suda
''; *two passages and some scattered remarks in
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
(IX, 31.3–6 and 38.3 f.); *a passage in
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
''Moralia'' (162b).


Death

Two different—yet early—traditions record the site of Hesiod's grave. One, as early as
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
, reported in Plutarch, the ''
Suda The ''Suda'' or ''Souda'' (; grc-x-medieval, Σοῦδα, Soûda; la, Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman ...

Suda
'' and
John Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), T ...
, states that the
Delphic oracle Pythia (; grc, Πυθία ) was the name of the ess of the at . She specifically served as its and was known as the Oracle of Delphi. Her title was also historically glossed in English as the Pythoness. The name ''Pythia'' is derived from ...
warned Hesiod that he would die in
Nemea Nemea (; grc, Νεμέα; grc-x-ionic, Νεμέη) is an ancient site in the northeastern part of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geogra ...
, and so he fled to
Locris Locris (; el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including th ...
, where he was killed at the local temple to Nemean Zeus, and buried there. This tradition follows a familiar
ironic Irony (), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what on the surface appears to be the case or to be expected differs radically from what is actually the case. Irony can be categorized into differ ...

ironic
convention: the oracle predicts accurately after all. The other tradition, first mentioned in an
epigram An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek, Greek "inscription" from "to write on, to inscribe", and the literary device has been employed for o ...
by Chersias of Orchomenus written in the 7th century BC (within a century or so of Hesiod's death) claims that Hesiod lies buried at Orchomenus, a town in Boeotia. According to
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
's ''Constitution of Orchomenus,'' when the Thespians ravaged Ascra, the villagers sought refuge at Orchomenus, where, following the advice of an oracle, they collected the ashes of Hesiod and set them in a place of honour in their ''
agora Image:TyreAlMinaAgora.jpg, upAgora of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space in ancient Ancient Greece, Greek polis, city-states. It is the best representation of a city-state's response to accom ...

agora
'', next to the tomb of Minyas, their eponymous founder. Eventually they came to regard Hesiod too as their "hearth-founder" (, ''oikistēs''). Later writers attempted to harmonize these two accounts. Yet another account taken from classical sources, cited by author Charles Abraham Elton in his ''The Remains of Hesiod the Ascræan, Including the Shield of Hercules by Hesiod'' depicts Hesiod as being falsely accused of rape by a girl's brothers and murdered in reprisal despite his advanced age while the true culprit (his Milesian fellow-traveler) managed to escape.


Dating

Greeks in the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC considered their oldest poets to be
Orpheus Orpheus (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancie ...

Orpheus
, Musaeus, Hesiod and
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was the presumed author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancient Greek literature. The ''Iliad'' is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year s ...

Homer
—in that order. Thereafter, Greek writers began to consider Homer earlier than Hesiod. Devotees of Orpheus and Musaeus were probably responsible for precedence being given to their two cult heroes and maybe the
HomeridaeThe Homeridae ( grc, Ὁμηρίδαι) were a family, clan or professional lineage on the island of Chios claiming descent from the Greek epic poet Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was the presumed author of the ''Iliad'' ...
were responsible in later antiquity for promoting Homer at Hesiod's expense. The first known writers to locate Homer earlier than Hesiod were
Xenophanes Xenophanes of Colophon (city), Colophon (; grc, wikt:Ξενοφάνης, Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος ; c. 570 – c. 478 BC) was a Greece, Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and critic of religious polytheism. Xenophanes is see ...
and
Heraclides Ponticus Heraclides Ponticus ( grc-gre, Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός ''Herakleides''; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the ...
, though
Aristarchus of Samothrace Aristarchus of Samothrace ( grc-gre, Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σαμόθραξ ''Aristarchos o Samothrax''; c. 220 – c. 143 BC) was a grammarian Grammarian may refer to: * Alexandrine grammarians, philologists and textual scholars in Hellen ...

