HOME

TheInfoList




Henry Stuart Hazlitt (; November 28, 1894 – July 9, 1993) was an American journalist who wrote about business and economics for such publications as ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simpl ...

The Wall Street Journal
'', ''
The Nation ''The Nation'' is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, covering progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * C ...
'', ''
The American Mercury ''The American Mercury'' was an American magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regu ...
'', ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly founded in 1933, and was widely distributed through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief. In 1961 the magazine was acquired by and remained under its ownership until 2010. Between 2008 and 20 ...
'', and ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''.


Early life and education

Henry Hazlitt was born in
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania and raised in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
, New York. He was a
collateral descendant A lineal descendant, in legal usage, is a blood relative Relative may refer to: General use *Kinship and family, the principle binding the most basic social units society. If two people are connected by circumstances of birth, they are said to b ...
of the British essayist
William Hazlitt William Hazlitt (10 April 177818 September 1830) was an English essayist, drama and literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interactin ...
,Hall of Fame
, ''Vanity Fair'', February 1934, p. 37.
but grew up in relative poverty, his father having died when Hazlitt was an infant. His early heroes were
Herbert Spencer Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has speciali ...

Herbert Spencer
and
William James William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States ** Americans, citi ...
, and his first ambition was for an academic career in psychology and philosophy. He attended New York's
City College
City College
, but left after only a short time to support his twice-widowed mother. As he later wrote, his short time at college "had a greater influence than may at first sight be supposed, not as much from the knowledge gained there, as from the increased consciousness of the knowledge which I still had to gain and the consequent ambition to attain it."


Career


Early accomplishments

Hazlitt started his career at ''The Wall Street Journal'' as secretary to the managing editor when he was still a teenager, and his interest in the field of economics began while working there. His studies led him to ''The Common Sense of Political Economy'' by
Philip Wicksteed Philip Henry Wicksteed (25 October 1844 – 18 March 1927) is known primarily as an economist. He was also a Georgist, Christian Unitarianism, Unitarian theologian, classicist, medievalist, and literary critic. Family background He was the son ...

Philip Wicksteed
which, he later said, was his first "tremendous influence" in the subject. Hazlitt published his first book, ''Thinking as a Science'' at age 21.
Thinking as a Science
'
He wrote the book because he realized—through his intense process of self-education—that it was more important to think clearly than to merely absorb information. As he explains in its opening pages:
Every man knows there are evils in the world which need setting right. Every man has pretty definite ideas as to what these evils are. But to most men one in particular stands out vividly. To some, in fact, this stands out with such startling vividness that they lose sight of other evils, or look upon them as the natural consequences of their own particular evil-in-chief. To the Socialist this evil is the capitalistic system; to the prohibitionist it is intemperance; to the feminist it is the subjection of women; to the clergyman it is the decline of religion; to Andrew Carnegie it is war; to the staunch Republican it is the Democratic Party, and so on, ''ad infinitum.'' I, too, have a pet little evil, to which in more passionate moments I am apt to attribute all the others. This evil is the neglect of thinking. And when I say thinking I mean real thinking, independent thinking, hard thinking.


Military service

During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, he served in the Army Air Service. While residing in Brooklyn, he enlisted in New York City on February 11, 1918, and served with the Aviation Section of the Signal Enlisted Reserve Corps until July 9, 1918. He was then in Princeton, New Jersey, at the US School of Military Aeronautics until October 22, when he was sent to AS Camp Dick in Dallas, Texas, for a few weeks until November 7, and he was honorably discharged from service with the rank of private first class on December 12, 1918. He returned to New York, residing at
Washington Square Park Washington Square Park is a public park in the Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan ar ...

Washington Square Park
for many years.Greaves, Bettina Bien,


Editor and author

In the early 1920s, he was financial editor of '' The
New York Evening Mail The ''New York Evening Mail'' (1867–1924) was an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white o ...
'', and during this period, Hazlitt reported his understanding of economics was further refined by frequent discussions with former Harvard economics professor Benjamin Anderson, who was then working for
Chase National Bank JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase Bank or often as Chase, is an American national bank headquartered in Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the m ...

