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Hattic (Hattian) was a non-
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
agglutinative Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines *Morphology (archaeology) In archaeology, morphology is the study of the shape of ...
language spoken by the
Hattians The Hattians () were an ancient Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the ...
in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
in the
2nd millennium BC The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban de ...
. Scholars call the language "Hattic" to distinguish it from
Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** Hittite religion ** ...
, the Indo-European language of the
Hittite Empire The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa Hattusa (also ...

Hittite Empire
. The form "Hittite" in English originally comes from Biblical Heth, quite possibly connected to common Assyrian and Egyptian designations of "Land of the Hatti" (Khatti) west of the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). O ...
. It is unknown what the native speakers of ''"hattili"'' called their own language. The heartland of the oldest attested language of
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, before the arrival of Hittite-speakers, ranged from
Hattusa Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas ; Hittite language, Hittite: URU (Sumerogram), URU''Ḫa-at-tu-ša'', Hattic language, Hattic: Hattush) was the capital of the Hittites, Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazk ...
, then called "Hattus", northward to
Nerik Nerik (Hittite language, Hittite: ''Nerik(ka)''"Nerik(ka)." ''Reallexikon der Assyriologie.'') was a Bronze Age settlement to the north of the Hittites, Hittite capitals Hattusa and Sapinuwa, probably in the Pontus (region), Pontic region. The Hit ...
. Other cities mentioned in Hattic include Tuhumiyara and Tissaruliya. Hittite-speakers conquered Hattus from Kanesh to its south in the 18th century BC. They eventually absorbed or replaced the Hattic-speakers (
Hattians The Hattians () were an ancient Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the ...
) but retained the name ''Hatti'' for the region.


Corpus

No document has been found in which native Hattic-speakers wrote their own language. Scholars must rely on indirect sources or mentions by their neighbours and successors, the Hittites. Some Hattic words can be found in religious tablets of Hittite priests that date from the 14th and the 13th centuries BC. The passages contained, between the lines of the text signs, the explanation "the priest is now speaking in Hattic". Roots of Hattic words can also be found in the names of mountains, rivers, cities and gods. Other Hattic words can be found in some mythological texts. The most important of these is the myth "The Moon God who fell from the Sky", written in both Hattic and Hittite. All published Hattic documents are catalogued in the
Catalogue des textes hittitesThe corpus of texts written in the Hittite language Hittite (natively / "the language of Neša", or ''nešumnili'' / "the language of the people of Neša"), also known as Nesite (''Nešite'' / Neshite, Nessite), was an Indo-European language ...
(CTH). Documents from
Hattusa Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas ; Hittite language, Hittite: URU (Sumerogram), URU''Ḫa-at-tu-ša'', Hattic language, Hattic: Hattush) was the capital of the Hittites, Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazk ...
span CTH 725-745. Of these CTH 728, 729, 731, 733, and 736 are Hattic/Hittite bilinguals. CTH 737 is a Hattic incantation for the festival at
Nerik Nerik (Hittite language, Hittite: ''Nerik(ka)''"Nerik(ka)." ''Reallexikon der Assyriologie.'') was a Bronze Age settlement to the north of the Hittites, Hittite capitals Hattusa and Sapinuwa, probably in the Pontus (region), Pontic region. The Hit ...
. One key, if fragmentary, bilingual is the story of "The Moon God Who Fell from the Sky". There are additional Hattic texts in
Sapinuwa Sapinuwa (sometimes Shapinuwa; Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptio ...
, which had not been published as of 2004.


Classification

The conservative view is that Hattic is a
language isolate Language isolates are languages that cannot be classified into larger language families with any other languages. Korean language, Korean and Basque language, Basque are two of the most commonly cited language isolates, but there are many others. ...
, different from neighboring
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
and
Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religions * Abrahamic religions ** ...
languages. Based on
toponyms Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt: ...
and personal names, however, it may have been related to the otherwise unattested
Kaskian language Kaskian (Kaskean) was the language of the Kaskians (Kaska) of northeastern Bronze Age Anatolia, in the mountains along the Black Sea coast. The ''Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture'' lists the Kaskians as non–Indo-European. There are a numb ...
. Certain similarities between Hattic and both
Abkhazo-Adyghean
 Abkhazo-Adyghean
and Kartvellian languages have led to proposals by some scholars about the possibility of a linguistic bloc, from central
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
to the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
. According to Alexey Kassian, there are also possible lexical correspondences between Hattic and
Yeniseian languages The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak Ostyak (russian: Остя́к, "Easterner") is a name formerly used to refer to several indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, ...
, as well as
Burushaski language Burushaski (; ) is a language isolate Language isolates are languages that cannot be classified into larger language families with any other languages. Korean language, Korean and Basque language, Basque are two of the most commonly cited lan ...

Burushaski language
; for instance, "tongue" is ''alef'' in Hattic and ''alup'' in Kott, "moon" is ''kap'' in Hattic and ''qīp'' in Ket, "mountain" is ''ziš'' in Hattic and ''ćhiṣ'' in Burushaski (compare also with ''*čɨʔs'' - a proto-Yeniseian word for stone).


