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HTML5 is a
markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when the document is processed for di ...
used for structuring and presenting content on the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
. It is the fifth and last major
HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntacticall ...

HTML
version that is a
World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
(W3C) recommendation. The current specification is known as the HTML Living Standard. It is maintained by the
Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web br ...
(WHATWG), a consortium of the major browser vendors (
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
,
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
,
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively free software and open standards, wit ...

Mozilla
, and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
). HTML5 was first released in a public-facing form on 22 January 2008, with a major update and "W3C Recommendation" status in October 2014. Its goals were to improve the language with support for the latest
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
and other new features; to keep the language both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as
web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...

web browser
s, , etc., without rigidity; and to remain backward-compatible with older software. HTML5 is intended to subsume not only
HTML 4 The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript. ...
but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML. HTML5 includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves, and rationalizes the markup available for documents and introduces markup and
application programming interface In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and so ...
s (APIs) for complex
web application A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...
s. For the same reasons, HTML5 is also a candidate for cross-platform mobile applications because it includes features designed with low-powered devices in mind. Many new
syntactic In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
features are included. To natively include and handle multimedia and
graphical Graphics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...
content, the new , and elements were added, expandable sections are natively implemented through and rather than depending on CSS or JavaScript, and support for
scalable vector graphics #REDIRECT Scalable Vector Graphics#REDIRECT Scalable Vector Graphics Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation. ...
(SVG) content and
MathML Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is a mathematical markup language, an application of XML for describing mathematics, mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. It aims at integrating mathematical formulae into Wo ...
for mathematical formulas was also added. To enrich the
semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ...

semantic
content of documents, new page structure elements such as , , , , , , , and are added. New
attributes Attribute may refer to: * Attribute (philosophy), an extrinsic property of an object * Attribute (research), a characteristic of an object * Grammatical modifier, in natural languages * Attribute (computing), a specification that defines a propert ...
were introduced, some elements and attributes were removed, and others such as , , and were changed, redefined, or standardized. The APIs and
Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and dev ...
(DOM) are now fundamental parts of the HTML5 specification, and HTML5 also better defines the processing for any invalid documents.


History

The
Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web br ...
(WHATWG) began work on the new standard in 2004. At that time, HTML 4.01 had not been updated since 2000, and the
World Wide Web Consortium The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary ...
(W3C) was focusing future developments on XHTML 2.0. In 2009, the
W3C The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary f ...

W3C
allowed the
XHTML Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, o ...

XHTML
2.0 Working Group's charter to expire and decided not to renew it. The
Mozilla Foundation The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized an ...
and
Opera Software Opera is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian la ...

Opera Software
presented a position paper at a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) workshop in June 2004, focusing on developing technologies that are backward-compatible with existing browsers, including an initial draft specification of Web Forms 2.0. The workshop concluded with a vote—8 for, 14 against—for continuing work on HTML. Immediately after the workshop, WHATWG was formed to start work based upon that position paper, and a second draft, Web Applications 1.0, was also announced. The two specifications were later merged to form HTML5. The HTML5 specification was adopted as the starting point of the work of the new HTML working group of the W3C in 2007. WHATWG's
Ian Hickson Ian "Hixie" Hickson is the author and maintainer of the Acid2 Acid2 is a webpage that test web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software for accessing the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A globa ...
(Google) and David Hyatt (
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
) produced W3C's first public working draft of the specification on 22 January 2008.


"Thoughts on Flash"

While some features of HTML5 are often compared to
Adobe Flash Adobe Flash is a multimedia software platform A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that ...
, the two technologies are very different. Both include features for playing audio and video within web pages, and for using
Scalable Vector Graphics #REDIRECT Scalable Vector Graphics#REDIRECT Scalable Vector Graphics Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation. ...
. However, HTML5 on its own cannot be used for animation or interactivity – it must be supplemented with
CSS3 #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typically demonst ...
or
JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming lang ...

