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Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was a British statesman and
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
politician. He served as the
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
from 1905 to 1908 and
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of the
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
from 1899 to 1908. He also served as
Secretary of State for War The Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg ...
twice, in the Cabinets of
Gladstone
 Gladstone
and Rosebery. He was the first
First Lord of the Treasury The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, pri ...
to be officially called the "Prime Minister", the term only coming into official usage five days after he took office. He remains the only person to date to hold the positions of Prime Minister and
Father of the House Father of the House is a title that has been traditionally bestowed, unofficially, on certain members of some legislatures, most notably the United Kingdom House of Commons, House of Commons in the United Kingdom. In some legislatures the title re ...
at the same time, and the last Liberal leader to gain a UK parliamentary majority. Known colloquially as "CB", he firmly believed in
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
,
Irish Home Rule The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or "home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state tha ...
and the improvement of social conditions, including reduced working hours. A. J. A. Morris, in the ''
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography The ''Dictionary of National Biography'' (''DNB'') is a standard work of reference on notable figures from History of the British Isles, British history, published since 1885. The updated ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (''ODNB'') ...
'', called him "Britain's first and only radical Prime Minister". A. J. A. Morris,
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1836–1908)
, ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, accessed 29 March 2009.
Following a general-election defeat in
1900 As of March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. ...
, Campbell-Bannerman went on to lead the Liberal Party to a
landslide victory A landslide victory is an result in which the victorious candidate or party wins by an overwhelming margin. The term became popular in the 1800s to describe a victory in which the opposition is "buried", similar to the way in which a geological b ...
over the
Conservative Party
 Conservative Party
at the 1906 general election - the last election in which the Liberals gained an overall majority in the
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. The government he subsequently led passed legislation to ensure trade unions could not be liable for damages incurred during strike action, introduced
free school meal A school meal or school lunch (also known as hot lunch, a school dinner, or school breakfast) is a meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism ...
s for all children, and empowered local authorities to purchase agricultural land from private landlords. Campbell-Bannerman resigned as Prime Minister in April 1908 due to ill-health and was replaced by his
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
,
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
. He died 19 days later, (the only Prime Minister to die in the official residence, 10 Downing Street).


Personal life and family

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was born on 7 September 1836 at Kelvinside House in Glasgow as Henry Campbell, the second son and youngest of the six children born to Sir James Campbell of
Stracathro Stracathro ( gd, Srath Catharach) is a small place in Angus, Scotland. Location Stracathro is located southeast of Edzell in NE Angus. It lies to the northeast of Brechin on the A90 road, A90. History A Ancient Rome, Roman Roman camp, marching ...
(1790–1876) and his wife Janet Bannerman (1799–1873). Sir James Campbell had started work at a young age in the clothing trade in Glasgow, before going into partnership with his brother in 1817 to found J.& W. Campbell & Co., a warehousing, general wholesale and retail drapery business. Sir James was elected as a member of
Glasgow Town Council Glasgow City Council is the Local government in Scotland, local government authority for the Glasgow, City of Glasgow, Scotland. It was created in 1996 under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, largely with the boundaries of the post-1 ...
in 1831 and stood as a
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...