Aristarchus of Samothrace
was the first actually to argue the case.
Ephorus Ephorus of Cyme (; grc-gre, Ἔφορος ὁ Κυμαῖος, ''Ephoros ho Kymaios''; c. 400330 BC) was an Ancient Greece, ancient Greek historian known for his universal history. Biography Information on his biography is limited. He was bo ...
made Homer a younger cousin of Hesiod, the 5th century BC historian
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ge ...
(''Histories'' II, 53) evidently considered them near-contemporaries, and the 4th century BC
sophist A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Sophists specialized in one or more subject areas, such as philosophy, rhetoric, music, athletics, and mathematics. They taught ...
Alcidamas Alcidamas ( grc-gre, Ἀλκιδάμας), of Elaea, in Aeolis Aeolis (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. ...
in his work ''Mouseion'' even brought them together for an imagined poetic '''' (), which survives today as the ''
Contest of Homer and Hesiod The ''Contest of Homer and Hesiod'' (Greek: ''Ἀγὼν Oμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου'', Latin: ''Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi'' or simply ''Certamen'') is a Greek narrative that expands a remark made in Hesiod's ''Works and Days'' to construct ...
''. Most scholars today agree with Homer's priority but there are good arguments on either side. Hesiod certainly predates the
lyric Lyric may refer to: * Lyric poetry is a form of poetry that expresses a subjective, personal point of view * Lyric, from the Greek language, a song that is played with a lyre * Lyrics, the composition in verse which is sung to a melody to constitut ...
and
elegiacThe adjective ''elegiac'' has two possible meanings. First, it can refer to something of, relating to, or involving, an elegy or something that expresses similar mournfulness or sorrow. Second, it can refer more specifically to poetry composed in ...
poets whose work has come down to the modern era. Imitations of his work have been observed in
Alcaeus Alcaeus may refer to: * Alcaeus (bug), a genus of stink bugs or shield bugs * Alcaeus (comic poet), a writer of ten plays of the Old Comedy * Alcaeus (mythology), one of several figures of this name in Greek mythology * 12607 Alcaeus, a main belt a ...
,
Epimenides Image:epimenides.jpg, 200px, Epimenides of Cnossos Epimenides of Cnossos (; grc-gre, Ἐπιμενίδης) was a semi-Greek mythology, mythical 7th or 6th century BC Greeks, Greek prophet, seer and philosopher-poetry, poet, from Knossos or Phaisto ...

Epimenides
,
Mimnermus Mimnermus ( grc-gre, Μίμνερμος ''Mímnermos'') was a Greek elegiac poet from either Colophon or Smyrna Smyrna ( ; grc, Σμύρνη, Smýrnē, or grc, Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Ancient Greece, Greek city located at a strategic p ...

Mimnermus
,
Semonides Semonides of Amorgos (; grc-gre, Σημωνίδης ὁ Ἀμοργῖνος, variantly ; fl. 7th century BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hel ...
,
Tyrtaeus Tyrtaeus (; grc-gre, Τυρταῖος ''Tyrtaios''; fl. mid-7th century BCE) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
and
Archilochus File:ArchilochusCapital.jpg, alt=Ionic capital from the grave of Archilochus.Paros Archaeological Museum, Ionic capital from the grave of Archilochus, with inscription:"Here lies Archilochus,son of Telesicles", Paros Archaeological Museum Arch ...
, from which it has been inferred that the latest possible date for him is about 650 BC. An upper limit of 750 BC is indicated by a number of considerations, such as the probability that his work was written down, the fact that he mentions a sanctuary at
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of , the major who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle was interna ...

Delphi
that was of little national significance before c. 750 BC (''Theogony'' 499), and that he lists rivers that flow into the Euxine, a region explored and developed by Greek colonists beginning in the 8th century BC. (''Theogony'' 337–45). Hesiod mentions a poetry contest at
Chalcis Chalcis (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myce ...

Chalcis
in
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
where the sons of one
Amphidamas Amphidamas (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient ...
awarded him a tripod (''Works and Days'' 654–662).
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
identified this Amphidamas with the hero of the
Lelantine War The Lelantine War is the modern name for a military conflict between the two ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 ...