JavaScript
. There are many Flash capabilities that have no direct counterpart in HTML5 (see Comparison of HTML5 and Flash). HTML5's interactive capabilities became a topic of mainstream media attention around April 2010 after
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
's then-CEO
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
issued a public letter titled "Thoughts on Flash" in which he concluded that "Flash is no longer necessary to watch video or consume any kind of web content" and that "new open standards created in the mobile era, such as HTML5, will win". This sparked a debate in web development circles suggesting that, while HTML5 provides enhanced functionality, developers must consider the varying browser support of the different parts of the standard as well as other functionality differences between HTML5 and Flash. In early November 2011,
Adobe Adobe (; ) is a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. ...
announced that it would discontinue development of Flash for mobile devices and reorient its efforts in developing tools using HTML5. On 25 July 2017, Adobe announced that both the distribution and support of Flash would cease by the end of 2020. Adobe itself officially discontinued Flash on 31 December 2020 and all Flash content was blocked from running in Flash Player as of 12 January 2021.


Last call, candidacy, and recommendation stages

On 14 February 2011, the W3C extended the charter of its HTML Working Group with clear milestones for HTML5. In May 2011, the working group advanced HTML5 to "Last Call", an invitation to communities inside and outside W3C to confirm the technical soundness of the specification. The W3C developed a comprehensive test suite to achieve broad interoperability for the full specification by 2014, which was the target date for recommendation. In January 2011, the WHATWG renamed its "HTML5" specification ''HTML Living Standard''. The W3C nevertheless continued its project to release HTML5. In July 2012, WHATWG and W3C decided on a degree of separation. W3C will continue the HTML5 specification work, focusing on a single definitive standard, which is considered as a "snapshot" by WHATWG. The WHATWG organization continues its work with HTML5 as a "living standard". The concept of a living standard is that it is never complete and is always being updated and improved. New features can be added but functionality will not be removed. In December 2012, W3C designated HTML5 as a Candidate Recommendation. The criterion for advancement to
W3C Recommendation The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary f ...
is "two 100% complete and fully interoperable implementations". On 16 September 2014, W3C moved HTML5 to Proposed Recommendation. On 28 October 2014, HTML5 was released as a W3C Recommendation, bringing the specification process to completion. On 1 November 2016, HTML 5.1 was released as a W3C Recommendation. On 14 December 2017, HTML 5.2 was released as a W3C Recommendation.


Timeline

The combined timelines for HTML5.0, HTML5.1, HTML5.2 and HTML 5.3:


W3C and WHATWG conflict

The W3C ceded authority over the HTML and DOM standards to WHATWG on 28 May 2019, as it considered that having two standards is harmful. The HTML Living Standard is now authoritative. However, W3C will still participate in the development process of HTML. Before the ceding of authority, W3C and WHATWG had been characterized as both working together on the development of HTML5, and yet also at cross purposes ever since the July 2012 split, creating WHATWG. The W3C standard was snapshot-based and static, while the WHATWG is a continually updated "living standard". The relationship had been described as "fragile", even a "rift", (Original title: "When Standards Divide".) and characterized by "squabbling". In at least one case, namely the permissible content of the element, the two specifications directly contradicted each other ( with the W3C definition allowing a broader range of uses than the WHATWG definition. The "Introduction" section in the WHATWG spec (edited by Ian "Hixie" Hickson) is critical of W3C, e.g. " Although we have asked them to stop doing so, the W3C also republishes some parts of this specification as separate documents." In its "History" subsection it portrays W3C as resistant to Hickson's and WHATWG's original HTML 5 plans, then jumping on the bandwagon belatedly (though Hickson was in control of the W3C HTML 5 spec, too). Regardless, it indicates a major philosophical divide between the organizations: The two entities signed an agreement to work together on a single version of HTML on 28 May 2019.


Differences between the two standards

In addition to the contradiction in the element mentioned above, other differences between the two standards include at least the following, as of September 2018: The following table provides data from the Mozilla Development Network on compatibility with major browsers, as of September 2018, of HTML elements unique to one of the standards:


Features and APIs

The W3C proposed a greater reliance on modularity as a key part of the plan to make faster progress, meaning identifying specific features, either proposed or already existing in the spec, and advancing them as separate specifications. Some technologies that were originally defined in HTML 5 itself are now defined in separate specifications: * HTML Working Group – HTML Canvas 2D Context; * Web Apps Working Group – Web Messaging,
Web worker A web worker, as defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG), is a JavaScript scripting language, script executed from an HTML page that runs in the background process, backgrou ...
s,
Web storage Web storage, sometimes known as DOM storage (Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
,
WebSocket WebSocket is a computer communications protocol A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system 400px, Communication system A communications system or communication system is a ...
,
Server-sent eventsServer-Sent Events (SSE) is a server push technology enabling a client to receive automatic updates from a server via HTTP connection. The Server-Sent Events EventSource API is standardized as part of HTML5 HTML5 is a markup language used for s ...
,
Web Components Web Components are a set of features that provide a standard component model for the Web allowing for Encapsulation (object-oriented programming), encapsulation and interoperability of individual HTML elements. Primary technologies used to create t ...
(this was not part of HTML 5, though); the Web Applications Working Group was closed in October 2015 and its deliverables transferred to the Web Platform Working Group (WPWG). * IETF HyBi Working Group – WebSocket Protocol; * WebRTC Working Group –
WebRTC WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication) is a free, open-source software, open-source project providing web browsers and mobile applications with Real-time communication, real-time communication (RTC) via simple application programming interfaces (API ...
; * Web Media Text Tracks Community Group –
WebVTT WebVTT (Web Video Text Tracks) is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for displaying timed text in connection with the HTML5 <track> element. The early drafts of its specification were written by the WHATWG in 2010 after discussions ab ...
. Some features that were removed from the original HTML 5 specification have been standardized separately as modules, such as Microdata and
Canvas Canvas is an extremely durable used for making , , , , , as a support for and for other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, and shoes. It is also popularly used by ...
. Technical specifications introduced as HTML 5 extensions such as Polyglot markup have also been standardized as modules. Some W3C specifications that were originally separate specifications have been adapted as HTML 5 extensions or features, such as
SVG#REDIRECT Scalable Vector Graphics Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open s ...
. Some features that might have slowed down the standardization of HTML 5 were or will be standardized as upcoming specifications, instead.


Features


Markup

HTML 5 introduces elements and attributes that reflect typical usage on modern websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common uses of generic block () and inline () elements, for example (website navigation block), (usually referring to bottom of web page or to last lines of HTML code), or and instead of . Some deprecated elements from HTML 4.01 have been dropped, including purely presentational elements such as and , whose effects have long been superseded by the more capable
Cascading Style Sheets #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typically demonst ...

Cascading Style Sheets
. There is also a renewed emphasis on the importance of client-side
JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming lang ...

JavaScript
used to create
dynamic web page A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripting, Parameter (computer programming), parameters determine how the assembly of every new ...
s. The HTML 5 syntax is no longer based on
SGML The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social) ...
despite the similarity of its markup. It has, however, been designed to be backward-compatible with common parsing of older versions of HTML. It comes with a new introductory line that looks like an SGML
document type declarationA document type declaration, or DOCTYPE, is an instruction that associates a particular XML or SGML document (for example, a webpage) with a document type definition (DTD) (for example, the formal definition of a particular version of HTML, HTML 2.0 ...
, <!DOCTYPE html>, which triggers the standards-compliant rendering mode. Since 5 January 2009, HTML 5 also includes ''Web Forms 2.0'', a previously separate
WHATWG The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language In computer text processing, a markup language ...
specification.


New APIs

In addition to specifying markup, HTML 5 specifies scripting
application programming interfaces In computing, an application programming interface (API) is an Interface (computing), interface that defines interactions between multiple software applications or mixed computer hardware, hardware-software intermediaries. It defines the kinds ...
(APIs) that can be used with
JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming lang ...

JavaScript
. Existing
Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and dev ...
(DOM) interfaces are extended and ''de facto'' features documented. There are also new APIs, such as: *
Canvas Canvas is an extremely durable used for making , , , , , as a support for and for other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, and shoes. It is also popularly used by ...
; * Timed Media Playback; * Offline; * Editable content; *
Drag and drop In computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These program ...
; * History; *
MIME type A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...
and protocol handler registration; * Microdata; * Web Messaging; *
Web Storage Web storage, sometimes known as DOM storage (Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
 – a key-value pair storage framework that provides behavior similar to
cookies A cookie is a baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gra ...
but with larger storage capacity and improved API. Not all of the above technologies are included in the W3C HTML 5 specification, though they are in the WHATWG HTML specification. Some related technologies, which are not part of either the W3C HTML 5 or the WHATWG HTML specification, are as follows. The W3C publishes specifications for these separately: *
Geolocation Geopositioning, also known as geotracking, geolocalization, geolocating, geolocation, or geoposition fixing is the process of determining or estimating the geographic position of an object. Geopositioning yields a set of geographic coordinates ...
; *
IndexedDBThe Indexed Database API (commonly referred to as IndexedDB) is a JavaScript application programming interface (API) provided by web browsers for managing a NoSQL database of JSON objects. It is a standard maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium ...
 – an indexed hierarchical key-value store (formerly WebSimpleDB); *
File File or filing may refer to: Mechanical tools and processes * File (tool) A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It is common in woodworking, metalworking, and other similar trade and hobby tasks. Most are ...
 – an API intended to handle file uploads and file manipulation; * Directories and System – an API intended to satisfy client-side-storage use cases not well served by databases; * File Writer – an API for writing to files from web applications; * Web Audio – a high-level JavaScript API for processing and synthesizing audio in web applications; * ClassList. * Web cryptography API *
WebRTC WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication) is a free, open-source software, open-source project providing web browsers and mobile applications with Real-time communication, real-time communication (RTC) via simple application programming interfaces (API ...
* Web SQL Database – a local
SQL SQL ( ''S-Q-L'', "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific languageA domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer languageA computer language is a method of communication with a computer A computer is a machine that can b ...