Conservative
candidate for the Glasgow constituency in the
1837 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modificat ...
and
1841 Events January–March * January 20 Events Pre-1600 *250 __NOTOC__ Year 250 ( CCL) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, ...
general elections, before being appointed to serve as the
Lord Provost of Glasgow The Right Honourable Lord Provost of Glasgow is the convener of the Glasgow City Council Glasgow City Council is the Local government in Scotland, local government authority for the Glasgow, City of Glasgow, Scotland. It was created in 1996 ...
from 1840 to 1843. Henry's older brother, James Alexander Campbell, served as the Conservative Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament for Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities from 1880 United Kingdom general election, 1880 to 1906 United Kingdom general election, 1906 and had inherited their father's
Stracathro Stracathro ( gd, Srath Catharach) is a small place in Angus, Scotland. Location Stracathro is located southeast of Edzell in NE Angus. It lies to the northeast of Brechin on the A90 road, A90. History A Ancient Rome, Roman Roman camp, marching ...
4000acre estate in 1876. CB had already served 12 years as an MP when his elder brother was elected. Campbell-Bannerman was educated at the High School of Glasgow (1845–1847), the University of Glasgow (1851–1853), and Trinity College, Cambridge (1854–1858), where he achieved a British undergraduate degree classification, Third-Class Degree in the Classical Tripos.Massie, p. 547. After graduating, he joined the family firm of J.& W. Campbell & Co., based in Glasgow's Ingram Street. Campbell was made a partner in the firm in 1860. He also served as a Lieutenant (British Army and Royal Marines), lieutenant (promoted to Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), captain in 1867) in the 53rd Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteer Corps, which was recruited from employees of the firm. Following his marriage in 1860 to Charlotte Campbell-Bannerman, Sarah Charlotte Bruce, Henry and his new bride set up residence at 6 Clairmont Gardens in the Park District, Glasgow, Park district in the West End of Glasgow. In 1871, Henry Campbell became Henry Campbell-Bannerman, the addition of the surname Bannerman being a requirement of the Will (law), will of his uncle, Henry Bannerman, from whom he inherited the estate of Hunton Lodge (now Hunton Court) in Hunton, Kent in 1871. While an aunt occupied the Hunton mansion, the Campbell-Bannermans lived elsewhere including the house at Gennings Park, as their country residence, which they did not leave until 1887. They first occupied Hunton Lodge in 1894. Campbell did not like the "horrid long name" that resulted and invited friends to refer to him as "C.B." instead. The couple never had any children. C.B. and Charlotte were an exceptionally close couple throughout their marriage; in the words of one historian, they "shared every thought and possible moment". Charlotte may have been the person who mostly encouraged CB to stand for election, given his local profile. And they were both reportedly enormous eaters and each weighed nearly in later years. Campbell-Bannerman spoke French, German and Italian fluently, and every summer he and his wife spent a couple of months in Europe, usually in France and at the spa town of Mariánské Lázně, Marienbad in Bohemia. They also had an occasional home at Belmont Castle, Meigle in Scotland. C.B. had a deep appreciation for French culture and particularly enjoyed the novels of Anatole France. Charlotte died in 1906, and after his loss, CB was said to 'never be the same'; he suffered heart attacks and although he resigned on 3 April 1908, he died in 10 Downing Street on 22 April 1908 and was buried at Meigle.


Member of Parliament

In April 1868, at the age of thirty-one, Campbell-Bannerman stood as a
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
candidate in a by-election for the Stirling Burghs (UK Parliament constituency), Stirling Burghs constituency, narrowly losing to fellow Liberal John Ramsay (of Kildalton), John Ramsay. However, at the 1868 United Kingdom general election, general election in November of that year, Campbell-Bannerman defeated Ramsay and was elected to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons as the Liberal Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament for Stirling Burghs, a constituency that he would go on to represent for almost forty years. Campbell-Bannerman rose quickly through the ministerial ranks, being appointed as Financial Secretary to the War Office in William Ewart Gladstone, Gladstone's First Gladstone Ministry, first government in November 1871, serving in this position until 1874 under Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell, Edward Cardwell, the
Secretary of State for War The Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg ...
; when Cardwell was raised to the peerage, Campbell-Bannerman became the Liberal government's chief spokesman on defence matters in the House of Commons. He was appointed to the same position from 1880 to 1882 in Gladstone's Second Gladstone Ministry, second government, and after serving as Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty between 1882 and 1884, Campbell-Bannerman was promoted to Cabinet (UK), the Cabinet as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1884, an important role with ongoing Government of Ireland Bill 1886, Home Rule debates. In Gladstone's Third Gladstone Ministry, third and Fourth Gladstone Ministry, fourth governments, in 1886 and 1892 to 1894 respectively, as well as the Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Earl of Rosebery's Rosebery Ministry, government from 1894 to 1895, he served as
Secretary of State for War The Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg ...
. His only military experience was thirty years earlier with the '53rd Lanarkshire Rifles Volunteers'. During his time in the War office, he introduced an experimental eight-hour day for the workers at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich Arsenal munitions factory. The results demonstrated that there was no loss in production and therefore Campbell-Bannerman extended the eight-hour day to the Army Clothing Department. He persuaded the Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, Duke of Cambridge, the Victoria of the United Kingdom, Queen's cousin, to resign as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. This earned Campbell-Bannerman a knighthood. In 1895, Campbell unwittingly caused the fall of Rosebery's ministry, when the Earl's government lost a vote over C.B.'s handling of cordite reserves. Unionist government, 1895–1905, Unionist MPs unexpectedly forced a successful motion of censure, and the failure led to Rosebery's resignation and the return to power of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Lord Salisbury. In 1895 Campbell-Bannerman lobbied strongly to be appointed Speaker of the House of Commons (United Kingdom), Speaker of the House of Commons, in part because he sought a less stressful role in public life. Rosebery, backed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer William Vernon Harcourt (politician), William Harcourt, refused since Campbell-Bannerman was viewed as indispensable to the Government's front-bench team in the lower House.


