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Hearst Communications, Inc., often referred to simply as Hearst, is an American multinational mass media and
business informationBusiness information is one of the three main segments of the information industry. The other two segments are ''scientific, technical and medical (STM)'' and ''educational and training content''. While most of the content industry revenues are ...
conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a production crew and musical group founded by Busta Rhymes ** Con ...
based in the Hearst Tower in
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an ...

Midtown Manhattan
,
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
. Hearst owns newspapers, magazines,
television channel A television channel is a terrestrial frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the terrestrial or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with ...
s, and television stations, including the ''
San Francisco Chronicle The ''San Francisco Chronicle'' is a newspaper serving primarily the of . It was founded in 1865 as ''The Daily Dramatic Chronicle'' by teenage brothers and . The paper is owned by the , which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. It is ...
'', the ''
Houston Chronicle The ''Houston Chronicle'' is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in Texas, List of United States cities by population, fourth-most populous city in the ...
'', ''
Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
'' and ''
Esquire Esquire (, ; abbreviated Esq.) is usually a courtesy title A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children ...
''. It owns 50% of the
A&E Networks A&E Networks (stylized as A+E NETWORKS) is an American multinational broadcasting company that is a joint venture between Hearst Communications Hearst Communications, Inc., often referred to simply as Hearst, is an American multinational mass ...

A&E Networks
cable network group and 20% of the sports cable network group
ESPN ESPN (originally an initialism for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is an American multinational basic cable Cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequen ...
, both in partnership with
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
. The conglomerate also owns several business-information companies, including
Fitch Ratings Fitch Ratings Inc. is an American credit rating agency and is one of the " Big Three credit rating agencies", the other two being Moody's Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corp ...
and
First Databank First Databank (FDB) is a major provider of drug and medical device databases that help inform healthcare professionals to make decisions. FDB partners with information system developers to deliver useful medication- and medical device-related infor ...
. The company was founded by
William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, . His flamboyant methods of influen ...

William Randolph Hearst
as an owner of newspapers, and the Hearst family remains involved in its
ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germ ...
and management.


History


The formative years

In 1880,
George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820 – February 28, 1891) was an American businessman, miner, and politician. After growing up on a small farm in Missouri, he founded many mining operations, and is known for developing and expanding the Homesta ...

George Hearst
, mining entrepreneur and U.S. senator, bought the '' San Francisco Daily Examiner.'' In 1887, he turned the ''Examiner'' over to his son,
William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, . His flamboyant methods of influen ...

William Randolph Hearst
, who that year founded the Hearst Corporation. The younger Hearst eventually built readership for Hearst-owned newspapers and magazines from 15,000 to over 20 million. Hearst began to purchase and launched other newspapers, including the ''
New York Journal New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
'' in 1895 and the ''
Los Angeles Examiner The ''Los Angeles Examiner'' was a newspaper founded in 1903 by William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing th ...
'' in 1903. In 1903, Hearst created ''
Motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person ( ...
'' magazine, the first title in his company's magazine division. He acquired ''
Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
'' in 1905, and ''
Good Housekeeping ''Good Housekeeping'' is an American women's magazine This is a list of women's magazines from around the world. These are magazines that have been published primarily for a readership of woman, women. See also ''history of women's magazines''. ...
'' in 1911. The company entered the book publishing business in 1913 with the formation of Hearst's International Library. Hearst began producing film features in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest
animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, employ operators for that equipment, and hold a major stake in the sales or rentals o ...
s: the
International Film Service International Film Service (IFS) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known ...

International Film Service
, turning characters from Hearst newspaper strips into film characters. Hearst bought the ''
Atlanta Georgian ''The Atlanta Georgian'' was an American daily afternoon newspaper in Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georg ...
'' in 1912, the ''
San Francisco Call ''The San Francisco Call'' was a newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in ...
'' and the ''San Francisco Post'' in 1913, the ''
Boston Advertiser The ''Boston Daily Advertiser'' (est. 1813) was the first daily newspaper in Boston, and for many years the only daily paper in Boston. History Image:2351554954 Advertiser Boston.jpg, ''Daily Advertiser'' building, Boston, c. 1870s The ''Advertis ...
'' and the ''
Washington Times ''The Washington Times'' is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C., that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on Politics of the United States, national politics. Its broadsheet daily edition is distribut ...
'' (unrelated to the present-day paper) in 1917, and the '' Chicago Herald'' in 1918 (resulting in the ''Herald-Examiner''). In 1919, Hearst's book publishing division was renamed Cosmopolitan Book.


