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Haptic technology (also kinaesthetic communication or 3D touch) is technology that can create an experience of
touch In physiology, the somatosensory system is the network of Nervous system, neural structures in the brain and body that produce the perception of touch (haptic perception), as well as temperature (thermoception), body position (proprioception), ...
by applying
force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force can ...
s,
vibration Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The word comes from Latin ''vibrationem'' ("shaking, brandishing"). The oscillations may be periodic function, periodic, such as the motion of a pendulum ...
s, or motions to the user. These technologies can be used to create virtual objects in a
computer simulation Computer simulation is the process of mathematical modelling, performed on a computer, which is designed to predict the behaviour of, or the outcome of, a real-world or physical system. The reliability of some mathematical models can be deter ...
, to control virtual objects, and to enhance remote control of machines and devices (
telerobotics Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using television, wireless networks (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and the Deep Space Network) or tethered connections. It is a combinatio ...
). Haptic devices may incorporate
tactile sensor A tactile sensor is a device that measures information arising from physical interaction with its environment. Tactile sensors are generally modeled after the biological sense of cutaneous receptor, cutaneous touch which is capable of detecti ...
s that measure forces exerted by the user on the interface. The word '' haptic'', from the grc-gre, ἁπτικός (''haptikos''), means "tactile, pertaining to the sense of touch". Simple haptic devices are common in the form of
game controller A game controller, gaming controller, or simply controller, is an input device used with video games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game. Before the seventh generation ...
s,
joystick A joystick, sometimes called a flight stick, is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick, also known as the control column, is the principal cont ...
s, and
steering wheel A steering wheel (also called a driving wheel (UK), a hand wheel, or simply wheel) is a type of steering control in vehicles. Steering wheels are used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles, buses, light and ...
s. Haptic technology facilitates investigation of how the human sense of touch works by allowing the creation of controlled haptic virtual objects. Most researchers distinguish three sensory systems related to sense of touch in humans:
cutaneous Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have diffe ...
, kinaesthetic and haptic. All perceptions mediated by
cutaneous Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have diffe ...
and kinaesthetic sensibility are referred to as tactual perception. The sense of touch may be classified as passive and active, and the term "haptic" is often associated with active touch to communicate or recognize objects.


History

One of the earliest applications of haptic technology was in large
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. ...
that use
servomechanism In control engineering a servomechanism, usually shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the action of a mechanism. On displacement-controlled applications, it usually includes a built-in e ...
systems to operate control surfaces. In lighter aircraft without servo systems, as the aircraft approached a stall, the aerodynamic buffeting (vibrations) was felt in the pilot's controls. This was a useful warning of a dangerous flight condition. Servo systems tend to be "one-way," meaning external forces applied aerodynamically to the control surfaces are not perceived at the controls, resulting in the lack of this important
sensory cue Sensory may refer to: Biology * Sensory ecology, how organisms obtain information about their environment * Sensory neuron, nerve cell responsible for transmitting information about external stimuli * Sensory perception, the process of acqu ...
. To address this, the missing normal forces are simulated with springs and weights. The angle of attack is measured, and as the critical stall point approaches a
stick shaker A stick shaker is a mechanical device designed to rapidly and noisily vibrate the yoke (aircraft), control yoke (the "stick") of an aircraft, warning the flight crew that an imminent Stall (flight), aerodynamic stall has been detected. It is typi ...
is engaged which simulates the response of a simpler
control system A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops. It can range from a single home heating controller using a thermostat controlling a domestic boiler to large industrial co ...
. Alternatively, the servo force may be measured and the signal directed to a servo system on the control, also known as ''force feedback''. Force feedback has been implemented experimentally in some
excavator Excavators are heavy equipment (construction), heavy construction equipment consisting of a backhoe, boom, dipper (or stick), Bucket (machine part), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house". The house sits atop an undercarri ...
s and is useful when excavating mixed material such as large rocks embedded in silt or clay. It allows the operator to "feel" and work around unseen obstacles. In the 1960s,
Paul Bach-y-Rita Paul Bach-y-Rita (April 4, 1934 – November 20, 2006) was an American neuroscientist whose most notable work was in the field of neuroplasticity Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity, or brain plasticity, is the ability of Neural ...
developed a vision substitution system using a 20x20 array of metal rods that could be raised and lowered, producing tactile "dots" analogous to the pixels of a screen. People sitting in a chair equipped with this device could identify pictures from the pattern of dots poked into their backs. The first US patent for a tactile telephone was granted to Thomas D. Shannon in 1973. An early tactile man-machine communication system was constructed by A. Michael Noll at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. in the early 1970s and a patent was issued for his invention in 1975. In 1994, the Aura Interactor vest was developed. The vest is a wearable force-feedback device that monitors an audio signal and uses electromagnetic actuator technology to convert bass sound waves into vibrations that can represent such actions as a punch or kick. The vest plugs into the audio output of a stereo, TV, or VCR and the audio signal is reproduced through a speaker embedded in the vest. In 1995, Thomas Massie developed the PHANToM (Personal HAptic iNTerface Mechanism) system. It used thimble-like receptacles at the end of computerized arms into which a person's fingers could be inserted, allowing them to "feel" an object on a computer screen. In 1995, Norwegian Geir Jensen described a
wristwatch A watch is a portable Clock, timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep a consistent movement despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, atta ...
haptic device with a skin tap mechanism, termed Tap-in. The wristwatch would connect to a mobile phone via
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless technology standard that is used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances and building personal area networks (PANs). In the most widely used mode, transmission power is limit ...
, and tapping-frequency patterns would enable the wearer to respond to callers with selected short messages. In 2015, the
Apple Watch Apple Watch is a line of smartwatches produced by Apple Inc. It incorporates activity tracker, fitness tracking, Health (Apple), health-oriented capabilities, and wireless telecommunication, and integrates with iOS and other Apple products and s ...
was launched. It uses skin tap sensing to deliver notifications and alerts from the mobile phone of the watch wearer.