Leader of the Liberal Party

On 6 February 1899 Campbell-Bannerman succeeded William Vernon Harcourt (politician), Sir William Vernon Harcourt as Liberal Party (UK), Leader of the Liberals in the House of Commons, and Leader of the Opposition (UK), Leader of the Opposition. The Second Boer War, Boer War of 1899 split the Liberal Party into Liberal Imperialists, Imperialist and Pro-Boer factions, with CB strongly critical of the use of Internment, concentration camps as ' methods of barbarism'. Campbell-Bannerman faced the difficult task of holding together the strongly divided party, which was subsequently and unsurprisingly defeated in the "khaki election" of 1900 United Kingdom general election, 1900. Campbell-Bannerman caused particular friction within his own party when in a speech to the National Reform Union in June 1901 and shortly after meeting Emily Hobhouse, he described the Second Boer War#Concentration camps, concentration camps set up by the British in the Boer War as "methods of barbarism". The Liberal Party was later able to unify over its opposition to the Education Act 1902 and the Brussels Sugar Convention of 1902, in which Britain and nine other nations attempted to stabilise world sugar prices by setting up a commission to investigate export bounties and decide on penalties. The Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour had threatened countervailing duties and subsidies of West Indian sugar producers as a negotiating tool. The Convention's intent was to lead to the gradual phasing out of export bounties, and Britain would then forbid the importation of subsidised sugar. In a speech to the Cobden Club on 28 November 1902, Campbell-Bannerman denounced the Convention as threatening the sovereignty of Britain.
It means that we abandon our fiscal independence, together with our free-trade ways; that we subside into the tenth part of a ''Vehmgericht'' which is to direct us what sugar is to be countervailed, at what rate per cent. we are to countervail it, how much is to be put on for the bounty, and how much for the tariff being in excess of the convention tariff; and this being the established order of things, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer in his robes obeys the orders that he receives from this foreign convention, in which the Britisher is only one out of ten, and the House of Commons humbly submits to the whole transaction. ("Shame.") Sir, of all the insane schemes ever offered to a free country as a boon this is surely the maddest.
However, it was Joseph Chamberlain's proposals for Tariff Reform in May 1903 that provided the Liberals with a great and nationally resonating cause on which to campaign and unify, due to its protectionism, protectionist nature. Chamberlain's proposals dominated politics through the rest of 1903 up until the general election of 1906. Campbell-Bannerman, like other Liberals, held an unshakeable belief in
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
. In a speech at Bolton on 15 October 1903 he explained in greater detail the reasoning behind Liberal support for free trade.
We are satisfied that it is right because it gives the freest play to individual energy and initiative and character and the largest liberty both to producer and consumer. We say that trade is injured when it is not allowed to follow its natural course, and when it is either hampered or diverted by artificial obstacles.... We believe in free trade because we believe in the capacity of our countrymen. That at least is why I oppose protection root and branch, veiled and unveiled, one-sided or reciprocal. I oppose it in any form. Besides we have experience of fifty years, during which our prosperity has become the envy of the world.
In 1903, the Liberal Party's Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone negotiated a pact with Ramsay MacDonald of the Labour Party (UK)#Labour Representation Committee (1900–1906), Labour Representation Committee to withdraw Liberal candidates to help LRC candidates in certain seats, in return for LRC withdrawal in other seats to help Liberal candidates. This attempt to undermine and outflank the Conservatives, which would prove to be successful, formed what became known as the "Gladstone–MacDonald pact". Campbell-Bannerman got on well with Labour leaders, and he said in 1903 "we are keenly in sympathy with the representatives of Labour. We have too few of them in the House of Commons". Despite this comment, and his sympathies with many elements of the Labour movement, he was not a socialist. One biographer has written that "he was deeply and genuinely concerned about the plight of the poor and so had readily adopted the rhetoric of progressivism, but he was not a progressive".