The peak era

An ad asking automakers to place ads in Hearst chain, noting their circulation In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, which included a number of magazines and newspapers in major cities. Hearst also began acquiring radio stations to complement his papers. Hearst saw financial challenges in the early 1920s, when he was using company funds to build
Hearst Castle Hearst Castle, San Simeon, is a National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a National Register of Historic Places property types, building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the Federa ...

Hearst Castle
in
San Simeon San Simeon (: ''San Simeón'', meaning "St. Simon") is a village and on the Pacific coast of . Its position along is about halfway between and , each of those cities being roughly away. A key feature of the area is , a hilltop mansion built f ...
and support movie production at
Cosmopolitan ProductionsCosmopolitan Productions, also often referred to as Cosmopolitan Pictures, was an American film company based in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous ...
. This eventually led to the merger of the magazine ''Hearst International'' with ''
Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
'' in 1925. Despite some financial troubles, Hearst began extending its reach in 1921, purchasing the ''
Detroit Times {{unreferenced, date=November 2013 Six different newspapers called the ''Detroit Times'' have been published in city of Detroit; the most recent existed for six decades, from 1900-60. Overview *The first iteration of the ''Detroit Times'' was an an ...
'', '' The Boston Record,'' and the ''
Seattle Post-Intelligencer The ''Seattle Post-Intelligencer'' (popularly known as the ''Seattle P-I'', the ''Post-Intelligencer'', or simply the ''P-I'') is an online newspaper An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic pub ...
.'' Hearst then added the ''
Los Angeles Herald The ''Los Angeles Herald'' or the ''Evening Herald'' was a newspaper published in Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the List of cities and t ...
'' and ''
Washington Herald ''The Washington Herald'' was an American daily newspaper in Washington, D.C., from October 8, 1906, to January 31, 1939. History The paper was founded in 1906 by Scott C. Bone, who had been managing editor of ''The Washington Post ''The ...
,'' as well as the ''Oakland Post-Enquirer'', the '' Syracuse Telegram'' and the '' Rochester Journal-American'' in 1922. He continued his buying spree into the mid-1920s, purchasing the '' Baltimore News'' (1923), the '' San Antonio Light'' (1924), the ''
Albany Times Union The ''Times Union'' is an American daily newspaper, serving the Capital District, New York, Capital Region of New York (state), New York. Although the newspaper focuses on Albany, New York, Albany and its suburbs, it covers all parts of the four-c ...
'' (1924), and ''
The Milwaukee Sentinel The ''Milwaukee Journal Sentinel'' is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where it is the primary newspaper. It is also the largest newspaper in the state of Wisconsin, where it is widely distributed. It is currently owned ...
'' (1924). In 1924, Hearst entered the tabloid market in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
with ''
New York Daily Mirror The ''New York Daily Mirror'' was an United States, American morning tabloid newspaper first published on June 24, 1924, in New York City by the William Randolph Hearst organization as a contrast to their mainstream broadsheets, the ''Evening Jou ...
'', meant to compete with the ''
New York Daily News The New York ''Daily News'', officially titled the ''Daily News'', is an American newspaper based in New York City. It was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson as the ''Illustrated Daily News''. It was the first U.S. daily printed in Tabl ...

New York Daily News
''. In addition to print and radio, Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the early 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created
Metro Goldwyn Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
. In 1929, Hearst and
MGM Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
created the Hearst Metrotone newsreels.


Retrenching after the Great Depression

The
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
hurt Hearst and his publications. Cosmopolitan Book was sold to
Farrar & Rinehart Farrar & Rinehart (1929–1946) was a United States book publishing company founded in New York. Farrar & Rinehart enjoyed success with both nonfiction and novels, notably, the landmark Rivers of America Series and the first ten books in the Nero ...
in 1931. After two years of leasing them to Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson (of the McCormick-Patterson family that owned the ''
Chicago Tribune The ''Chicago Tribune'' is a daily newspaper based in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnote ...