Chase National Bank
in Manhattan. Later, when the publisher W. W. Norton suggested he write an official biography of their author
Bertrand Russell Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose know ...
, Hazlitt spent "a good deal of time," as he described it, with the famous philosopher.Hazlitt, Henry
"Reflections at 70"
Henry Hazlitt: An Appreciation. ''
Foundation for Economic Education The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is an American Conservatism in the United States, conservative Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian economics, economic think tank. It is a member of the State Policy Network. Views FEE st ...

Foundation for Economic Education
'', 1989. (pp. 6–9)
Lord Russell "so admired the young journalist's talent" that he had agreed with Norton's proposal, but the project ended after nearly two years of work when Russell declared his intention to write his own autobiography. During the interwar decades, a vibrant period in the history of
American literature American literature is literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In ...
, Hazlitt served as literary editor of ''
The New York Sun ''The New York Sun'' was an American daily newspaper published in Manhattan from 2002 to 2008. It debuted on April 16, 2002, adopting the name, motto, and Nameplate (publishing), masthead of the earlier New York paper, ''The Sun (New York City), ...
'' (1925–1929), and as literary editor of the
left Left may refer to: Music * ''Left'' (Hope of the States album), 2006 * ''Left'' (Monkey House album), 2016 * ''Left'' (Sharlok Poems album) Direction * Left (direction), the relative direction opposite of right * Left-handedness Politics * ...
-leaning journal, ''
The Nation ''The Nation'' is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, covering progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * C ...
'' (1930–1933). In connection with his work for ''The Nation'', Hazlitt also edited ''A Practical Program for America'' (1932), a compilation of
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
policy considerations, but he was in the minority in calling for less government intervention in the economy. After a series of public debates with socialist
Louis Fischer Louis Fischer (29 February 1896 – 15 January 1970) was an American journalist. Among his works were a contribution to the ex-Communist treatise '' The God that Failed'' (1949), a ''Life of Mahatma Gandhi'' (1950), basis for the Academy Award ...
, Hazlitt and ''The Nation'' parted ways. In 1933, Hazlitt published ''The Anatomy of Criticism'', an extended "trialogue" examining the nature of
literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical discussion of literature ...
and appreciation, regarded by some to be an early refutation of literary
deconstruction Deconstruction is an approach to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), who defined the term variously throughou ...

deconstruction
. In the same year, he became
H. L. Mencken Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, essayist An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a L ...
's chosen successor as editor of the literary magazine, ''
The American Mercury ''The American Mercury'' was an American magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regu ...
'', which Mencken had founded with
George Jean Nathan George Jean Nathan (February 14, 1882 – April 8, 1958) was an American drama critic and magazine editor. He worked closely with H. L. Mencken, bringing the literary magazine ''The Smart Set'' to prominence as an editor, and co-founding and ...
, as a result of which appointment '' Vanity Fair'' included Hazlitt among those hailed in its regular "Hall of Fame" photo feature. Due to increasing differences with the publisher, Alfred A. Knopf, Sr., he served in that role for only a brief time, but Mencken wrote that Hazlitt was the "only competent critic of the arts that I have heard of who was at the same time a competent economist, of practical as well as theoretical training," adding that he "is one of the few economists in human history who could really write." From 1934 to 1946, Hazlitt was the principal editorial writer on finance and economics for ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', writing both a signed weekly column and most of the unsigned editorials on economics, producing a considerable volume of work. Following
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, he came into conflict with
Arthur Hays Sulzberger Arthur Hays Sulzberger (September 12, 1891December 11, 1968) was the publisher of ''The New York Times'' from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the sta ...
, publisher of ''The New York Times'', over the newly established
Bretton Woods system The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Ame ...
which created the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
and the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The ...