Prime Minister

The Liberals found themselves suddenly returned to power in December 1905 when Arthur Balfour resigned as Prime Minister, prompting Edward VII of the United Kingdom, Edward VII to invite Campbell-Bannerman to form a minority government as the first Liberal Prime Minister of the 20th century. At 69, he was the oldest person to become Prime Minister for the first time in the 20th century, though Balfour had hoped that Campbell-Bannerman would not be able to form a strong government, ushering in a general election that he could win. Campbell-Bannerman also faced problems within his own party, through the so-called "the Relugas Compact, Relugas Compact" between
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
, Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Sir Edward Grey and Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, Richard Haldane, who planned to force him into the House of Lords, weakening him as Prime Minister and effectively allowing Asquith to govern as Leader of the House of Commons. Campbell-Bannerman saw off both of these issues by offering the positions of Chancellor of the Exchequer, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Foreign Secretary and
Secretary of State for War The Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg ...
to Asquith, Grey and Haldane respectively, which all three accepted, whilst immediately dissolving Parliament and calling 1906 United Kingdom general election, a general election. In his first public speech as Prime Minister on 22 December 1905, Campbell-Bannerman launched the Liberal election campaign, focusing on the traditional Liberal platform of "peace, retrenchment and reform":
Expenditure calls for taxes, and taxes are the plaything of the tariff reformer. Militarism, extravagance, protection are weeds which grow in the same field, and if you want to clear the field for honest cultivation you must root them all out. For my own part, I do not believe that we should have been confronted by the spectre of protection if it had not been for the South African war. Depend upon it that in fighting for our open ports and for the cheap food and material upon which the welfare of the people and the prosperity of our commerce depend we are fighting against those powers, privileges, injustices, and monopolies which are unalterably opposed to the triumph of democratic principles.
Helped by the Lib–Lab pact that he had negotiated, the splits in the Conservatives over free trade and the positive election campaign that he fought, the Liberals won by a landslide, gaining 216 seats. The Conservatives saw their number of seats more than halve, and Arthur Balfour, now as Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom), Leader of the Opposition, lost his Manchester East (UK Parliament constituency), Manchester East seat to the Liberals. Campbell-Bannerman was the last Liberal to lead his party to an absolute majority in the House of Commons. Now with a majority of 125, Campbell-Bannerman was returned to Downing Street as a considerably-strengthened Prime Minister. The defeat of the Relugas conspirators in the wake of this stunning victory was later referred to as "one of the most delicious comedies in British political history". Whereas in the past it had never been used formally, Campbell-Bannerman was the first
First Lord of the Treasury The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, pri ...
to be given official use of the title "Prime Minister", a standard that continues to the present day. In 1907, by virtue of being the Member of Parliament with the longest continuous service, Campbell-Bannerman became the Father of the House, the only serving British Prime Minister to do so.


Social reforms

In his election address, Campbell-Bannerman spoke in favour of reforming the poor law, reducing unemployment and improving working conditions in Sweatshop, sweated factories. The Liberal Imperialist Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, Richard Haldane claimed that Campbell-Bannerman's government "was if anything, too conservative...with that dear old Tory, C.B., at the head of it, determined to do as little as a fiery majority will allow him". However the historian A. J. A. Morris disagreed with this judgment, stating that Campbell-Bannerman was in 1906 what he had always been: a Gladstonian Liberal who favoured retrenchment in public expenditure that was perhaps at odds with any ambitious scheme of social reform. Another biographer, John Wilson, 2nd Baron Moran, John Wilson, called Campbell-Bannerman a moderate social reformer, stating that Campbell-Bannerman favoured a better deal for the poor and the workers but like Gladstone he was opposed to too much state interference. He was said to have commented on the futility of 'our wealth, and learning and the fine flower of our civilisation and our Constitution and our political theories' calling them 'but dust and ashes' if the people who labour, the workers on whom 'the whole social fabric is maintained', continued to 'live and die in darkness and misery' in what he called 'the recesses of our great cities'. CB said that 'sunshine must be allowed to stream in, the water and the food must be kept pure and unadulterated, the streets light and clean'. The government of Campbell-Bannerman allowed local authorities to provide Education (Provision of Meals) Act 1906, free school meals (though this was not compulsory) and also strengthened the power of the trade unions with their Trade Disputes Act 1906. The Workmen's Compensation Act 1906 gave some workers the right against their employer to a certain amount of compensation if they suffered an accident at work. The Probation of Offenders Act 1907 was passed, which established supervision within the community for young offenders as an alternative to prison. Under Campbell-Bannerman's successor, H. H. Asquith, many far-reaching Liberal welfare reforms, reforms were implemented, but Campbell-Bannerman himself had, in 1906, received a deputation from representatives of 25 women's Suffrage, suffragist groups (representing 1,000 women) though he said that his cabinet would object to this change.