Chicago Tribune
''), Hearst sold her the ''Washington Times'' and ''Herald'' in 1939; she merged them to form the ''
Washington Times-Herald '' from February 26, 1922, prior to merger Image:Washington Herald 12 25 1922.pdf, 240px, Cover page ''The Washington Herald'' from December 25, 1922 edition, prior to merger The ''Washington Times-Herald'' (1939–1954) was an United States, Am ...
''. That year he also bought the ''
Milwaukee Sentinel The ''Milwaukee Journal Sentinel'' is a daily morning broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner (format ...
'' from Paul Block (who bought it from the Pfisters in 1929), absorbing his afternoon ''Wisconsin News'' into the morning publication. Also in 1939, he sold the ''Atlanta Georgian'' to Cox Newspapers, which merged it with the ''
Atlanta Journal ''The Atlanta Journal-Constitution'' is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a c ...
''. Hearst, with his chain now owned by his creditors after a 1937 liquidation, also had to merge some of his morning papers into his afternoon papers. In Chicago, he combined the morning ''Herald-Examiner'' and the afternoon ''American'' into the ''Herald-American'' in 1939. This followed the 1937 combination of the New York ''Evening Journal'' and the morning ''American'' into the ''
New York Journal-American New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
'', the sale of the '' Omaha Daily Bee'' to the ''
World-Herald The ''Omaha World-Herald'' is a daily newspaper in the Midwestern United States, midwestern United States, the primary newspaper of the Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area, Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Based in Omaha, Nebraska, Omah ...
''. Afternoon papers were a profitable business in pre-television days, often outselling their morning counterparts featuring stock market information in early editions, while later editions were heavy on sporting news with results of baseball games and horse races. Afternoon papers also benefited from continuous reports from the battlefront during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. After the war, however, both television news and suburbs experienced explosive growth; thus, evening papers were more affected than those published in the morning, whose circulation remained stable while their afternoon counterparts' sales plummeted. In 1947, Hearst produced an early television newscast for the
DuMont Television Network The DuMont Television Network (also known as the DuMont Network, simply DuMont/Du Mont, or (incorrectly) Dumont ) was one of America's pioneer commercial television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network ...
: ''
I.N.S. Telenews ''I.N.S. Telenews'' was an American news program aired on the now defunct DuMont Television Network The DuMont Television Network (also known as the DuMont Network, simply DuMont/Du Mont, or (incorrectly) Dumont ) was one of America's pioneer c ...
'', and in 1948 he became the owner of one of the first television stations in the country,
WBAL-TV WBAL-TV, virtual channel In most telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ove ...
in
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...

Baltimore
. The earnings of Hearst's three morning papers, the ''
San Francisco Examiner The ''San Francisco Examiner'' is a newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, California, and published since 1863. The longtime "Monarch of the Dailies" and flagship of the Hearst Corporation chain, the ''Examiner'' converted to free di ...

San Francisco Examiner
'', the ''
Los Angeles Examiner The ''Los Angeles Examiner'' was a newspaper founded in 1903 by William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing ...
'', and ''The Milwaukee Sentinel'', supported the company's money-losing afternoon publications such as the ''Los Angeles Herald-Express'', the ''
New York Journal-American New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
'', and the ''
Chicago American The ''Chicago American'' was an afternoon newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. News ...
''. The company sold the latter paper in 1956 to the ''
Chicago Tribune The ''Chicago Tribune'' is a daily newspaper based in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnote ...

Chicago Tribune
''s owners, who changed it to the tabloid-size ''Chicago Today'' in 1969 and ceased publication in 1974). In 1960, Hearst also sold the ''
Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph The ''Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph'' was an evening daily newspaper published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1927 to 1960. Part of the Hearst Corporation, Hearst newspaper chain, it competed with the Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Press, ''Press'' and Pittsb ...
'' to the ''
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette The ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette'', also known simply as the PG, is the largest newspaper serving metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding t ...