International Monetary Fund
. Hazlitt opposed the Bretton Woods agreement, primarily fearing the risk of inflation. After agreeing not to write on the topic, he looked for another venue for his work, deciding on ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly founded in 1933, and was widely distributed through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief. In 1961 the magazine was acquired by and remained under its ownership until 2010. Between 2008 and 20 ...
'' magazine, for which he wrote a signed column, "Business Tides", from 1946 to 1966. According to Hazlitt, the greatest influence on his writing in economics was the work of
Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (; 29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, logician, and Sociology, sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on the societal contributions of classical liberal ...

Ludwig von Mises
, and he is credited with introducing the ideas of the
Austrian School The Austrian School is a heterodox In religion, heterodoxy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
of economics to the English-speaking layman. In 1938, for example, he reviewed the recently published English translation of Mises's influential treatise ''
Socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
'' for ''The New York Times'', declaring it "a classic" and "the most devastating analysis of socialism yet penned." After the
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
economist's emigration to the United States from
National Socialist Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely ep ...
-dominated Europe in 1940, Hazlitt arranged for Mises to contribute editorials to ''The New York Times'', and helped to secure for Mises a teaching position at
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of ne ...
. Along with the efforts of his friends,
Max Eastman Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet and a prominent political activist. Moving to New York City for graduate school, Eastman became involved with radical ...

Max Eastman
and John Chamberlain, Hazlitt also helped introduce F. A. Hayek's ''
The Road to Serfdom ''The Road to Serfdom'' ( German: ''Der Weg zur Knechtschaft'') is a book written between 1940 and 1943 by Austrian-British economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individu ...
'' to the American reading public. His 1944 review in ''The New York Times'' caused ''
Reader's Digest ''Reader's Digest'' is an American general-interest family magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generall ...
'', where Eastman served as roving editor, to publish one of its trademark condensations, bringing the future Nobel laureate's work to a vast audience. Author Tom Malone contends that Hazlitt distinguished himself from other economists largely by his skill as a writer:
What set Hazlitt apart from other writers on economics was the incredible clarity of his writing and his ability to make the subject interesting to laymen. He did this by focusing on principles, using practical examples, and writing in a direct and conversational style. He also avoided the technical jargon and reliance on statistics that stud the writing of most economists—to the bane of most readers. When H. L. Mencken selected Hazlitt to succeed him as literary editor at the American Mercury, he called Hazlitt the “only competent critic of the arts that I have heard of who was at the same time a competent economist,” as well as “one of the few economists in human history who could really write.”
Unlike many other writers of his generation from the
political right Right-wing politics embraces the view that certain social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Institutions, according to Samuel ...
, Hazlitt never experienced a period when he was a socialist or
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communist
, or a significant change in his
classical liberal Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism Liberalism is a Political philosophy, political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide a ...
political views. He was the founding vice president of the
Foundation for Economic Education The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is an American Conservatism in the United States, conservative Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian economics, economic think tank. It is a member of the State Policy Network. Views FEE st ...

Foundation for Economic Education
, which also acquired his large personal library in the 1980s. Established by
Leonard Read Leonard Edward Read (September 26, 1898 – May 14, 1983) was the founder of the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE), one of the first modern Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian institutions in the United States. He wrote 29 book ...
in 1946, FEE is considered to be the first "think tank" for free-market ideas. He was also one of the original members of the classical liberal
Mont Pelerin Society Mont may refer to: Places * Mont., an abbreviation for Montana Montana () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West region of the United States. It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the e ...
in 1947. With John Chamberlain (and
Suzanne La FolletteSuzanne Clara La Follette (June 24, 1893 – April 23, 1983) was an United States, American journalist and author who advocated for libertarian feminism in the first half of the 20th century. As an editor she helped found several magazines. She was a ...
as
managing editor A managing editor (ME) is a senior member of a publication To publish is to make content available to the general public.The Seattle Times">The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department". Editing is the process of selecting and preparing w .. ...
), Hazlitt served as editor of the early
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
publication ''
The Freeman ''The Freeman'' (formerly published as ''The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty'' or ''Ideas on Liberty'') was an American libertarian Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy ...