Types of mechanical touch sensing

Human sensing of mechanical loading in the skin is managed by
Mechanoreceptor A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force i ...
s. There are a number of types of mechanoreceptors but those present in the finger pad are typically placed into two categories. Fast acting (FA) and slow acting (SA). SA mechanoreceptors are sensitive to relatively large stresses and at low frequencies while FA mechanoreceptors are sensitive to smaller stresses at higher frequencies. The result of this is that generally SA sensors can detect textures with amplitudes greater than 200 micrometers and FA sensors can detect textures with amplitudes less than 200 micrometers down to about 1 micrometer, though some research suggests that FA can only detect textures smaller than the fingerprint wavelength. FA mechanoreceptors achieve this high resolution of sensing by sensing vibrations produced by friction and an interaction of the fingerprint texture moving over fine surface texture.


Implementation

See the sub-sections under applications for examples.


Haptic feedback

Haptic feedback (often shortened to just haptics) is controlled vibrations at set frequencies and intervals to provide a sensation representative of an in-game action; this includes 'bumps', 'knocks', and 'tap' of one's hand or fingers. The majority of electronics offering haptic feedback use vibrations, and most use a type of eccentric rotating mass (ERM) actuator, consisting of an unbalanced weight attached to a motor shaft. As the shaft rotates, the spinning of this irregular mass causes the actuator and the attached device to shake. Piezoelectric actuators are also employed to produce vibrations, and offer even more precise motion than LRAs, with less noise and in a smaller platform, but require higher voltages than do ERMs and LRAs.


Rumble

Rumble is a form of haptics, rumble is just vibrating steadily at various frequencies.