Lelantine War
between Chalcis and
Eretria Eretria (; el, Ερέτρια, ''Eretria'', literally "city of the rowers" grc, Ἐρέτρια) is a town in Euboea, Greece, facing the coast of Attica across the narrow South Euboean Gulf. It was an important Greek polis in the 6th/5th cent ...
and he concluded that the passage must be an interpolation into Hesiod's original work, assuming that the Lelantine War was too late for Hesiod. Modern scholars have accepted his identification of Amphidamas but disagreed with his conclusion. The date of the war is not known precisely but estimates placing it around 730–705 BC fit the estimated chronology for Hesiod. In that case, the tripod that Hesiod won might have been awarded for his rendition of ''Theogony'', a poem that seems to presuppose the kind of aristocratic audience he would have met at Chalcis.


Works

Three works have survived which were attributed to Hesiod by ancient commentators: ''
Works and Days The ''Works and Days'' ( grc, Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Érga kaì Hēmérai)The ''Works and Days'' is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, ''Opera et Dies''. Common abbreviations are ''WD'' and ''Op''. for ''Opera''. ...
'', ''
Theogony The ''Theogony'' (, , , i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the ") is a by (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and of the , composed c. 730–700 BC. It is written in the of and contains 1022 lines. Descriptions Hesiod's ''Theog ...
'', and ''
Shield of Heracles Image:Herakles Kyknos Louvre F385.jpg, An early 5th-century BCE depiction of Heracles (left) fighting Cycnus (Attic black-figure amphora, found at Nola) The "Shield of Heracles" ( grc, Ἀσπὶς Ἡρακλέους, ''Aspis Hērakleous'') is an A ...
''. Only fragments exist of other works attributed to him. The surviving works and fragments were all written in the conventional metre and language of epic. However, the ''Shield of Heracles'' is now known to be spurious and probably was written in the sixth century BC. Many ancient critics also rejected ''Theogony'' (e.g.,
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
9.31.3), even though Hesiod mentions himself by name in that poem. ''Theogony'' and ''Works and Days'' might be very different in subject matter, but they share a distinctive language, metre, and prosody that subtly distinguish them from Homer's work and from the ''Shield of Heracles'' (see Hesiod's Greek below). Moreover, they both refer to the same version of the Prometheus myth. Yet even these authentic poems may include interpolations. For example, the first ten verses of the ''Works and Days'' may have been borrowed from an Orphic hymn to Zeus (they were recognised as not the work of Hesiod by critics as ancient as Pausanias). Some scholars have detected a proto-historical perspective in Hesiod, a view rejected by Paul Cartledge, for example, on the grounds that Hesiod advocates a not-forgetting without any attempt at verification. Hesiod has also been considered the father of gnomic verse. He had "a passion for systematizing and explaining things".
Ancient Greek poetry Ancient Greek literature is literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In ...
in general had strong philosophical tendencies and Hesiod, like Homer, demonstrates a deep interest in a wide range of 'philosophical' issues, from the nature of divine justice to the beginnings of human society. Aristotle (''
Metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between ...
'' 983b–987a) believed that the question of first causes may even have started with Hesiod (''Theogony'' 116–53) and Homer (''Iliad'' 14.201, 246). He viewed the world from outside the charmed circle of aristocratic rulers, protesting against their injustices in a tone of voice that has been described as having a "grumpy quality redeemed by a gaunt dignity" but, as stated in the biography section, he could also change to suit the audience. This ambivalence appears to underlie his presentation of human history in ''Works and Days'', where he depicts a golden period when life was easy and good, followed by a steady decline in behaviour and happiness through the silver, bronze, and Iron Ages – except that he inserts a heroic age between the last two, representing its warlike men as better than their bronze predecessors. He seems in this case to be catering to two different world-views, one epic and aristocratic, the other unsympathetic to the heroic traditions of the aristocracy.