Vocabulary

Some known Hattic words include: * ''alef'' = "tongue" * ''ashaf'' = "god" * ''fa-zari'' = "humankind, population" * ''fel'' = "house" * ''*findu'' = "wine" (found in the compound ''findu-qqaram'' "wine-ladle") * ''fur'' = "land" * ''Furun-Katte'' = "King of the Land", the Hattic war god * ''Furu-Semu'' = Hattic sun goddess * ''Hanfasuit'' = Hattic throne goddess * ''hilamar'' = "temple" * ''Kasku'' = the Hattic moon god * ''katte'' = "king" * ''-nifas'' = "to sit" * ''pinu'' = "child" * ''zari'' = "mortal" * ''-zi'' = "to put"


Grammar

Hattic formed conventional plurals with a ''le-'' prefix: "children" = ''le-pinu''. It formed a collective plural by attaching the
prefix A prefix is an affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...
''fa-'': ''fa-shaf'' "gods". The
genitive case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
was declined with the suffix ''-(u)n'' (''fur'' "land" but ''furun'' "of the land"). While some linguists like Polomé and Winter have claimed the
accusative case The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phras ...
was marked with ''es-'', giving the example of ''ess-alep'' "word",Polomé, Winter. ''Reconstructing languages and cultures'', 1992
p.455
/ref> that has been identified as a pronominal clitic, meaning "their", by others.


References


Sources

* Akurgal, Ekrem – ''The Hattian and Hittite Civilizations''; Publications of the Republic of Turkey; Ministry of Culture; 2001; 300 pages; *Ardzinba, Vladislav. (1974): Some Notes on the Typological Affinity Between Hattian and North-West Caucasian (Abkhazo-Adygian) Languages. In: ''"Internationale Tagung der Keilschriftforscher der sozialistischen Länder"'', Budapest, 23.-25. April 1974. ''Zusammenfassung der Vorträge'' (Assyriologica 1), p. 10-15. *Ardzinba, V.G. (1979): “Nekotorye sxodnye strukturnye priznaki xattskogo i abxazo-adygskix jazykov”. ''Peredneasiatskij Sbornik III: istorija i filologija stran drevnego vostoka'', 26-37. Moscow: Nauka *Chirikba, Viacheslav (1996): ''Common West Caucasian. The Reconstruction of its Phonological System and Parts of its Lexicon and Morphology.'' Leiden: CNWS Publications, 452 pp. hapter XI. ''The relation of West Caucasian to Hattic'', p. 406-432 *Dunaevskaja, Irina. (1973): ''Bemerkungen zu einer neuen Darstellung altkleinasiatischer Sprachen. 2. Zum Hattischen.'' In: ''Orientalische Literaturzeitung'' 68, Leipzig, 1/2. * Дунаевская И. М. О структурном сходстве хаттского языка с языками северо-западного Кавказа. – ''Сборник в честь академика'' Н. А. Орбели. – М.-Л., 1960. *Dunaevskaja, I. M. & D´jakonov, I. M. 1979. “Xattskij (protoxettskij) jazyk”. In: ''Jazyki Azii i Afriki, III. Jazyki drevnej perednej Azii (nesemitskie), Iberijsko-Kavkazskie jazyki, Paleoaziatskie jazyki, ed. by G. D. Sanžeev'', p. 79-83. Moskva. Nauka. *Girbal, Christian. (1986): ''Beiträge zur Grammatik des Hattischen'' (Europäische Hochschulschriften Reihe XXI, Bd. 50). Frankfurt am Main, Bern, New York: Verlag Peter Lang, V+201 pages. *Ivanov, Vyacheslav V., "On the Relationship of Hattic to the Northwest Caucasian Languages," in B. B. Piotrovskij, Vyacheslav V. Ivanov and Vladislav G. Ardzinba, eds., Drevnyaya Anatoliya – Ancient Anatolia, Moscow: Nauka (1985) 26-59. In Russian with English summary. *Kammenhuber, Annelis (1969): ''Das Hattische.'' In: ''Handbuch der Orientalistik'', Abteilung I, Bd II, Abschn. 1/2. *Klinger, Jörg. (1996): (StBoT 37)'' Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der hattischen Kultschicht.'' Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, xx+916 p. *Rizza, Alfredo. (2007): ''I pronomi enclitici nei testi etei di traduzione dal Hattico''. Pavia. (Studia Mediterranea 20). *Schuster, H.-S. (1974): ''Die hattisch-hethitischen Bilinguen. I. Einleitung, Texte und Kommentar. Teil 1.'' Leiden: E.J. Brill. *Soysal, Oğuz (2004): ''Hattischer Wortschatz in hethitischer Textüberlieferung'', Leiden/Boston: Brill. *Taracha, P. (1995): ''Zum Stand der hattischen Studien: Mögliches und Unmögliches in der Erforschung des Hattischen.'' In: ''Atti del II Congresso Internaziomale di Hittitologia a curo di
Onofrio Carruba Onofrio is an Italian surname derived from Onuphrius. Notable people with the surname include: *Vincent D'Onofrio *Al Onofrio *Beverly D'Onofrio *Elizabeth D'Onofrio *Francesco Onofrio Manfredini *Marco Onofrio See also *Sant'Onofrio (disambiguati ...
'' – Mauro Giorgieri – Clelia Mora. Studia mediterranea. 9. Gianni Iuculano Editore. Pavia, p. 351-358. *Kevin Tuite (Université de Montréal): ''The rise and fall and revival of the Ibero-Caucasian hypothesis''
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External links



by
Igor Diakonov Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (russian: И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russians, Russian historian, linguistics, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East ...

Hattic grammar
by ''A. S. Kassian'' {{DEFAULTSORT:Hattic Language Hattians Agglutinative languages Extinct languages of Asia Language isolates of Asia Cuneiform Languages of ancient Anatolia Languages attested from the 2nd millennium BC