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
'' and the ''Detroit Times'' to ''
The Detroit News ''The Detroit News'' is one of the two major newspapers in the U.S. city of Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Au ...
''. After a lengthy strike it sold the ''Milwaukee Sentinel'' to the afternoon ''
Milwaukee Journal The ''Milwaukee Journal Sentinel'' is a daily morning broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format Newspaper formats vary substantially, with different formats more common in different countries. The size of a newspaper form ...
'' in 1962. The same year Hearst's Los Angeles papers – the morning ''Examiner'' and the afternoon ''Herald-Express'' – merged to become the evening ''
Los Angeles Herald-Examiner The ''Los Angeles Herald Examiner'' was a major Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the L.A., is the in . With a 2020 population of 3,898,747, it is the in the , following ...
''. The
1962-63 New York City newspaper strike Year 196 (Roman numerals, CXCVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Dexter and Messalla (or, less frequently, year 949 ''A ...
left the city with no papers for over three months, with the ''Journal-American'' one of the earliest strike targets of the Typographical Union. The ''Boston Record'' and the ''Evening American'' merged in 1961 as the ''Record-American'' and in 1964, the ''Baltimore News-Post'' became the ''Baltimore News-American''. In 1953 Hearst Magazines bought ''
Sports Afield ''Sports Afield'' (SA) was founded in 1887 by Claude King, as a hunting and fishing magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. M ...
'' magazine, which it published until 1999 when it sold the journal to
Robert E. Petersen Robert Einar "Pete" Petersen (September 10, 1926 – March 23, 2007) was an United States, American publisher who founded the Petersen Automotive Museum in 1994.Hevesi, Dennis (March 27, 2007)Robert Petersen, Publisher of Auto Buff Magazines, ...
. In 1958, Hearst's International News Service merged with E.W. Scripps'
United Press United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and All-news radio, radio and New ...
, forming
United Press International United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and All-news radio, radio and New ...
as a response to the growth of the
Associated Press The Associated Press (AP) is an American non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, publ ...

Associated Press
and
Reuters Reuters (, ) is an international news organisation owned by Thomson Reuters. It employs around 2,500 journalists and 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters is one of the largest news agencies in the world. The agency w ...
. The following year Scripps-Howard's ''San Francisco News'' merged with Hearst's afternoon ''San Francisco Call-Bulletin''. Also in 1959, Hearst acquired the paperback book publisher
Avon Books Avon Publications is one of the leading publishers of Romance novel, romance fiction. At Avon's initial stages, it was an American mass market paperback, paperback book and comic book publisher. The shift in content occurred in the early 1970s with ...
. In 1965, the Hearst Corporation began pursuing
Joint Operating Agreement The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 was an Act of the United States Congress, signed by President Richard Nixon, authorizing the formation of joint operating agreements among competing newspaper operations within the same market area. It exempte ...
s (JOA's). It reached the first agreement with the DeYoung family, proprietors of the afternoon ''
San Francisco Chronicle The ''San Francisco Chronicle'' is a newspaper serving primarily the of . It was founded in 1865 as ''The Daily Dramatic Chronicle'' by teenage brothers and . The paper is owned by the , which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. It is ...
'', which began to produce a joint Sunday edition with the ''Examiner''. In turn, the ''Examiner'' became an evening publication, absorbing the '' News-Call-Bulletin''. The following year, the ''Journal-American'' reached another JOA with another two landmark New York City papers: the ''
New York Herald Tribune The ''New York Herald Tribune'' was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924 when Ogden Mills Reid Ogden Mills Reid (May 16, 1882 – January 3, 1947) was an American newspaper publisher who was president of the '' ...
'' and
Scripps-Howard The E. W. Scripps Company is an American broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions ...
's '' World-Telegram and Sun'' to form the ''New York World Journal Tribune'' (recalling the names of the city's mid-market dailies), which collapsed after only a few months. The 1962 merger of the ''Herald-Express'' and ''Examiner'' in Los Angeles led to the termination of many journalists who began to stage a 10-year strike in 1967. The effects of the strike accelerated the pace of the company's demise, with the ''Herald Examiner'' ceasing publication November 2, 1989.