''Theogony''

The ''Theogony'' is commonly considered Hesiod's earliest work. Despite the different subject matter between this poem and the ''Works and Days'', most scholars, with some notable exceptions, believe that the two works were written by the same man. As M. L. West writes, "Both bear the marks of a distinct personality: a surly, conservative countryman, given to reflection, no lover of women or life, who felt the gods' presence heavy about him." An example:
Hateful strife bore painful Toil, Neglect, Starvation, and tearful Pain, Battles, Combats...
The ''Theogony'' concerns the origins of the world (
cosmogony Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos The cosmos (, ) is another name for the Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and ...
) and of the gods (
theogony The ''Theogony'' (, , , i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the polytheism, gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogy, genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 730–700 BC. It is written in the Ep ...
), beginning with
Chaos Chaos or CHAOS may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional elements * Chaos (Kinnikuman), Chaos (''Kinnikuman'') * Chaos (Sailor Moon), Chaos (''Sailor Moon'') * Chaos (Sesame Park), Chaos (''Sesame Park'') * Chaos (Warhammer), Chaos ('' ...
,
Gaia In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A be ...
,
Tartarus 250px, alt=Sisyphus depicted on a black-figure amphora vase , Underworld _upThe_legs_of_the_god__seven_realms_of_the_Hindus.html"__"title="Patala#Hinduism.html"__"title="Cosmic_Man.html"_;"title="Vishnu_as_the_Cosmic_Man">Vishnu_as_the_Cosm ...

Tartarus
and
Eros In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
, and shows a special interest in
genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinit ...

genealogy
. Embedded in
Greek myth Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of the world, the lives ...
, there remain fragments of quite variant tales, hinting at the rich variety of myth that once existed, city by city; but Hesiod's retelling of the old stories became, according to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ge ...
, the accepted version that linked all
Hellenes The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Greek Cypriots, Cyprus, Greeks in Albania, Albania, Greeks in Italy, Italy, Greeks in Turkey#History, Turkey, Greeks in Egypt, Egypt and, to a l ...

Hellenes
. It's the earliest known source for the myths of
Pandora In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...

Pandora
,
Prometheus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A be ...

Prometheus
and the
Golden Age#REDIRECT Golden Age The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the ''Works and Days'' of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages of Man, Ages, Gold being the first a ...

Golden Age
. The creation myth in Hesiod has long been held to have Eastern influences, such as the
Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** Hittite religion ** ...

Hittite
Song of Kumarbi Kumarbi is the chief god of the Hurrians. He is the son of Anu (the sky), and father of the storm-god Teshub. He was identified by the Hurrians with Sumerian Enlil, by the Greeks as Cronus, Kronos and by the Ugaritians with El (god), El. His cult ci ...
and the
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
ian Enuma Elis. This cultural crossover may have occurred in the eighth- and ninth-century Greek trading colonies such as Al Mina in North Syria. (For more discussion, read Robin Lane Fox's ''Travelling Heroes'' and Walcot's ''Hesiod and the Near East''.)


''Works and Days''

The ''Works and Days'' is a poem of over 800 lines which revolves around two general truths: labour is the universal lot of Man, but he who is willing to work will get by. Scholars have interpreted this work against a background of agrarian crisis in mainland
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, which inspired a wave of documented
colonisation Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or their ancestors' former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such links ...
s in search of new land. ''Work and Days'' may have been influenced by an established tradition of
didactic Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an ...
poetry based on Sumerian, Hebrew, Babylonian and Egyptian wisdom literature. This work lays out the five
Ages of Man The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories conce ...
, as well as containing advice and wisdom, prescribing a life of honest labour and attacking idleness and unjust judges (like those who decided in favour of Perses) as well as the practice of usury. It describes immortals who roam the earth watching over justice and injustice. The poem regards labor as the source of all good, in that both gods and men hate the idle, who resemble drones in a hive. In the horror of the triumph of violence over hard work and honor, verses describing the "Golden Age" present the social character and practice of nonviolent diet through agriculture and fruit-culture as a higher path of living sufficiently.