SQL
Database (no longer maintained); HTML 5 cannot provide animation within web pages. Additional JavaScript or
CSS3 #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typically demonst ...
is necessary for animating HTML elements. Animation is also possible using JavaScript and HTML 4, and within SVG elements through SMIL, although browser support of the latter remains uneven as of 2011.


XHTML 5 (XML-serialized HTML 5)

XML documents must be served with an XML
Internet media type A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...
(often called "
MIME #REDIRECT Mime artist A mime artist or just mime (from Greek , , "imitator, actor") is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed ...

MIME
type") such as application/xhtml+xml or application/xml, and must conform to strict, well-formed syntax of XML. XHTML 5 is simply XML-serialized HTML 5 data (that is, HTML 5 constrained to XHTML's strict requirements, e.g., not having any unclosed tags), sent with one of XML media types. HTML that has been written to conform to both the HTML and XHTML specifications and therefore produces the same DOM tree whether parsed as HTML or XML is known as polyglot markup. There is no DTD for XHTML5.


Error handling

HTML 5 is designed so that old browsers can safely ignore new HTML 5 constructs. In contrast to HTML 4.01, the HTML 5 specification gives detailed rules for
lexing In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algor ...
and
parsing Parsing, syntax analysis, or syntactic analysis is the process of analyzing a string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other obje ...

parsing
, with the intent that compliant browsers will produce the same results when parsing incorrect syntax. Although HTML 5 now defines a consistent behavior for " tag soup" documents, those documents do not conform to the HTML 5 standard.


Popularity

According to a report released on 30 September 2011, 34 of the world's top 100 Web sites were using HTML 5the adoption led by
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
s and
social network A social network is a social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergent from and determinant of the Structure and agency, actions of individuals. Likew ...

social network
s. Another report released in August 2013 has shown that 153 of the ''
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
'' U.S. companies implemented HTML5 on their corporate websites. Since 2014, HTML 5 is at least partially supported by most popular layout engines.


Differences from HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.x

The following is a cursory list of differences and some specific examples. * New parsing rules: oriented towards flexible parsing and compatibility; not based on SGML * Ability to use inline SVG and MathML in text/html * New elements: article, aside, audio, bdi, canvas, command, data, datalist, details, embed, figcaption, figure, footer, header, keygen, mark, meter, nav, output, progress, rp, rt,
ruby A ruby is a pink to blood-red coloured gemstone A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewellery, jewelry or othe ...

ruby
, section, source, summary, time, track, video, wbr * New types of form controls: dates and times, email, url, search, number, range, tel, color * New
attributes Attribute may refer to: * Attribute (philosophy), an extrinsic property of an object * Attribute (research), a characteristic of an object * Grammatical modifier, in natural languages * Attribute (computing), a specification that defines a propert ...
: charset (on meta), async (on script) * Global attributes (that can be applied for every element): id, tabindex, hidden, data-* (custom data attributes) * Deprecated elements will be dropped altogether: acronym, applet, basefont, big, center, dir, font, frame, frameset, isindex, noframes, strike, tt W3C Working Group publishes "HTML5 differences from HTML 4", which provides a complete outline of additions, removals and changes between HTML 5 and HTML 4.