Newspaper shifts

Hearst moved into hardcover publishing by acquiring
Arbor House Arbor House was an independent publishing house founded by Donald Fine in 1969. Specializing in hard cover publications, Arbor House published works by Hortense Calisher, Ken Follett, Cynthia Freeman, Elmore Leonard and Irwin Shaw before being acqui ...
in 1978 and
William Morrow and Company William Morrow and Company is an American publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distributi ...
in 1981. In 1982, the company sold the ''
Boston Herald American The ''Boston Herald'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. ...
'' — the result of the 1972 merger of Hearst's ''Record-American & Advertiser'' with the ''Herald-Traveler'' — to
Rupert Murdoch Keith Rupert Murdoch ( ; born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American billionaire businessman, media tycoon, and investor. Through his company News Corp The current incarnation of News Corporation, stylized as News Corp, is an A ...

Rupert Murdoch
's
News Corporation The original incarnation of News Corporation (abbreviated News Corp.) was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a mi ...
, which renamed the paper as ''
The Boston Herald The ''Boston Herald'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. ...
'', competing to this day with the ''
Boston Globe ''The Boston Globe'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
''. In 1986, Hearst bought the ''
Houston Chronicle The ''Houston Chronicle'' is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in Texas, List of United States cities by population, fourth-most populous city in the ...
'' and that same year closed the 213-year-old ''
Baltimore News-American The ''Baltimore News-American'' was a broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner (format), Berliner and Tabl ...
'' after a failed attempt to reach a JOA with A.S. Abell Company, the family who published ''
The Baltimore Sun ''The Baltimore Sun'' is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virgini ...
'' since its founding in 1837. Abell sold the paper several days later to the
Times-Mirror The Times Mirror Company was an American newspaper and print media publisher from 1884 until 2000. History It had its roots in the Mirror Printing and Binding House, a commercial printing company founded in 1873, and the ''The Los Angeles Time ...

Times-Mirror
syndicate of the Chandlers' ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'', also competitor to the evening ''
Los Angeles Herald-Examiner The ''Los Angeles Herald Examiner'' was a major Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the L.A., is the in . With a 2020 population of 3,898,747, it is the in the , following ...
'', which folded in 1989. In 1990, both King Features Entertainment and King Phoenix Entertainment were rebranded under the collective Hearst Entertainment umbrella. King Features Entertainment was renamed to Hearst Entertainment Distribution, while King Phoenix Entertainment was renamed to Hearst Entertainment Productions. In 1993, Hearst closed the ''San Antonio Light'' after it purchased the rival ''
San Antonio Express-News The ''San Antonio Express-News'' is a daily newspaper in San Antonio, Texas ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg , mapsize = 220px , map_caption = Location within Bexar Count ...
'' from Murdoch. On November 8, 1990, Hearst Corporation acquired the remaining 20% stake of ESPN, Inc. from
RJR Nabisco RJR Nabisco, Inc., was an American conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a production cr ...
for a price estimated between $165 million and $175 million. The other 80% has been owned by
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
since 1996. Over the last 25 years, the ESPN investment is said to have accounted for at least 50% of total Hearst Corp profits and is worth at least $13 billion. On July 31, 1996, Hearst and the Cisneros Group of Companies of Venezuela announced its plans to launch
Locomotion Locomotion means the act or ability of an entity or person to transport or move oneself from place to place. Locomotion or Loco-Motion may refer to: Motion * Motion (physics) *Specific types of motion ** Animal locomotion *** Terrestrial locomoti ...
, a Latin American animation cable television channel. On March 27, 1997, Hearst Broadcasting announced that it would merge with Argyle Television Holdings II for $525 million, the merger was completed in August to form Hearst-Argyle Television (later renamed as Hearst Television in 2009). In 1999, Hearst sold its Avon and Morrow book publishing activities to
HarperCollins HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the Big FiveBig Five may refer to: Animals * the Big five game, Big Five, large African wild animals said to be most difficult to hunt: lion, leopard, rhinoceros, elephant and Cape buffalo * Big Five an ...
. In 2000, the Hearst Corp. pulled another "switcheroo" by selling its flagship and "Monarch of the Dailies", the afternoon ''San Francisco Examiner'', and acquiring the long-time competing, but now larger morning paper, ''
San Francisco Chronicle The ''San Francisco Chronicle'' is a newspaper serving primarily the of . It was founded in 1865 as ''The Daily Dramatic Chronicle'' by teenage brothers and . The paper is owned by the , which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. It is ...
'' from the
Charles de Young Charles de Young (January 8, 1846 – April 23, 1880), along with his younger brother M. H. de Young, founded the newspaper The Daily Dramatic Chronicle, which became the '' San Francisco Chronicle'', and was its editor-in-chief. He was murdered b ...
family. The ''San Francisco Examiner'' is now published as a daily freesheet. In December 2003,
Marvel Entertainment Marvel Entertainment, LLC (formerly Marvel Enterprises) is an American entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial m ...
acquired ''Cover Concepts'' from Hearst, to extend Marvel's demographic reach among public school children. In 2009,
A&E Networks A&E Networks (stylized as A+E NETWORKS) is an American multinational broadcasting company that is a joint venture between Hearst Communications Hearst Communications, Inc., often referred to simply as Hearst, is an American multinational mass ...