Hesiodic corpus

In addition to the ''Theogony'' and ''Works and Days'', numerous other poems were ascribed to Hesiod during antiquity. Modern scholarship has doubted their authenticity, and these works are generally referred to as forming part of the "Hesiodic corpus" whether or not their authorship is accepted. The situation is summed up in this formulation by Glenn Most: Of these works forming the extended Hesiodic corpus, only the ''
Shield of Heracles Image:Herakles Kyknos Louvre F385.jpg, An early 5th-century BCE depiction of Heracles (left) fighting Cycnus (Attic black-figure amphora, found at Nola) The "Shield of Heracles" ( grc, Ἀσπὶς Ἡρακλέους, ''Aspis Hērakleous'') is an A ...
'' (, ''Aspis Hērakleous'') is transmitted intact via a medieval manuscript tradition. Classical authors also attributed to Hesiod a lengthy genealogical poem known as ''Catalogue of Women'' or ''Ehoiai'' (because sections began with the Greek words ''ē hoiē,'' "Or like the one who ..."). It was a mythological catalogue of the mortal women who had mated with gods, and of the offspring and descendants of these unions. Several additional hexameter poems were ascribed to Hesiod: * ''Megalai Ehoiai'', a poem similar to the ''Catalogue of Women'', but presumably longer. * ''Wedding of Ceyx'', a poem concerning Heracles' attendance at the wedding of a certain Ceyx—noted for its riddles. * ''Melampodia'', a genealogical poem that treats of the families of, and myths associated with, the great seers of mythology. * ''Idaean Dactyls (poem), Idaean Dactyls'', a work concerning mythological smelters, the Dactyl (mythology)#Idaean Dactyls, Idaean Dactyls. * ''Descent of Perithous'', about Theseus and Perithous' trip to Hades. * ''Precepts of Chiron'', a didactic work that presented the teaching of Chiron as delivered to the young Achilles. * ''Megala Erga'' or ''Great Works'', a poem similar to the ''Works and Days'', but presumably longer * ''Astronomia (poem), Astronomia'', an astronomical poem to which Callimachus (''Ep''. 27) apparently compared Aratus' ''Phaenomena''. * ''Aegimius (poem), Aegimius'', a heroic epic concerning the Dorian Aegimius (variously attributed to Hesiod or Cercops of Miletus). * ''Kiln (poem), Kiln'' or ''Potters'', a brief poem asking Athena to aid potters if they pay the poet. Also attributed to Homer. * ''Ornithomantia'', a work on bird omens that followed the ''Works and Days''. In addition to these works, the ''Suda'' lists an otherwise unknown "dirge for Batrachus, [Hesiod's] beloved".


Reception

*Sappho's countryman and contemporary, the lyric poet
Alcaeus Alcaeus may refer to: * Alcaeus (bug), a genus of stink bugs or shield bugs * Alcaeus (comic poet), a writer of ten plays of the Old Comedy * Alcaeus (mythology), one of several figures of this name in Greek mythology * 12607 Alcaeus, a main belt a ...
, paraphrased a section of ''Works and Days'' (582–88), recasting it in lyric meter and Lesbian dialect. The paraphrase survives only as a fragment. *The lyric poet Bacchylides quoted or paraphrased Hesiod in a victory ode addressed to Hieron of Syracuse, commemorating the tyrant's victory in the chariot race at the Pythian Games 470 BC, the attribution made with these words: "A man of Boeotia, Hesiod, minister of the [sweet] Muses, spoke thus: 'He whom the immortals honour is attended also by the good report of men.'" However, the quoted words are not found in Hesiod's extant work.The Bacchylidean victory ode is fr. 5 Loeb. Theognis of Megara (169) is the source of a similar sentiment ("Even the fault-finder praises one whom the gods honour") but without attribution. See also fr. 344 M.-W (D. Campbell, ''Greek Lyric Poetry'' IV, Loeb 1992, p. 153) *Hesiod's ''Catalogue of Women'' created a vogue for catalogue poems in the Hellenistic period. Thus for example Theocritus presents catalogues of heroines in two of his bucolic poems (3.40–51 and 20.34–41), where both passages are recited in character by lovelorn rustics.