The Freeman
'' from 1950 to 1952, and as sole editor-in-chief from 1952 to 1953, and its contributors during his tenure there included Hayek, Mises, and , as well as the writers
James Burnham James Burnham (November 22, 1905 – July 28, 1987) was an American philosopher and political theorist. He chaired the philosophy department at New York University; His first book was ''An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis'' (1931). B ...
,
John Dos Passos John Roderigo Dos Passos (; January 14, 1896 – September 28, 1970) was an American novelist, most notable for his U.S.A. (trilogy), ''U.S.A.'' trilogy. Born in Chicago, Dos Passos graduated from Harvard College in 1916. He traveled widely as a y ...

John Dos Passos
,
Max Eastman Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet and a prominent political activist. Moving to New York City for graduate school, Eastman became involved with radical ...

Max Eastman
, John T. Flynn, Frank Meyer,
Raymond Moley Raymond Charles Moley (September 27, 1886 – February 18, 1975) was an American political economist. Initially a leading supporter of the New Deal The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulation ...
,
Morrie Ryskind Morris "Morrie" Ryskind (October 20, 1895 – August 24, 1985) was an American drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed ...
, and George Sokolsky. Prior to his becoming editor, ''The Freeman'' had supported Senator
Joseph McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician and attorney who served as a Republican United States Senate, U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in ...

Joseph McCarthy
in his conflict with President
Harry Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs th ...
on the issue of
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
, "undiscriminatingly" according to some critics, but upon becoming editor, Hazlitt changed the magazine's policy to one of support for President Truman., ''Up From Communism'',
Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is a university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Tradit ...
, 1975, p. 217.
''The Freeman'' is widely considered to be an important forerunner to the conservative ''
National Review ''National Review'' is an American semi-monthly conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the p ...
'', founded by William F. Buckley, Jr., which from the start included many of the same contributing editors. Hazlitt himself was on the masthead of ''National Review'', either as a contributing editor or, later, as contributor, from its inception in 1955 until his death in 1993. Differences existed between the journals: ''The Freeman'' under Hazlitt was more
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

secular
and presented a wider range of
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
opinion than the later ''National Review''. Even prior to her success with ''
The Fountainhead ''The Fountainhead'' is a 1943 novel by Russian-American author Ayn Rand, her first major literary success. The novel's protagonist, Howard Roark, is an intransigent young architect, who battles against conventional standards and refuses to compr ...
'', the novelist
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophic ...

Ayn Rand
was a friend of both Hazlitt and his wife, Frances, and Hazlitt introduced Rand to Mises, bringing together the two figures who would become most associated with the defense of pure ''
laissez-faire ''Laissez-faire'' ( ; from french: laissez faire , ) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects hav ...
'' capitalism. The two became admirers of Hazlitt and of one another. Hazlitt became well known both through his articles and by frequently debating prominent politicians on the radio, including: Vice President , Secretary of State
Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (pronounced ; April 11, 1893October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer. As the 51st U.S. Secretary of State, he set the foreign policy of the Harry S. Truman administration from 1949 to 1953. He was Truman's m ...

Dean Acheson
, and U.S. Senators
Paul Douglas Paul Howard Douglas (March 26, 1892 – September 24, 1976) was an American politician and Georgist Georgism, also called in modern times geoism and known historically as the single tax movement, is an economic ideology holding that, although ...
and , the future Vice President. In the early 1950s, he also occasionally appeared on the
CBS Television CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American commercial broadcast television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and whit ...
current events program ''
Longines Chronoscope ''Longines Chronoscope'', also titled ''Chronoscope'', is an American TV series, sponsored by Longines watches, that ran on CBS Television CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American commercial broadcast television Television (T ...
'', interviewing figures such as Senator
Joseph McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician and attorney who served as a Republican United States Senate, U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in ...

Joseph McCarthy
and Congressman Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., along with coeditor
William Bradford Huie William Bradford "Bill" Huie (November 13, 1910 – November 20, 1986) was one of the most successful American journalists and authors of the 20th century. Huie was a prolific writer, investigative reporter, editor, national lecturer, television h ...
. At the invitation of philosopher
Sidney Hook Sidney Hook (December 20, 1902 – July 12, 1989) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, ex ...
, he was also a participating member of the American Committee for Cultural Freedom in the 1950s. When he finally left ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly founded in 1933, and was widely distributed through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief. In 1961 the magazine was acquired by and remained under its ownership until 2010. Between 2008 and 20 ...
'' in 1966, the magazine replaced Hazlitt with three university professors: "free-market
monetarist Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics Monetary economics is the branch of economics that studies the different competing theories of money: it provides a framework for analyzing money and considers its functions (such as medium ...
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...