Logo

On 18 January 2011, the W3C introduced a logo to represent the use of or interest in HTML 5. Unlike other badges previously issued by the W3C, it does not imply validity or conformance to a certain standard. As of 1 April 2011, this logo is official. When initially presenting it to the public, the W3C announced the HTML 5 logo as a "general-purpose visual identity for a broad set of open web technologies, including HTML 5,
CSS #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typically demonst ...

CSS
, SVG,
WOFF The Web Open Font Format (WOFF) is a font In metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, ...
, and others". Some web standard advocates, including The Web Standards Project, criticized that definition of "HTML5" as an umbrella term, pointing out the blurring of terminology and the potential for miscommunication. Three days later, the W3C responded to community feedback and changed the logo's definition, dropping the enumeration of related technologies. The W3C then said the logo "represents HTML5, the cornerstone for modern Web applications".


Digital rights management

Industry players including the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
, Google,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
,
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
have been lobbying for the inclusion of
Encrypted Media Extensions Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) is a W3C specification for providing a communication channel between web browsers and the Content Decryption Module (CDM) software which implements digital rights management (DRM). This allows the use of HTML5 video ...
(EME), a form of
digital rights management Digital rights management (DRM) tools or technological protection measures (TPM) are a set of access control In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place o ...
(DRM), into the HTML 5 standard. As of the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013, 27 organizations including the
Free Software Foundation The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on October 4, 1985, to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify compu ...
have started a campaign against including digital rights management in the HTML 5 standard. However, in late September 2013, the W3C
HTML Working Group The HTML Working Group was an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) working group from 1994 to 1996, and a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) working group from 1997 to 2015. The working group was co-chaired by Paul Cotton (software developer), ...
decided that Encrypted Media Extensions, a form of DRM, was "in scope" and will potentially be included in the HTML 5.1 standard.
WHATWG The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language In computer text processing, a markup language ...
's "HTML Living Standard" continued to be developed without DRM-enabled proposals. Manu Sporny, a member of the
W3C The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary f ...

W3C
, said that EME will not solve the problem it's supposed to address. Opponents point out that EME itself is just an architecture for a DRM plug-in mechanism. The initial enablers for DRM in HTML 5 were Google and Microsoft. Supporters also include Adobe. On 14 May 2014,
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting exclusively free software and open standards, wit ...
announced plans to support EME in
Firefox Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how ...

Firefox
, the last major browser to avoid DRM. Calling it "a difficult and uncomfortable step", Andreas Gal of Mozilla explained that future versions of Firefox would remain open source but ship with a sandbox designed to run a content decryption module developed by Adobe, later it was replaced with
Widevine Widevine is a proprietary digital rights management (DRM) technology from Google Google LLC is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which includ ...
module from
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
which is much more widely adopted by content providers. While promising to "work on alternative solutions", Mozilla's Executive Chair
Mitchell Baker Winifred Mitchell Baker (born 1957) is the Executive Chairwoman and CEO of the Mozilla Foundation and of Mozilla Corporation, a subsidiary of the Mozilla Foundation that coordinates development of the Open-source model, open source Mozilla Interne ...

Mitchell Baker
stated that a refusal to implement EME would have accomplished little more than convincing many users to switch browsers. This decision was condemned by
Cory Doctorow Cory Efram Doctorow (; born July 17, 1971) is a Canadian-British blogger, journalist, and science fiction author who served as co-editor of the blog ''Boing Boing''. He is an activist in favour of liberalising copyright laws and a proponent of the ...

Cory Doctorow
and the
Free Software Foundation The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on October 4, 1985, to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify compu ...
.


See also

* Cache manifest in HTML5 *
Canvas element Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textil ...
* Comparison of layout engines (HTML5) * David Hyatt, Apple editor of HTML5 specs *
Ian Hickson Ian "Hixie" Hickson is the author and maintainer of the Acid2 Acid2 is a webpage that test web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software for accessing the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A globa ...
, Google main editor of HTML5 specs * Polyglot HTML5


References


External links


HTML Living standard from WHATWG
GitHu
repo
* WHATW
validator
of latest HTML Living standard
W3C TRsHTML5.3
is deprecated in favour of WHATWG HTML Living standard


HTML Media Extensions Working Group

HTML.next
Feature requests for future versions of HTML {{DEFAULTSORT:Html 5 2014 software
XML-based standards This category exists to combine the sometimes bewildering array of abbreviations associated with XML technology, not all of which are endorsed by the same organisations. XML Computer standards Communications protocols {{CatAutoTOC ...