Force feedback

Force feedback devices use motors to manipulate the movement of an item held by the user.Abeer Bayousuf, Hend S. Al-Khalifa, Abdulmalik Al-Salman (2017)
Haptics-Based Systems Characteristics, Classification, and Applications
'
p.4658
in Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A., Mehdi (Eds., 2017) ''Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology'', Fourth Edition, Chapter 404, pages 4652-4665
A common use is in automobile driving video games and simulators, which turn the
steering wheel A steering wheel (also called a driving wheel (UK), a hand wheel, or simply wheel) is a type of steering control in vehicles. Steering wheels are used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles, buses, light and ...
to simulate forces experienced when cornering a real vehicle. Direct-drive wheels, introduced in 2013, are based on
servomotor A servomotor (or servo motor) is a rotary actuator or linear actuator A linear actuator is an actuator that creates motion in a straight line, in contrast to the circular motion of a conventional electric motor. Linear actuators are used ...
s and are the most high-end, for strength and fidelity, type of force feedback racing wheels. In 2007, Novint released the
Falcon Falcons () are birds of prey in the genus Genus ( plural genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In the h ...
, the first consumer 3D touch device with high resolution three-dimensional force feedback. This allowed the haptic simulation of objects, textures, recoil, momentum, and the physical presence of objects in games.


Air vortex rings

Air vortex rings are donut-shaped air pockets made up of concentrated gusts of air. Focused air vortices can have the force to blow out a candle or disturb papers from a few yards away. Both Microsoft Research (AirWave) and Disney Research (AIREAL) have used air vortices to deliver non-contact haptic feedback.


Ultrasound

Focused
ultrasound Ultrasound is sound waves with frequency, frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing range, hearing. Ultrasound is not different from "normal" (audible) sound in its physical properties, except that humans cannot hea ...
beams can be used to create a localized sense of pressure on a finger without touching any physical object. The focal point that creates the sensation of pressure is generated by individually controlling the phase and intensity of each transducer in an array of ultrasound transducers. These beams can also be used to deliver sensations of vibration, and to give users the ability to feel virtual 3D objects. Another form of tactile feed back results from active touch when a human scans (runs their finger over a surface) to gain information about a surfaces texture. A significant amount of information about a surfaces texture on the micro meter scale can be gathered through this action as vibrations resulting from friction and texture activate
mechanoreceptor A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force i ...
s in the human skin. Towards this goal plates can be made to vibrate at an ultrasonic frequency which reduces the friction between the plate and skin.


Applications


Automotive

With the introduction of large touchscreen control panels in vehicle dashboards, haptic feedback technology is used to provide confirmation of touch commands without needing the driver to take their eyes off the road. Additional contact surfaces, for example the steering wheel or seat, can also provide haptic information to the driver, for example, a warning vibration pattern when close to other vehicles.


Art

Haptic technologies have been explored in virtual arts, such as
sound synthesis A synthesizer (also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals. Synthesizers typically create sounds by generating Waveform, waveforms through methods including subtractive synthesis, additive synth ...
or
graphic design Graphic design is a profession, academic discipline and applied art whose activity consists in projecting visual communications intended to transmit specific messages to social groups, with specific objectives. Graphic design is an interdiscipli ...
. That make some loose vision and
animation Animation is a method by which image, still figures are manipulated to appear as Motion picture, moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited ...
. Haptic technology was used to enhance existing art pieces in the
Tate Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art galleries, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the U ...
Sensorium exhibit in 2015. In music creation, Swedish synthesizer manufacturer Teenage Engineering introduced a haptic
subwoofer A subwoofer (or sub) is a loudspeaker designed to reproduce low-pitched audio frequency, frequencies known as bass (sound), bass and sub-bass, lower in frequency than those which can be (optimally) generated by a woofer. The typical frequency ...
module for their OP-Z synthesizer allowing musicians to feel the bass frequencies directly on their instrument.


Aviation

Force-feedback can be used to increase adherence to a safe
flight envelope In aerodynamics, the flight envelope, service envelope, or performance envelope of an aircraft or spacecraft refers to the capabilities of a design in terms of airspeed and Load factor (aeronautics), load factor or atmospheric density, often sim ...
and thus reduce the risk of pilots entering dangerous states of flights outside the operational borders while maintaining the pilots' final authority and increasing their
situation awareness Situational awareness or situation awareness (SA) is the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their future status. An alternative definition is tha ...
.