A&E Networks
acquired
Lifetime Entertainment Services Lifetime Entertainment Services (LES) is an American entertainment industry Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or ...
, with Hearst ownership increasing to 42%. In 2010, Hearst acquired
digital marketing Digital marketing is the component of marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or ...
agency iCrossing. In 2011, Hearst absorbed more than 100 magazine titles from the Lagardere group for more than $700 million and became a challenger of Time Inc ahead of Condé Nast Publications, Condé Nast. In December 2012, Hearst Corporation partnered again with NBCUniversal to launch Esquire Network. On February 20, 2014, Hearst Magazines International appointed Gary Ellis to the new position, Chief Digital Officer. That December, DreamWorks Animation sold a 25% stake in AwesomenessTV (company), AwesomenessTV for $81.25 million to Hearst. In January 2017, Hearst announced that it had acquired a majority stake in Litton Entertainment. Its CEO, Dave Morgan, was a former employee of Hearst. On January 23, 2017, Hearst announced that it had acquired the business operations of The Pioneer Group from fourth-generation family owners Jack and John Batdorff. The Pioneer Group was a Michigan-based communications network that circulates print and digital news to local communities across the state. In addition to daily newspapers, ''The Pioneer'' and ''Manistee News Advocate'', Pioneer published three weekly papers and four local shopper publications, and operated a
digital marketing Digital marketing is the component of marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or ...
services business. The acquisition brought Hearst Newspapers to publishing 19 daily and 61 weekly papers. Other 2017 acquisitions include the ''New Haven Register'' and associated papers from Digital First Media, and the Alton, Illinois, ''The Telegraph (Alton, Illinois), Telegraph'' and Jacksonville, Illinois, ''Journal-Courier'' from Civitas Media. In October 2017, Hearst announced it would acquire the magazine and book businesses of Rodale, Inc., Rodale, with some sources reporting the purchase price as about $225 million. The transaction was expected to close in January following government approvals.


Chief executive officers

* In 1880,
George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820 – February 28, 1891) was an American businessman, miner, and politician. After growing up on a small farm in Missouri, he founded many mining operations, and is known for developing and expanding the Homesta ...

George Hearst
entered the newspaper business, acquiring the ''San Francisco Examiner, San Francisco Daily Examiner.'' * On March 4, 1887, he turned the ''Examiner'' over to his son, 23-year-old
William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Sr. (; April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, . His flamboyant methods of influen ...

William Randolph Hearst
, who was named editor and publisher. William Hearst died in 1951, at age 88. * In 1951, Richard E. Berlin, who had served as president of the company since 1943, succeeded William Hearst as chief executive officer. Berlin retired in 1973. William Randolph Hearst Jr. claimed in 1991 that Berlin had suffered from Alzheimer's disease starting in the mid-1960s and that caused him to shut down several Hearst newspapers without just cause. * From 1973 to 1975, Frank Massi, a longtime Hearst financial officer, served as president, during which time he carried out a financial reorganization followed by an expansion program in the late 1970s. * From 1975 to 1979, John R. Miller was Hearst president and chief executive officer. * Frank Bennack served as CEO and president from 1979 to 2002, when he became vice chairman, returning as CEO from 2008 to 2013, and remains executive vice chairman. * Victor F. Ganzi served as president and CEO from 2002 to 2008. * Steven Swartz has been president since 2012 and CEO since 2013.