Depictions


Monnus mosaic

Portrait of Hesiod from Augusta Treverorum (Trier), from the end of the 3rd century AD. The mosaic is signed in its central field by the maker, ‘MONNUS FECIT’ (‘Monnus made this’). The figure is identified by name: ‘ESIO-DVS’ ('Hesiod'). It is the only known authenticated portrait of Hesiod.


Portrait bust

The Roman bronze bust, the so-called ''Pseudo-Seneca,'' of the late first century BC found at Herculaneum is now thought not to be of Seneca the Younger. It has been identified by Gisela Richter as an imagined portrait of Hesiod. In fact, it has been recognized since 1813 that the bust was not of Seneca, when an inscribed herma portrait of Seneca with quite different features was discovered. Most scholars now follow Richter's identification.Gisela Richter, ''The Portraits of the Greeks''. London: Phaidon (1965), I, p. 58 ff.; commentators agreeing with Richter include Wolfram Prinz, "The Four Philosophers by Rubens and the Pseudo-Seneca in Seventeenth-Century Painting" in ''The Art Bulletin'' 55.3 (September 1973), pp. 410–428. "[…] one feels that it may just as well have been the Greek writer Hesiod […]" and Martin Robertson, in his review of G. Richter, ''The Portraits of the Greeks'' for ''The Burlington Magazine'' 108.756 (March 1966), pp. 148–150. "[…] with Miss Richter, I accept the identification as Hesiod."


Hesiod's Greek

Hesiod employed the conventional dialect of epic verse, which was Ionian. Comparisons with Homer, a native Ionian, can be unflattering. Hesiod's handling of the dactylic hexameter was not as masterful or fluent as Homer's and one modern scholar refers to his "hobnailed hexameters". His use of language and meter in ''Works and Days'' and ''Theogony'' distinguishes him also from the author of the ''Shield of Heracles''. All three poets, for example, employed digamma inconsistently, sometimes allowing it to affect syllable length and meter, sometimes not. The ratio of observance/neglect of digamma varies between them. The extent of variation depends on how the evidence is collected and interpreted but there is a clear trend, revealed for example in the following set of statistics. Hesiod does not observe digamma as often as the others do. That result is a bit counter-intuitive since digamma was still a feature of the Boeotian dialect that Hesiod probably spoke, whereas it had already vanished from the Ionic vernacular of Homer. This anomaly can be explained by the fact that Hesiod made a conscious effort to compose like an Ionian epic poet at a time when digamma was not heard in Ionian speech, while Homer tried to compose like an older generation of Ionian bards, when it was heard in Ionian speech. There is also a significant difference in the results for ''Theogony'' and ''Works and Days'', but that is merely due to the fact that the former includes a catalog of divinities and therefore it makes frequent use of the definite article associated with digamma, oἱ. Though typical of epic, his vocabulary features some significant differences from Homer's. One scholar has counted 278 un-Homeric words in ''Works and Days'', 151 in ''Theogony'' and 95 in ''Shield of Heracles''. The disproportionate number of un-Homeric words in ''W & D'' is due to its un-Homeric subject matter.The count of un-Homeric words is by H.K. Fietkau, ''De carminum hesiodeorum atque hymnorum quattuor magnorum vocabulis non homericis'' (Königsberg, 1866), cited by M. L. West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', p. 77. Hesiod's vocabulary also includes quite a lot of formulaic phrases that are not found in Homer, which indicates that he may have been writing within a different tradition.West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', p. 78.