House of Lords reforms

In the matter of House of Lords reforms, which was to become the dominant issue of the 1910 elections, Campbell-Bannerman proposed on 26 June 1907 that the Lords enjoy purely ornamental ancient privileges, but be deprived of all real legislative power; and that the Commons after tolerating for a few months the futile criticisms of the Lords would be empowered by mere lapse of a brief fraction of a year to ignore the very existence of a Second Chamber, and to proceed to pass their statute on their own authority, like the ordinances of the Long Parliament during the English civil war. In essence, he maintained that the predominance of the Commons must prevail, without any appeal to the constituencies (i.e. a further General Election). William Sharp McKechnie characterised this as an "untried one-chambered legislature" and stated that "it could only be carried out by some revolutionary procedure."


Foreign affairs

Campbell-Bannerman's first speech as prime minister endorsed the intent of the Hague Convention of 1907 to limit armaments. In March 1907, he published "''The Hague Conference and the Limitation of Armaments''", an article in which he cited the growing popular and moral authority of the peace movement as reasons to freeze the status quo in the naval arms race between Germany and Britain. His effort was generally considered a failure; in the words of historian Barbara Tuchman, "the argument was narrow steering between the rocks of conscience and the shoals of political reality and it pleased nobody." The 1907 conference ultimately restricted only a few new classes of armaments, such as submarine mines and projectiles fired or dropped from hot air balloons, but placed no limitations on naval expenditures. In 1906, Campbell-Bannerman created a minor diplomatic incident with the Russian government when he responded to Tsar Nicholas II's dissolution of the State Duma (Russian Empire), Duma with a speech in which he declared, "The Duma is dead; long live the Duma!" Nonetheless, his premiership saw the Anglo-Russian Entente, Entente with Russia in 1907, brought about principally by the Foreign Secretary, Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Sir Edward Grey. In January 1906 Grey sanctioned staff talks between Britain and France's army and navy but without any binding commitment. These included the plan to send one hundred thousand British soldiers to France within two weeks of a Franco-German war. Campbell-Bannerman was not informed of these at first but when Grey told him about them he gave them his blessing. This was the origin of the British Expeditionary Force (World War I), British Expeditionary Force that would be sent to France in 1914 at the start of the World War I, Great War with Germany. Campbell-Bannerman did not inform the rest of the Cabinet of these staff talks because there was no binding commitment and because he wanted to preserve the unity of the government. The radical members of the Cabinet such as Robert Reid, 1st Earl of Loreburn, Lord Loreburn, John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, Lord Morley and James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, Lord Bryce would have opposed such co-operation with the French. Campbell-Bannerman visited France in April 1907 and met the Radical Party (France), Radical Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau. Clemenceau believed that the British would help France in a war with Germany but Campbell-Bannerman told him Britain was in no way committed. He may have been unaware that the staff talks were still ongoing. Not long after this Violet Milner, Viscountess Milner, Violet Cecil met Clemenceau and she wrote down what he had said to her about the meeting:
Clemenceau said...'I am totally opposed to you – we both recognise a great danger and you are...reducing your army and weakening your navy.' 'Ah' said Bannerman 'but ''that'' is for economy!'...[Clemenceau] then said that he thought the English ought to have some kind of military service, at which Bannerman nearly fainted...'It comes to this' said Clemenceau 'in the event of your supporting us against Germany are you ready to abide by the plans agreed upon between our War Offices and to land 110,000 men on the coast while Italy marches with us in the ranks?' Then came the crowning touch of the interview. 'The sentiments of the English people would be totally averse to ''any'' troops being landed by England on the continent under any circumstances.' Clemenceau looks upon this as undoing the whole result of the entente cordiale and says that if that represents the final mind of the British Government, he has done with us.
Campbell-Bannerman's biographer John Wilson has described the meeting as "a clash between two fundamentally different philosophies". The Liberal journalist and friend of Campbell-Bannerman, Francis Wrigley Hirst, F. W. Hirst, claimed that Campbell-Bannerman "had not a ghost of a notion that the French Entente was being converted into a...return to the old Balance of power in international relations, balance of power which had involved Great Britain in so many wars on the Continent. That...Grey and Haldane did not inform the Cabinet is astonishing; that a true-hearted apostle of peace like Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman should have ''known'' of the danger and yet concealed it from his colleagues is incredible, and I am happy to conclude...with an assurance that in the days of his triumph the Liberal leader, having fought a good fight, kept the faith to the end and was in no way responsible for the European tragedy that came to pass six years after his death". Campbell-Bannerman's government granted the Boer states, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, self-government within the British Empire through an Order in Council so as to bypass the House of Lords. This led to the Union of South Africa in 1910. The first South African Prime Minister, General Louis Botha, believed that "Campbell-Bannerman's act [in giving self-government back to the Boers] had redressed the balance of the Anglo-Boer War, or had, at any rate, given full power to the South Africans themselves to redress it". The former Boer general, Jan Smuts, wrote to David Lloyd George in 1919: "My experience in South Africa has made me a firm believer in political magnanimity, and your and Campbell-Bannerman's great record still remains not only the noblest but also the ''most successful'' page in recent British statesmanship". However the Unionist politician Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, Lord Milner opposed it, saying in August 1907: "People here – not only Liberals – seem delighted, and to think themselves wonderfully fine fellows for having given South Africa back to the Boers. I think it all sheer lunacy".