Medicine and dentistry

Haptic interfaces for medical simulation are being developed for training in minimally invasive procedures such as
laparoscopy Laparoscopy () is an operation performed in the abdomen or human pelvis, pelvis using small Surgical incision, incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. The laparoscope aids diagnosis or therapeutic interventions with a few ...
and
interventional radiology Interventional radiology (IR) is a medical specialty that performs various minimally-invasive procedures using medical imaging guidance, such as Fluoroscopy, x-ray fluoroscopy, CT scan, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultraso ...
, and for training dental students. A Virtual Haptic Back (VHB) was successfully integrated in the curriculum at the
Ohio University Ohio University is a Public university, public research university in Athens, Ohio. The first university chartered by an Act of Congress and the first to be chartered in Ohio, the university was chartered in 1787 by the Congress of the Confeder ...
College of Osteopathic Medicine. Haptic technology has enabled the development of
telepresence Telepresence refers to a set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present, to give the appearance or effect of being present via telerobotics, at a place other than their true location. Telepresence requires that the user ...
surgery, allowing expert surgeons to operate on patients from a distance. As the surgeon makes an incision, they feel tactile and resistance feedback as if working directly on the patient. Haptic technology can also provide sensory feedback to ameliorate age-related impairments in balance control and prevent falls in the elderly and balance-impaired. Haptic Cow and Horse are used in veterinary training.


Mobile devices

Tactile haptic feedback is common in cellular devices. In most cases, this takes the form of vibration response to touch.
Alpine Electronics is a Japanese consumer electronics subsidiary of the Japanese electronics component manufacturer Alps Electric, specializing in car audio and Navigation system, navigation systems. Established in 1967 as Alps-Motorola — a joint venture bet ...
uses a haptic feedback technology named ''PulseTouch'' on many of their touch-screen car navigation and stereo units. The Nexus One features haptic feedback, according to their specifications.
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성 ) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affi ...
first launched a phone with haptics in 2007. Surface haptics refers to the production of variable forces on a user's finger as it interacts with a surface such as a touchscreen. Notable introductions include: * Tanvas uses an
electrostatic Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest ( static electricity). Since classical times, it has been known that some materials, such as amber, attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word f ...
technology to control the in-plane forces experienced by a fingertip, as a programmable function of the finger's motion. The TPaD Tablet Project uses an
ultrasonic Ultrasound is sound wave In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such wa ...
technology to modulate the apparent slipperiness of a glass touchscreen. * In 2013, Apple Inc. was awarded the patent for a haptic feedback system that is suitable for multitouch surfaces. Apple's U.S. Patent for a "Method and apparatus for localization of haptic feedback" describes a system where at least two actuators are positioned beneath a multitouch input device, providing vibratory feedback when a user makes contact with the unit. Specifically, the patent provides for one actuator to induce a feedback vibration, while at least one other actuator uses its vibrations to localize the haptic experience by preventing the first set of vibrations from propagating to other areas of the device. The patent gives the example of a "virtual keyboard," however, it is also noted that the invention can be applied to any multitouch interface. Apple's iPhones (and MacBooks) featuring the "Taptic Engine", accomplish their vibrations with a linear resonant actuator (LRA), which moves a mass in a reciprocal manner by means of a magnetic voice coil, similar to how AC electrical signals are translated into motion in the cone of a
loudspeaker A loudspeaker (commonly referred to as a speaker or speaker driver) is an Acoustical engineering#Electroacoustics, electroacoustic transducer that converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound. A ''speaker system'', also often ...
. LRAs are capable of quicker response times than ERMs, and thus can transmit more accurate haptic imagery.


Neurorehabilitation

For individuals with upper limb motor dysfunction, robotic devices utilizing haptic feedback could be used for neurorehabilitation. Robotic devices, such as end-effectors, and both grounded and ungrounded exoskeletons have been designed to assist in restoring control over several muscle groups. Haptic feedback applied by these robotic devices helps in the recovery of sensory function due to its more immersive nature.


Puzzles

Haptic puzzles have been devised in order to investigate goal-oriented haptic exploration, search, learning and memory in complex 3D environments. The goal is to both enable multi-fingered robots with a sense of touch, and gain more insights into human meta-learning.


Personal computers

In 2008, Apple Inc.'s MacBook and MacBook Pro started incorporating a "Tactile Touchpad" design with button functionality and haptic feedback incorporated into the tracking surface. Products such as the Synaptics ClickPad followed. In 2015, Apple introduced " Force Touch" trackpads onto the 2015 MacBook Pro which simulates clicks with a "Taptic Engine".