Notes


Citations


References

* Allen, T. W. and Arthur A. Rambaut, "The Date of Hesiod", ''The Journal of Hellenic Studies'', 35 (1915), pp. 85–99. * . * . * Barron, J. P. and Easterling, P. E. (1985), "Hesiod", ''The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature'', Cambridge University Press. * Buckham, Philip Wentworth (1827)
''Theatre of the Greeks''
* . * . * Evelyn-White, Hugh G. (1964), ''Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica'' (= Loeb Classical Library, vol. 57), Harvard University Press, pp. xliii–xlvii. * Robert D. Lamberton, Lamberton, Robert (1988)
''Hesiod''
New Haven: Yale University Press. . * . * . * Gilbert Murray, Murray, Gilbert (1897), ''A History of Ancient Greek Literature'', New York: D. Appleton and Company, pp. 53 ff. * . * Peabody, Berkley (1975), ''The Winged Word: A Study in the Technique of Ancient Greek Oral Composition as Seen Principally Through Hesiod's Works and Days'', State University of New York Press. . * Pucci, Pietro (1977), ''Hesiod and the Language of Poetry'', Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. . * . * Erwin Rohde, Rohde, Erwin (1925), ''Psyche. The cult of the souls and belief in immortality among the Greeks'', London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. * John Addington Symonds, Symonds, John Addington (1873), ''Studies of the Greek Poets'', London: Smyth, Elder & Co. * Thomas Taylor (neoplatonist), Taylor, Thomas (1891), ''A Dissertation on the Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries'', New York: J. W. Bouton. *


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *Zeitlin, Froma (1996). 'Signifying difference: the case of Hesiod's Pandora', in Froma Zeitlin, ''Playing the Other: Gender and Society in Classical Greek Literature''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 53–86.


Selected translations

* George Chapman, ''The Works of Hesiod'', London, 1618, dedicated to Sir Francis Bacon. * Cooke, Hesiod, ''Works and Days'', Translated from the Greek, London, 1728 * Sinclair, Thomas Alan (translator), ''Hesiodou Erga kai hemerai'', London, Macmillan and co., 1932. * Martin Litchfield West, West, Martin Litchfield (translator), ''Hesiod Works & Days'', Oxford University Press, 1978, . Edited with Prolegomena and Commentary. * Apostolos Athanassakis, Athanassakis, Apostolos N., ''Theogony; Works and days; Shield / Hesiod; introduction, translation, and notes'', Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. * Frazer, R.M. (Richard McIlwaine), ''The Poems of Hesiod'', Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983. * Tandy, David W., and Neale, Walter C. [translators], ''Works and Days: a translation and commentary for the social sciences'', Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. * Schlegel, Catherine M., and Henry Weinfield, translators, ''Theogony and Works and Days'', Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2006 * . * .


External links

* * * * Hesiod
''Works and Days Book 1''
Translated from the Greek by Mr. Cooke (London, 1728). A youthful exercise in Augustan heroic couplets by Thomas Cooke (1703–1756), employing the Roman names for all the gods. * Web texts taken from ''Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica'', edited and translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, published as Loeb Classical Library No. 57, 1914, :
Scanned text at the Internet Archive
in Portable Document Format, PDF and DjVu format *
Perseus Classics Collection: Greek and Roman Materials: Text: Hesiod
(Greek texts and English translations for ''Works and Days'', ''
Theogony The ''Theogony'' (, , , i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the ") is a by (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and of the , composed c. 730–700 BC. It is written in the of and contains 1022 lines. Descriptions Hesiod's ''Theog ...
'', and ''Shield of Heracles'' with additional notes and cross links.) ** Versions of the electronic edition of Evelyn-White's English translation edited by Douglas B. Killings, June 1995: **
Project Gutenberg plain text
**
The Medieval and Classical Literature Library: Hesiod
**

(''Theogony'' and ''Works and Days'' only) *
Hesiod Poems and Fragments
including Ps-Hesiod works ''Astronomy'' and ''Catalogue of Women'' a
demonax.info
{{Authority control Hesiod, 8th-century BC births 8th-century BC Greek people 8th-century BC poets Ancient Boeotian poets Ancient Greek didactic poets Ancient Greek poets Ancient Greek economists Year of death unknown 8th-century BC religious leaders 7th-century BC religious leaders