Campbell-Bannerman's government

*Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman – Prime Minister,
First Lord of the Treasury The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, pri ...
and Leader of the House of Commons *Robert Reid, 1st Earl Loreburn, The Lord Loreburn – Lord Chancellor *Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe, The Earl of Crewe – Lord President of the Council *George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon, Lord Ripon – Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords *
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
– Chancellor of the Exchequer *Herbert Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone, Herbert Gladstone – Secretary of State for the Home Department *Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Sir Edward Grey – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs *Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, The Earl of Elgin – Secretary of State for the Colonies *Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, Richard Haldane –
Secretary of State for War The Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg ...
*John Morley – Secretary of State for India *Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth, The Lord Tweedmouth – First Lord of the Admiralty *David Lloyd George – President of the Board of Trade *Henry Fowler, 1st Viscount Wolverhampton, Sir Henry Fowler – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster *John Sinclair, 1st Baron Pentland, Sir John Sinclair – Secretary for Scotland *James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, James Bryce – Chief Secretary for Ireland *John Burns – President of the Local Government Board *Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire, The Earl Carrington – President of the Board of Agriculture *Augustine Birrell – President of the Board of Education *Sydney Buxton, 1st Earl Buxton, Sydney Buxton – United Kingdom Postmaster General, Postmaster-General


Changes

*January 1907 – Augustine Birrell succeeds Bryce as Irish Secretary. Reginald McKenna succeeds Birrell at the Board of Education. *March 1907 – Lewis Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt, Lewis Harcourt, the First Commissioner of Works, enters the Cabinet.


Retirement and death

Not long after he became Father of the House in 1907, Campbell-Bannerman's health took a turn for the worse. Following a series of heart attacks, the most serious in November 1907, he began to fear that he would not be able to survive to the end of his term. He eventually resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister on 3 April 1908, and was succeeded by his Chancellor of the Exchequer,
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
. Campbell-Bannerman remained both a Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament and Liberal Party (UK), Leader of the Liberal Party, and continued to live at 10 Downing Street in the immediate aftermath of his resignation, intending to make other arrangements in the near future. However, his health began to decline at an even quicker pace than before, and he died on 22 April 1908, nineteen days after his resignation. His last words were "This is not the end of me". He remains to date the only former Prime Minister to die within 10 Downing Street. Campbell-Bannerman was buried in the churchyard of Meigle, Meigle Parish Church, Perthshire, near Belmont Castle, his home since 1887. A relatively modest stone plaque set in the exterior wall of the church serves as a memorial. St Mary's Church, Hunton (English Heritage Legacy ID: 432265) contains a marble tablet on the nave wall dedicated to Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.