Robotics

Haptic feedback is essential to perform complex tasks via
telepresence Telepresence refers to a set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present, to give the appearance or effect of being present via telerobotics, at a place other than their true location. Telepresence requires that the user ...
. The Shadow Hand, an advanced robotic hand, has a total of 129 touch sensors embedded in every joint and finger pad that relay information to the operator. This allows tasks such as typing to be performed from a distance. An early prototype can be seen in
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil List of government space agencies, space program ...
's collection of humanoid robots, or
robonaut A robonaut is a humanoid robot, part of a development project conducted by the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Robonaut differs from other current space-faring robots in that, while ...

robonaut
s.


Sensory substitution

In December 2015 David Eagleman demonstrated a wearable vest that "translates" speech and other audio signals into series of vibrations, this allowed hear-impaired people to "feel" sounds on their body, it has since been made commercially as a wristband.


Space

The use of haptic technologies may be useful in
space exploration Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. While the exploration of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, its physical exploration though is conducted both by robotic spacec ...
, including visits to the
planet Mars
planet Mars
, according to news reports.


Tactile electronic displays

A tactile electronic display is a
display device A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or Touch, tactile form (the latter used for example in Refreshable Braille display, tactile electronic displays for blind people). When the input information that is su ...
that delivers text and graphical information using the sense of touch. Devices of this kind have been developed to assist blind or deaf users by providing an alternative to visual or auditory sensation.


Teleoperators and simulators

Teleoperators are remote controlled robotic tools. When the operator is given feedback on the forces involved, this is called ''haptic teleoperation''. The first electrically actuated teleoperators were built in the 1950s at the
Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research United States Department of Energy National Labs, national laboratory operated by University of Chicago, UChicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy. The facil ...
by Raymond Goertz to remotely handle radioactive substances. Since then, the use of force feedback has become more widespread in other kinds of teleoperators, such as remote-controlled underwater exploration devices. Devices such as medical
simulators
simulators
and
flight simulator A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and the environment in which it flies, for pilot training, design, or other purposes. It includes replicating the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they rea ...
s ideally provide the force feedback that would be felt in real life. Simulated forces are generated using haptic operator controls, allowing data representing touch sensations to be saved or played back.


Teledildonics

Haptic feedback is used within teledildonics, or "sex-technology," in order to remotely connect sex toys and allow users to engage in virtual sex or allow a remote server to control their sex toy. The term was first coined by Ted Nelson in 1975, when discussing the future of love, intimacy and technology. In recent years, teledildonics and sex-technology have expanded to include toys with a two-way connection that allow virtual sex through the communication of vibrations, pressures and sensations. Many "smart" vibrators allow for a one-way connection either between the user, or a remote partner, to allow control of the toy.


Video games

Haptic feedback is commonly used in
arcade game An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are presented as primarily game of skill, games of skill and in ...

arcade game
s, especially
racing video game Racing games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a motor racing, racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They are distributed along a spectrum between more ...
s. Tatsumi's '' TX-1'' introduced force feedback to car driving games in 1997. The game '' Earthshaker!'' added haptic feedback to a
pinball Pinball games are a family of games in which a ball is propelled into a specially designed table where it bounces off various obstacles, scoring points either en route or when it comes to rest. Historically the board was studded with nails call ...
machine in 1999. Simple haptic devices are common in the form of
game controller A game controller, gaming controller, or simply controller, is an input device used with video games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game. Before the seventh generation ...
s, joysticks, and steering wheels. Early implementations were provided through optional components, such as the
Nintendo 64 The (N64) is a home video game console developed by Nintendo. The successor to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, it was released on June 23, 1996, in Japan, on September 29, 1996, in North America, and on March 1, 1997, in Europe and Au ...

Nintendo 64
controller's ''
Rumble Pak The is a removable device from Nintendo which provides Haptic technology, force feedback while playing video games. Games that support the Rumble Pak cause it to vibrate in select situations, such as when firing a weapon or receiving damage, to i ...
'' in 1997. In the same year, the Microsoft SideWinder Force Feedback Pro with built-in feedback was released by Immersion Corporation. Many console controllers and joysticks feature built-in feedback devices, which are motors with unbalanced weights that spin, causing it to vibrate, including
Sony , commonly stylized as SONY, is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. As a major technology company, it operates as one of the world's la ...