Milton Friedman
of the
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
, middle-of-the-roader
Henry Wallich Henry Christopher Wallich (; June 10, 1914 – September 15, 1988) was a German American economist and central banker. He was a professor of economics at Yale University and a member of the Council of Economic Advisors during the Dwight D. Eisenhow ...
of
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
, and Keynesian Paul A. Samuelson of MIT." His last published scholarly article appeared in the first volume of ''The Review of Austrian Economics'' (now, ''
The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics The ''Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering heterodox economics published by the Ludwig von Mises Institute.Lee, Frederic S., and Cronin, Bruce C. (2010)"Research Quality Rankings of Heterod ...
'') in 1987. He was awarded an honorary
doctoral degree The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843) A doctorat ...
at
Universidad Francisco Marroquín Francisco Marroquín University (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado) ...
in
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Am ...

Guatemala
.


Journalistic career timeline

* 1913-1916: ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simpl ...

The Wall Street Journal
'' * 1916-1918: ''
New York Evening Post The ''New York Post'' (''NY Post'') is a conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy ...
'' * 1919-1920: '' Mechanics and Metals National Bank'' (monthly financial letter) * 1921-1923: ''
New York Evening Mail The ''New York Evening Mail'' (1867–1924) was an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white o ...
'' (financial editor) * 1923-1924: ''
New York Herald The ''New York Herald'' was a large-distribution newspaper based in New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and medi ...
'' (editorial writer) * 1924-1925: '' The Sun'' * 1925-1929: '' The Sun'' (literary editor) * 1930-1933: ''
The Nation ''The Nation'' is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, covering progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * C ...
'' (literary editor) * 1933-1934: ''
American Mercury ''The American Mercury'' was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the ...
'' (editor) * 1934-1946: ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' (editorial staff) * 1946-1966: ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly founded in 1933, and was widely distributed through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief. In 1961 the magazine was acquired by and remained under its ownership until 2010. Between 2008 and 20 ...
'' (associate & columnist) * 1950-1952: ''
The Freeman ''The Freeman'' (formerly published as ''The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty'' or ''Ideas on Liberty'') was an American libertarian Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy ...

The Freeman
'' (co-editor) * 1952-1953: ''
The Freeman ''The Freeman'' (formerly published as ''The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty'' or ''Ideas on Liberty'') was an American libertarian Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy ...

The Freeman
'' (editor-in-chief) * 1966-1969: ''
Los Angeles Times Syndicate The ''Los Angeles Times'' Syndicate was a print syndication Print syndication distributes news articles, column (periodical), columns, Editorial cartoon, political cartoons, comic strips and other features to newspapers, magazines and websites. Th ...
'' (columnist)


Economics and philosophy

About Hazlitt,
Lew Rockwell Llewellyn Harrison Rockwell Jr. (born July 1, 1944) is an American author, editor, and political consultant. A Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian and a self-professed anarcho-capitalist, he founded and is the chairman of the Mises I ...
wrote: "The times call for courage. The times call for hard work. But if the demands are high, it is because the stakes are even higher. They are nothing less than the future of liberty, which means the future of civilization." Rockwell called '' Economics in One Lesson'' Hazlitt's "most enduring contribution." With a million copies sold and available in ten languages, it is considered a classic by several American
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
,
free-market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
, and
right-libertarian Right-libertarianism,Rothbard, Murray (1 March 1971)"The Left and Right Within Libertarianism" ''WIN: Peace and Freedom Through Nonviolent Action''. 7 (4): 6–10. Retrieved 14 January 2020.Goodway, David (2006). '' Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Sn ...
circles, such as at the
Mises Institute The Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, or Mises Institute, is a libertarian nonprofit think-tank located in Auburn, Alabama, Auburn, Alabama, United States. It is named after Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973 ...