Legacy

On the day of Campbell-Bannerman's death the flag of the National Liberal Club was lowered to half-mast, the blinds were drawn and his portrait was draped in black as a sign of mourning.''The Times'' (23 April 1908), p. 5. John Redmond, the leader of the Irish Nationalist Party, paid tribute to Campbell-Bannerman by saying that "We all feel that Ireland has lost a brave and considerate friend". David Lloyd George said on hearing of Campbell-Bannerman's death:
I think it will be felt by the community as a whole as if they had lost a relative. Certainly those who have been associated with him closely for years will feel a deep sense of personal bereavement. I have never met a great public figure since I have been in politics who so completely won the attachment and affection of the men who came into contact with him. He was not merely admired and respected; he was absolutely loved by us all. I really cannot trust myself to say more. The masses of the people of this country, especially the more unfortunate of them, have lost the best friend they ever had in the high places of the land. His sympathy in all suffering was real, deep, and unaffected. He was truly a great man—a great head and a great heart. He was absolutely the bravest man I ever met in politics. He was entirely free from fear. He was a man of supreme courage. Ireland has certainly lost one of her truest friends, and what is true of Ireland is true of every section of the community of this Empire which has a fight to maintain against powerful foes.
In an uncharacteristically emotional speech on 27 April, the day of Campbell-Bannerman's funeral, his successor
H. H. Asquith Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liber ...
told the House of Commons:
What was the secret of the hold which in these later days he unquestionably had on the admiration and affection of men of all parties and all creeds? ...he was singularly sensitive to human suffering and wrong doing, delicate and even tender in his sympathies, always disposed to despise victories won in any sphere by mere brute force, an almost passionate lover of peace. And yet we have not seen in our time a man of greater courage—courage not of the defiant or aggressive type, but calm, patient, persistent, indomitable...In politics I think he may be fairly described as an idealist in aim, and an optimist by temperament. Great causes appealed to him. He was not ashamed, even on the verge of old age, to see visions and to dream dreams. He had no misgivings as to the future of democracy. He had a single-minded and unquenchable faith in the unceasing progress and the growing unity of mankind...He never put himself forward, yet no one had greater tenacity of purpose. He was the least cynical of mankind, but no one had a keener eye for the humours and ironies of the political situation. He was a strenuous and uncompromising fighter, a strong Party man, but he harboured no resentments, and was generous to a fault in appreciation of the work of others, whether friends or foes. He met both good and evil fortune with the same unclouded brow, the same unruffled temper, the same unshakable confidence in the justice and righteousness of his cause...He has gone to his rest, and to-day in this House, of which he was the senior and the most honoured Member, we may call a truce in the strife of parties, while we remember together our common loss, and pay our united homage to a gracious and cherished memory—
How happy is he born and taught
That serveth not another's will;
Whose armour is his honest thought,
And simple truth his utmost skill;
This man is freed from servile bands
Of hope to rise or fear to fall;
Lord of himself, though not of lands,
And, having nothing, yet hath all.
Robert Smillie, the trade unionist and Labour MP, said that, after Gladstone, Campbell-Bannerman was the greatest man he had ever met. George Dangerfield said Campbell-Bannerman's death "was like the passing of true Liberalism. Sir Henry had believed in Peace, Retrenchment, and Reform, those amiable deities who presided so complacently over large portions of the Victorian era... And now almost the last true worshipper at those large, equivocal altars lay dead". Campbell-Bannerman held firmly to the Liberal principles of Richard Cobden and William Ewart Gladstone. It was not until Campbell-Bannerman's departure that the doctrines of social liberalism, New Liberalism came to be implemented. R. B. McCallum stated that "Campbell-Bannerman was of pure Gladstonian vintage and a hero to the Radicals". Friedrich Hayek said: "Perhaps the government of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman... should be regarded as the last Liberal government of the old type, while under his successor, H. H. Asquith, new experiments in social policy were undertaken which were only doubtfully compatible with the older Liberal principles". Other historical accounts, however, have portrayed Campbell-Bannerman as a genuine progressive figure. According to one study, Campbell-Bannerman's views "were broadly those of the party's centre-left: a belief in individual freedom, a desire to help the disadvantaged, an aversion to imperialism and support for Irish self-government." During his time as Prime Minister, Campbell-Bannerman supported such measures as safeguards for trade unions, old-age pensions, and urban planning to improve housing. As far back as 1903, Campbell-Bannerman had spoken of the intention of the Liberal Party to do something about the "twelve million people in England [who] were living on the verge of starvation," During the Thirties, one-time Labour Party leader George Lansbury wrote admiringly of Campbell-Bannerman, describing him as a man who "believed in peace and was not afraid of the word Socialism, and did believe unemployment was a national problem and the unemployed the care of the State." His bronze bust, sculpted by Paul Raphael Montford, is in Westminster Abbey. There is a blue plaque outside Campbell-Bannerman's house at 6 Grosvenor Place in London, unveiled in 2008. Campbell-Bannerman was the subject of several parody novels based on ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Alice in Wonderland'', such as Edward Harold Begbie, Caroline Lewis's ''Clara in Blunderland'' (1902) and ''Lost in Blunderland'' (1903).Dickinson, Evelyn. 1902. "Literary Note and Books of the Month", in ''United Australia'', Vol. II, No. 12, 20 June 1902