Operating group heads

* David Carey previously served as chairman and group head of the magazines. Debi Chirichella is that unit's president. * Jeffrey M. Johnson became president of Hearst Newspapers in 2018 upon the promotion of Mark Aldam to executive vice president and chief operating officer of the parent company.


Assets

A non-exhaustive list of its current properties and investments includes:


Magazines

* ''Autoweek'' * ''Bicycling (magazine), Bicycling'' * ''Billboard (magazine)'' * ''Car and Driver'' * ''
Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
'' * ''Country Living'' * ''Mehmet Oz#Author, Dr. Oz THE GOOD LIFE'' * ''Elle (magazine), ELLE'' (US and UK) * ''Elle Decor'' * ''
Esquire Esquire (, ; abbreviated Esq.) is usually a courtesy title A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children ...
'' * ''Food Network Magazine'' * ''
Good Housekeeping ''Good Housekeeping'' is an American women's magazine This is a list of women's magazines from around the world. These are magazines that have been published primarily for a readership of woman, women. See also ''history of women's magazines''. ...
'' * ''Harper's Bazaar'' * ''HGTV Magazine'' * ''The Hollywood Reporter'' * ''House Beautiful'' * ''Men's Health (magazine), Men's Health'' * ''Nat Mags'' * ''O, The Oprah Magazine'' * ''Popular Mechanics'' * ''Prevention (magazine), Prevention'' * ''Red'' * ''Redbook'' * ''Road & Track'' * ''Rodale's Organic Life'' * ''Runner's World'' * ''Seventeen (American magazine), Seventeen'' (digital) * ''Town & Country (magazine), Town & Country'' * ''Veranda (magazine), Veranda'' * ''Woman's Day'' * ''Women's Health (magazine), Women's Health'' * Hearst Books (in partnership with Sterling Publishing)


Newspapers

(alphabetical by state, then title) * ''
San Francisco Chronicle The ''San Francisco Chronicle'' is a newspaper serving primarily the of . It was founded in 1865 as ''The Daily Dramatic Chronicle'' by teenage brothers and . The paper is owned by the , which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. It is ...
'' (San Francisco, California) * ''The News-Times'' (Danbury, Connecticut) * ''Greenwich Time (newspaper), Greenwich Time'' (Greenwich, Connecticut) * ''The Advocate (Stamford), The Advocate'' (Stamford, Connecticut) * ''Connecticut Post'' (Bridgeport, Connecticut) * ''The Middletown Press'' (Middletown, Connecticut) * ''New Haven Register'' (New Haven, Connecticut) * ''The Hour (newspaper), The Hour'' (Norwalk, Connecticut) * ''The Register Citizen'' (Torrington, Connecticut) * ''The Telegraph (Alton, Illinois), The Telegraph'' (Alton, Illinois) * ''Edwardsville Intelligencer'' (Edwardsville, Illinois) * ''Jacksonville Journal-Courier'' (Jacksonville, Illinois) * ''Huron Daily Tribune'' (Bad Axe, Michigan) * ''Pioneer'' (Big Rapids, Michigan) * ''Manistee News Advocate'' (Manistee, Michigan) * ''Midland Daily News'' (Midland, Michigan) * ''Times Union (Albany), Times Union'' (Albany, New York) * ''Beaumont Enterprise'' (Beaumont, Texas) * ''
Houston Chronicle The ''Houston Chronicle'' is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in Texas, List of United States cities by population, fourth-most populous city in the ...
'' (Houston, Texas) * ''Laredo Morning Times'' (Laredo, Texas) * ''Midland Reporter-Telegram'' (Midland, Texas) * ''Plainview Daily Herald'' (Plainview, Texas) * ''
San Antonio Express-News The ''San Antonio Express-News'' is a daily newspaper in San Antonio, Texas ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg , mapsize = 220px , map_caption = Location within Bexar Count ...
'' (San Antonio, Texas) * ''
Seattle Post-Intelligencer The ''Seattle Post-Intelligencer'' (popularly known as the ''Seattle P-I'', the ''Post-Intelligencer'', or simply the ''P-I'') is an online newspaper An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic pub ...
'' (Seattle, Washington)