Mises Institute
.
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophic ...

Ayn Rand
called it a "magnificent job of theoretical exposition", while Congressman Ron Paul ranks it with the works of Frédéric Bastiat and Friedrich Hayek. Hayek himself praised the work, saying that "Henry Hazlitt's explanation of how a price system works is a true classic: timeless, correct, painlessly instructive." Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize laureate
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...

Milton Friedman
described it as "a brilliant performance. It says precisely the things which need most saying and says them with rare courage and integrity. I know of no other modern book from which the intelligent layman can learn so much about the basic truths of economics in so short a time." In 1996, Laissez Faire Books issued a 50th anniversary edition with an introduction by publisher and presidential candidate Steve Forbes. Economist Thomas Sowell's work has been described as following in the "Bastiat-Hazlitt tradition" of economic exposition. Another of Hazlitt's works, ''The Failure of the New Economics'' (1959), gives a detailed, chapter-by-chapter critique of John Maynard Keynes's highly influential work ''The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money''. With reference to Keynes's book, Hazlitt paraphrased a quote attributed to Samuel Johnson, that he was "unable to find in it a single doctrine that is both true and original. What is original in the book is not true; and what is true is not original." Hazlitt also published three books on the subject of inflation, including ''From Bretton Woods to World Inflation'' (1984), and two influential works on poverty, ''Man vs. The Welfare State'' (1969), and ''The Conquest of Poverty'' (1973), thought by some to have anticipated the later work of Charles Murray (political scientist), Charles Murray in ''Losing Ground''. Hazlitt's major work in philosophy, such as ''The Foundations of Morality'' (1964), a treatise on ethics defending utilitarianism, builds on the work of David Hume and John Stuart Mill. Hazlitt's 1922 work, ''The Way to Will-Power'' has been described as a defense of free will; Lew Rockwell characterized it as "a defense of individual initiative against the deterministic claims of Sigmund Freud, Freudian psychoanalysis." In contrast to many other thinkers on the political right, Hazlitt was an agnostic with regard to religion, religious beliefs. In ''A New Constitution Now'' (1942), published during Franklin D. Roosevelt's unprecedented third term as President of the United States, Hazlitt called for the replacement of the existing fixed-term presidential tenure in the United States with a more Anglo-European system of "cabinet" government, under which a head of state who had lost the confidence of the legislature or cabinet might be removed from office after a no-confidence vote in as few as 30 days. In 1951, following Roosevelt's death in 1945, the United States imposed Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, presidential term limits. Hazlitt's 1951 novel ''The Great Idea'', reissued in 1966 as ''Time Will Run Back'', depicts rulers of a Centrally planned economy, centrally-planned socialist dystopia discovering, amid the resulting economic chaos, the need to restore a Market price, market pricing-system, private ownership of capital goods and competitive markets.


Personal life

Henry was born to Stuart Clark and Bertha (Zauner) Hazlitt on November 28, 1894, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They resided at 819 North Broad Street in Philadelphia. The Hazlitt family was originally from England, although his paternal grandmother was from Ireland. His maternal grandparents were German immigrants. Henry's father, a clerk, died of diabetes when Henry was only five months old. His mother, Bertha, then married Frederick E. Piebes, who was engaged in manufacturing, and they resided in Brooklyn, where Henry was raised. Henry is listed on the 1905 New York state census as Henry S. Piebes, and he is listed on Frederick's will as Henry Hazlitt Piebes, Frederick's adopted son. His stepfather died in 1907, leaving Henry to support his mother and probably leading to the ambition that enabled him to work at the ''Wall Street Journal'' while he was still a teenager. In 1929, Hazlitt married Valerie Earle, daughter of the noted photographer and Vitagraph film director William P. S. Earle. They were married by the Pacifism, pacifist minister, John Haynes Holmes, but later divorced. In 1936, he married Frances Kanes, the author of ''The Concise Bible'', with whom he later collaborated to produce an anthology of the Stoicism, Stoic philosophers, ''The Wisdom of the Stoics: Selections from Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius'' (1984). They were married until Frances' death in 1991. Hazlitt died at the age of 98 in Fairfield, Connecticut. At the time of his death, he resided in Wilton, Connecticut.