Sony
's
DualShock The DualShock (originally Dual Shock; trademarked as DUALSHOCK or DUAL SHOCK; with the PlayStation 5 version named DualSense) is a line of gamepads with Haptic technology, vibration-feedback and analog controls developed by Sony Interactive Enterta ...

DualShock
technology and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...

Microsoft
's
Impulse Trigger
Impulse Trigger
technology. Some automobile steering wheel controllers, for example, are programmed to provide a "feel" of the road. As the user makes a turn or accelerates, the steering wheel responds by resisting turns or slipping out of control. Notable introductions include: * 2013: Steam Machines microconsoles by
Valve A valve is a device or Heart valve, natural object that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technical ...
, including a new Steam Controller unit that uses weighted electromagnets capable of delivering a wide range of haptic feedback via the unit's trackpads. These controllers' feedback systems are user-configurable. Also in 2013 the first direct-drive wheel for sim racing was introduced. * 2014: A new type of haptic cushion that responds to multimedia inputs by LG Electronics. * 2015: The Steam Controller with HD Haptics, with haptic force actuators on both sides of the controller, by Valve. * 2017: The Nintendo Switch's Joy-Con introduced the HD Rumble feature, developed with Immersion Corporation and using Alps Electric, Alps actuators. * 2018: The Razer Inc., Razer Nari Ultimate, gaming headphones using a pair of wide frequency haptic drivers, developed by Lofelt. * 2020: The Sony PlayStation 5 DualSense controllers supports #Haptic feedback, vibrotactile haptic provided by voice coil Moving magnet actuator, actuators integrated in the palm grips, and #Force feedback, force feedback for the Adaptive Triggers provided by two DC rotary motors. The actuators in the hand grip able to give varied and intuitive feedback about in-game actions for example, in a sandstorm, you can feel the wind and sand, and the motors in the Adaptive Triggers supporting experiences such as virtually drawing an arrow from a bow. * 2021, SuperTuxKart 1.3 was released, it has support for force feedback. Force feedback is extremely uncommon for free software games.


Virtual reality

Haptics are gaining widespread acceptance as a key part of virtual reality systems, adding the sense of touch to previously visual-only interfaces. Systems are being developed to use haptic interfaces for 3D modeling and design, including systems that allow holograms to be both seen and felt. Several companies are making full-body or torso haptic vests or haptic suits for use in immersive virtual reality to allow users to feel explosions and bullet impacts.


See also

* Haptic perception * Haptics (disambiguation), Haptics * Linkage (mechanical) * Organic user interface * Sonic interaction design * Stylus (computing) * Tactile imaging * Wired glove


References


Further reading

* Klein, D.D.; Rensink, H.; Freimuth, G.J.; Monkman, S.; Egersdörfer, H.; Böse & M. Baumann
Modelling the Response of a Tactile Array using Electrorheological Fluids
''Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics'', Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 794–803, 2004. * Klein, D.H.; Freimuth, G.J.; Monkman, S.; Egersdörfer, A.; Meier, H.; Böse M.; Baumann, H;, Ermert & O. T. Bruhns. ”Electrorheological Tactile Elements”. ''Mechatronics'' Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 883–97. Pergamon, September 2005. * Monkman. G.J
“An Electrorheological Tactile Display”
''Presence'' (''Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments'') Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 219–28, MIT Press, July 1992. * Parisi, David
Archaeologies of Touch - Interfacing with Haptics from Electricity to Computing
University of Minnesota Press. .
Robles-De-La-Torre G. Principles of Haptic Perception in Virtual Environments. In Grunwald M (Ed.), ''Human Haptic Perception'', Birkhäuser Verlag, 2008
*


External links

*
What Vibration Frequency Is Best For Haptic Feedback?
{{Sim racing Haptic technology, Computing input devices Computing output devices Holography Multimodal interaction Nonverbal communication Game controllers Virtual reality Medical education Educational technology