Broadcasting

* A&E Networks, A+E Networks (owns 50%; shared joint venture with
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
) * ESPN, Inc. (owns 20%; also shared with Disney, which owns the other 80%) ** List of assets owned by Bell Media#CTV Specialty Television, CTV Specialty Television (owns 4% through its co-ownership of ESPN; shared joint venture with Bell Media, which owns 80%) * Hearst Television (owns 100%; owner of 29 local television stations and two local radio stations/one translator) * Litton Entertainment (owns 100%; provider of broadcast syndication, syndicated programming, mainly Regulations on children's television programming in the United States, educational and informational programming, and contracted with four of the five major broadcast networks to provide their weekly educational output)


Internet

* BestProducts.com * Clevver * Delish.com * Digital Spy * NetDoctor * Hearst Interactive Media


Other

* Black Book (National Auto Research) * CDS Global *
First Databank First Databank (FDB) is a major provider of drug and medical device databases that help inform healthcare professionals to make decisions. FDB partners with information system developers to deliver useful medication- and medical device-related infor ...
*
Fitch Ratings Fitch Ratings Inc. is an American credit rating agency and is one of the " Big Three credit rating agencies", the other two being Moody's Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corp ...
* Homecare Homebase * iCrossing * Jumpstart Automotive Group * King Features Syndicate * KUBRA * LocalEdge (Buffalo, New York) * Map of Medicine * MCG Health * ODG by Workloss Data Institute * Zynx Health


Trustees of William Randolph Hearst's will

Under William Randolph Hearst's will, a common board of thirteen trustees (its composition fixed at five family members and eight outsiders) administers the Hearst Foundation, the William Randolph Hearst Foundation, and the trust that owns (and selects the 26-member board of) the Hearst Corporation (immediate parent of Hearst Communications which shares the same officers). The foundations shared ownership until Tax Reform Act of 1969, tax law changed to prevent this. In 2009, it was estimated to be the largest private company managed by trustees in this way. As of 2017, the trustees are:


Family members

* Anissa Bouadjakdji Balson, granddaughter of fifth son, David Whitmire Hearst Sr. * Lisa Hearst Hagerman, granddaughter of third son, John Randolph Hearst Sr. * George Randolph Hearst III, grandson of Hearst's eldest son, George Randolph Hearst Sr., and publisher of the ''Albany Times Union'' * William Randolph Hearst III, son of second son, William Randolph Hearst Jr., and chairman of the board of the corporation * Virginia Hearst Randt, daughter of late former chairman and fourth son, Randolph Apperson Hearst


Non-family members

* James M. Asher, chief legal and development officer of the corporation * David J. Barrett, former chief executive officer of Hearst Television, Inc. * Frank A. Bennack Jr., former chief executive officer and executive vice chairman of the corporation * John G. Conomikes, former executive of the corporation * Gilbert C. Maurer, former chief operating officer of the corporation and former president of Hearst Magazines * Mark F. Miller, former executive vice president of Hearst Magazines * Mitchell Scherzer, senior vice president and chief financial officer of the corporation * Steven R. Swartz, president and chief executive officer of the corporation The trust dissolves when all family members alive at the time of Hearst's death in August 1951 have died.


See also

* 224 West 57th Street, former building occupied by Hearst * Newsboys' strike of 1899


References


Further reading

* Carlisle, Rodney. "The Foreign Policy Views of an Isolationist Press Lord: WR Hearst and the International Crisis, 1936-41." ''Journal of Contemporary History'' 9.3 (1974): 217–227. * Nasaw, David. ''The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. ''(2000). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ., a prominent scholarly biography. * Pizzitola, Louis. ''Hearst over Hollywood: power, passion, and propaganda in the movies'' (Columbia UP, 2002). * Procter, Ben H. ''William Randolph Hearst: Final Edition, 1911-1951.'' (Oxford UP 2007). * Whyte, Kenneth. ''The uncrowned king: The sensational rise of William Randolph Hearst'' (2009).


External links

*
The Hearst Foundation, Inc.
{{Authority control Hearst Communications, Hearst family Magazine publishing companies of the United States Newspaper companies of the United States Publishing companies based in New York City Companies based in Manhattan American companies established in 1887 Publishing companies established in 1887 1887 establishments in California Privately held companies based in New York City William Randolph Hearst Family-owned companies of the United States