Legacy

Hazlitt was a prolific writer, authoring 25 works in his lifetime. In 1981, President Ronald Reagan in his speech before the Conservative Political Action Conference (or "CPAC") named Hazlitt as one of the "[i]ntellectual leaders" (along with Friedrich Hayek,
Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (; 29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, logician, and Sociology, sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on the societal contributions of classical liberal ...

Ludwig von Mises
,
Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (; July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and c ...

Milton Friedman
, Russell Kirk,
James Burnham James Burnham (November 22, 1905 – July 28, 1987) was an American philosopher and political theorist. He chaired the philosophy department at New York University; His first book was ''An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis'' (1931). B ...
and Frank Meyer) who had "shaped so much of our thoughts..."
Ludwig von Mises Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (; 29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian School economist, historian, logician, and Sociology, sociologist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on the societal contributions of classical liberal ...

Ludwig von Mises
said at a dinner honoring Hazlitt: "In this age of the great struggle in favor of freedom and the social system in which men can live as free men, you are our leader. You have indefatigably fought against the step-by-step advance of the powers anxious to destroy everything that human civilization has created over a long period of centuries... You are the economic conscience of our country and of our nation."


Henry Hazlitt Foundation

From 1997 to 2002, there was an organization called The Henry Hazlitt Foundation which actively promoted Libertarianism, libertarian networking online, especially through its website Free-Market.Net. This organization was named in honor of Hazlitt because he was known for introducing a wide range of people to libertarian ideas through his writing and for helping free-market advocates connect with each other. The foundation was started after Hazlitt's death and had no official connection with his estate.


Hazlitt Policy Center

On 1 March 2019, the Young Americans for Liberty announced the launch of the Hazlitt Policy Center "to provide YAL's elected officials with modern legislation, facts, and strategies to give them the extra muscle they need to be effective liberty legislators."https://hazlittpolicy.org/


Publications

Books
''Thinking as a Science''
1916 * ''The Way to Will-Power'', 1922 * ''A Practical Program for America'', 1932 * ''The Anatomy of Criticism'', 1933 * ''Instead of Dictatorship'', 1933 * ''A New Constitution Now'', 1942 * ''Freedom in America: The Freeman'' (with Virgil Jordan), 1945 * ''The Full Employment Bill: An Analysis'', 1945 * '' Economics in One Lesson'', 1946 * ''Will Dollars Save the World?'', 1947 * ''Forum: Do Current Events Indicate Greater Government Regulation, Nationalization, or Socialization?, Proceedings from a Conference Sponsored by The Economic and Business Foundation'', 1948 * ''The Illusions of Point Four'', 1950 * ''The Great Idea'', 1951 (titled ''Time Will Run Back'' in Great Britain, revised and rereleased with this title in 1966.) * ''The Free Man's Library'', 1956 * ''The Failure of the New Economics, The Failure of the 'New Economics': An Analysis of the Keynesian Fallacies'', 1959 * ''The Critics of Keynesian Economics (ed.)'', 1960 * ''What You Should Know About Inflation'', 1960 * ''The Foundations of Morality'', 1964 * ''Man vs. The Welfare State'', 1969 * ''The Conquest of Poverty'', 1973 * ''To Stop Inflation, Return to Gold'', 1974
''The Inflation Crisis, and How To Resolve It''
1978 * ''From Bretton Woods to World Inflation'', 1984 * ''The Wisdom of the Stoics: Selections from Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius'', with Frances Hazlitt, 1984
''The Wisdom of Henry Hazlitt''
1993 * ''Rules for Living: The Ethics of Social Cooperation'', 1999 (an abridgment by Bettina Bien Greaves of Hazlitt's ''The Foundations of Morality''.) * ''Business Tides: The Newsweek Era of Henry Hazlitt'', 2011 Articles * Lew Rockwell, Rockwell, Lew
Biography of Henry Hazlitt (1894-1993)
Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1 August 2007.