See also

* Liberalism in the United Kingdom


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Bernstein, George L. "Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and the Liberal Imperialists." ''Journal of British Studies'' 23.1 (1983): 105–124. * Cameron, Ewen A. ''Maistly Scotch'' Campbell-Bannerman and Liberal Leadership', ''Journal of Liberal History'', Issue 54, Spring 2007. * Gutzke, David W. "Rosebery and Campbell‐Bannerman: the Conflict over Leadership Reconsidered." ''Historical Research'' 54.130 (1981): 241–250. * * Tony Greaves, Baron Greaves, Greaves, Tony. 'Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman', in Duncan Brack (ed.), ''Dictionary of Liberal Biography'' (Politico's, 1998), pp. 69–73. * Harris, J. F. and C. Hazlehurst, 'Campbell-Bannerman as prime minister', ''History'', 55 (1970), pp. 360–83
online
* Hattersley, Roy. ''Campbell-Bannerman'' (British Prime Ministers of the 20th century series) (Haus, 2006). * Leonard, Dick. "Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman—‘A Good, Honest Scotchman’." in Leonard, ''A Century of Premiers'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005) pp. 37–52. * Mackintosh, John Pitcairn. ''British Prime Ministers in the Twentieth Century: Balfour to Chamberlain. Vol. 1'' ( Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1977). * Massie, Robert K. ''Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War'' New York: Random House, 1991. * * O'Connor, T. P. ''Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman'' (Hodder & Stoughton, 1908). * * J. A. Spender, ''The Life of the Right Honourable Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman GCB'' (Hodder & Stoughton, 1923, 2 Volumes)
Vol. I online
* * Tuchman, Barbara. ''The Proud Tower''. Ed. Margaret MacMillan. New York: Library of America, 2012. *


External links

*
Campbell Bannerman caricature by Harry Furniss – UK Parliament Living HeritageSir Henry Campbell Bannerman
biography from the Liberal Democrat History Group
Biography
on the Downing Street website. * *
Political posters including Henry Campbell-Bannerman
on th
LSE Digital Library
*


Offices and titles

{{DEFAULTSORT:Campbell-Bannerman, Henry 1836 births 1908 deaths 20th-century prime ministers of the United Kingdom Liberal Party prime ministers of the United Kingdom People of the Victorian era British Secretaries of State Secretaries of State for War (UK) Leaders of the Liberal Party (UK) Scottish Liberal Party MPs UK MPs 1868–1874 UK MPs 1874–1880 UK MPs 1880–1885 UK MPs 1885–1886 UK MPs 1886–1892 UK MPs 1892–1895 UK MPs 1895–1900 UK MPs 1900–1906 UK MPs 1906–1910 Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for Scottish constituencies Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for Fife constituencies Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for Stirling constituencies Alumni of Trinity College, Cambridge Alumni of the University of Glasgow People educated at the High School of Glasgow Politicians from Glasgow Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Leaders of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom Members of the Privy Council of Ireland Chief Secretaries for Ireland 19th-century Scottish politicians Politicians awarded knighthoods People from Hunton, Kent