HOME

TheInfoList



Ge or Ghe (Г г; italics: ''Г'' ''г'') is a letter of the
Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt, used ...
. It is also known in some languages as He. It commonly represents the
voiced velar plosive The voiced velar plosive or stop is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced wi ...

voiced velar plosive
, like in "gift". It is generally romanized using the Latin letter
G
G
, but to romanize
Belarusian Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byeloru ...
,
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
and Rusyn, the Latin letter
H
H
is used.


History

The Cyrillic letter Ghe was derived directly from the Greek letter
Gamma Gamma (uppercase , lowercase ; ''gámma'') is the third letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician ...

Gamma
(Γ) in
uncial script Uncial is a majuscule Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minuscule'') in the written represe ...
. In the
Early Cyrillic alphabet The Early Cyrillic alphabet, also called classical Cyrillic or paleo-Cyrillic, is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") ...

Early Cyrillic alphabet
, its name was (''glagoli''), meaning "speak". e In the
Cyrillic numeral system Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century. It was used in the First Bulgarian Empire and by South Slavs, South and East Slavs, East Slavic peoples. The ...
, it had a numerical value of 3. ghe or ge * G * Ghe * Old Bulgarian,Crunch slovenic,russia,tat,juedo tat and Ukrainian


Usage in Slavic languages


South Slavic

In standard
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refer to: ** Serbian language ...
,
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
, Montenegrin,
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
and
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
the letter Ghe represents a
voiced velar plosive The voiced velar plosive or stop is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced wi ...

voiced velar plosive
but is devoiced to word-finally or before a voiceless consonant.


Russian

In standard
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, Ghe represents the
voiced velar plosive The voiced velar plosive or stop is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced wi ...

voiced velar plosive
but is devoiced to word-finally or before a voiceless consonant. It represents before a palatalizing vowel. In the
Southern Russian Southern Russian is one of the main groups of Russian dialects. Territory * The territory of the ''primary formation'' (i.e. that consists of "Old" Russia of the 16th century before Eastern conquests by Ivan IV Ivan IV Vasilyevich ( rus, И ...
dialect, the sound becomes the
velar fricativeA velar fricative is a fricative consonant produced at the velar place of articulation. It is possible to distinguish the following kinds of velar fricatives: *Voiced velar fricative, a consonant sound written as in the International Phonetic Alphab ...

velar fricative
. Sometimes, the sound is the
glottal fricative
glottal fricative
in the regions bordering Belarus and Ukraine. It is acceptable, for some people, to pronounce certain Russian words with (sometimes referred to as ''Ukrainian Ge''): (''Bog, bogatyj, blago, Gospod’''). The sound is normally considered nonstandard or dialectal in Russian and is avoided by educated Russian speakers. (''Bog'', "God") is always pronounced in the
nominative case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The te ...
. In the Russian nominal genitive ending , Ghe represents , including in the word ("today", from ). It represents a voiceless (not ) in front of Ka in two Russian words, namely, and , and their derivatives. The Latin letter H of words of Latin, Greek, English or German origin is usually transliterated into Russian with Ghe rather than Kha: ''hero'' → , ''hamburger'' → , ''Haydn'' → . That can occasionally cause ambiguity, as for example English ''Harry'' and ''Gary''/''Garry'' would be spelled the same in Russian, eg.
Гарри Поттер
Гарри Поттер
). The reasons for using Ghe to write ''h'' include the fact that Ghe is used for ''h'' in Ukrainian, Belarusian and some Russian dialects, along with the perception that Kha sounds too harsh. Nevertheless, in newer loanwords (especially from English), Kha is often used.


Belarusian, Ukrainian and Rusyn

In
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
and Rusyn, it represents a
voiced glottal fricative The voiced glottal fricative, sometimes called breathy-voiced glottal transition, is a type of sound used in some Speech communication, spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant ''phonology, phonologically'', but o ...

voiced glottal fricative
, a
breathy voice Breathy voice (also called murmured voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studie ...
d counterpart of the English . In
Belarusian Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byeloru ...
(like in Southern Russian), the letter corresponds to the
velar fricativeA velar fricative is a fricative consonant produced at the velar place of articulation. It is possible to distinguish the following kinds of velar fricatives: *Voiced velar fricative, a consonant sound written as in the International Phonetic Alphab ...

velar fricative
and its soft counterpart . In both languages, the letter is called ''He'' and transliterated with H rather than with G. In Ukrainian, Rusyn and Belarusian, a voiced velar plosive is written with the Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ) in Ukrainian (transliterated with G) and with the digraph кг in Belarusian (also ґ in
Taraškievica Taraškievica or Belarusian Classical Orthography (, be, тарашкевіца / клясычны правапіс) is a variant of orthography of the Belarusian language Belarusian (; in Belarusian: , , ) is an East Slavic language spoken b ...
).


Usage in non-Slavic languages

In many non-Slavic languages it can represent both and (the latter mostly in
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
and some
Finno-Ugric languages Finno-Ugric ( or ; ''Fenno-Ugric'') or Finno-Ugrian (''Fenno-Ugrian''), is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family A languag ...

Finno-Ugric languages
). In Ossetian, an
Indo-Iranian languageIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking these languages * India–Iran relations * ''Indo-Iranian Journal'' See also

*Aryan *Proto-Indo-Iranian language *Indo-Iranian languages *Indo-Euro ...

Indo-Iranian language
spoken in the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven ...
, ⟨г⟩ represents the voiced velar stop . However, the digraph ⟨гъ⟩ represents the
voiced uvular fricative The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the fr ...

voiced uvular fricative
.


Related letters and other similar characters

*Γ γ: *G g: *Ґ ґ: Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn, now just named ''ghe'' (or ''ge'') in Ukrainian *Ѓ ѓ: Cyrillic letter Gje *Ғ ғ: Cyrillic letter Ghayn *:
Ukrainian hryvnia The hryvnia, hryvna, or sometimes hryvnya ( ; uk, гривня , : ''hrn''; sign A sign is an object, quality, event, or entity whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else. A natural sign ...
(Currency sign)


Computing codes


References


External links

* * {{Authority control