See also


References


Notes


Citations


Further reading

; Articles
''The Complete Bibliography of Henry Hazlitt''
Irvington-on-Hudson, New York:
Foundation for Economic Education The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is an American Conservatism in the United States, conservative Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian economics, economic think tank. It is a member of the State Policy Network. Views FEE st ...

Foundation for Economic Education
, 2 March 2015. * ''Henry Hazlitt: A Giant of Liberty'', Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1994. . * ''Henry Hazlitt: an Appreciation''. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York:
Foundation for Economic Education The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is an American Conservatism in the United States, conservative Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian economics, economic think tank. It is a member of the State Policy Network. Views FEE st ...

Foundation for Economic Education
, 1989. (pp. 8–9)
Interview with Henry Hazlitt
* Richard M. Ebeling and Roy A. Childs, Jr., "Henry Hazlitt: An Appreciation," Laissez Faire Books, November 1985. * Greaves, Bettina Bien
“Henry Hazlitt: A Man for Many Seasons”
Irvington-on-Hudson, New York:
Foundation for Economic Education The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is an American Conservatism in the United States, conservative Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian economics, economic think tank. It is a member of the State Policy Network. Views FEE st ...

Foundation for Economic Education
, 1 November 1989. * * Henry Hazlitt, "The Early History of FEE," ''The Freeman'', March 1984 (article is excerpted from his remarks at the Leonard E. Read Memorial Conference on Freedom, November 18, 1983.) * Llewellyn H. Rockwell, "Henry Hazlitt: Journalist of the Century," ''The Freeman'', May 1995. * Murray N. Rothbard, "Henry Hazlitt Celebrates 80th Birthday," ''Human Events'', November 20, 1974, reprinted in ''The Libertarian Forum'', December 1974. * George Selgin, Don Boudreaux, and Sanford Ikeda:, "An Interview with Henry Hazlitt", ''Austrian Economics Newsletter'', Spring 1984. * "''Reason'' Interview: Henry Hazlitt", ''Reason (magazine), Reason'', December 1984. * Hans F. Sennholz, edit., ''The Wisdom of Henry Hazlitt'', Foundation for Economic Education, 1993. * * Jeffrey Tucker, "Henry Hazlitt: The People's Austrian" in Randall Holcombe, edit.,
The Great Austrian Economists
' (2009; originally published as ''15 Great Austrian Economists'', 1999), pp. 167–79.


External links

*
Henry Hazlitt
at Google Books.
Henry Hazlitt
at HathiTrust.
Henry Hazlitt
at Internet Archive.
Henry Hazlitt
at Liberty Fund, Online Liberty Library.
Henry Hazlitt
at Open Library.
Henry Hazlitt
at Project Gutenberg.
Henry Hazlitt
at WorldCat.
En lärdom (första kapitlet i Economics in One Lesson, på Svenska)
av Henry Hazlitt
The Complete Bibliography of Henry Hazlitt
at
Foundation for Economic Education The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is an American Conservatism in the United States, conservative Libertarianism in the United States, libertarian economics, economic think tank. It is a member of the State Policy Network. Views FEE st ...

Foundation for Economic Education
.
Økonomiske forutsigelser – Hvor gode er de ?
av Henry Hazlitt
Honorary Doctoral Degrees at University Francisco Marroquín in Guatemala

Henry Hazlitt Quotations

A Biography of Henry Hazlitt
Llewellyn H. Rockwell Jr., ''Mises Institute'' * *
Appearances
on C-SPAN {{DEFAULTSORT:Hazlitt, Henry 1894 births 1993 deaths 20th-century American male writers 20th-century American non-fiction writers 20th-century American economists Austrian School economists American agnostics American economics writers American libertarians American male non-fiction writers American political philosophers American political writers Consequentialists Conservatism in the United States Economists from Pennsylvania Foundation for Economic Education Libertarian economists Libertarian theorists Mises Institute people Old Right (United States) Right-wing politics in the United States Utilitarians Writers from Philadelphia