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''Gymnasium'' (and
variations Variation or Variations may refer to: Science and mathematics * Variation (astronomy), any perturbation of the mean motion or orbit of a planet or satellite, particularly of the moon * Genetic variation, the difference in DNA among individuals ...
of the word) is a term in various European languages for a secondary school that prepares students for
higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion ...
at a
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
. It is comparable to the British English terms ''
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically oriented secondary school ...
'' and ''
sixth form college A sixth form college is an educational institution, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A Levels#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferre ...
'' and to US English '' preparatory high school''. Before the 20th century, the gymnasium system was a widespread feature of educational systems throughout many European countries. The word (), from Greek () 'naked', was first used in
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, in the sense of a place for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages (including
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
,
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
,
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
, the
Nordic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia ...

Nordic languages
,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
,
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
,
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
,
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refer to: ** Serbian language ...
,
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
,
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
,
Slovenian Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
), whereas in English and
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, the former meaning of a place for physical education was retained, in the colloquial, abbreviated form "
gym A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for . The word is derived from the . They are commonly found in athletic and centres, and as activity and s in educational institutions. "Gym" is also slang for "", which is often an are ...

gym
."


School structure

Because gymnasiums prepare students for university study, they are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out between the ages of 10–13. In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
and
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
. Some gymnasiums provide general education, while others have a specific focus. (This also differs from country to country.) The four traditional branches are: *
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
(specialising in classical languages, such as
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
) *modern languages (students are required to study at least three languages) *mathematics and physical sciences *economics and other social sciences (students are required to study
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

economics
,
world history World history or global history as a field of historiography, historical study examines history from a global perspective. It emerged centuries ago; leading practitioners have included Voltaire (1694–1778), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegel ( ...
,
social studies In the United States education system (and other countries), social studies is the integrated study of multiple fields of social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies an ...
and
business informaticsBusiness informatics (BI) is a discipline combining economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and ...
) Curricula differ from school to school but generally include literature, mathematics,
informatics Informatics is the study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval. According to ACM ''Europe and'' ''Informatics Europe'' informatics is synonym for computer science and computing as a profession, in which the cent ...
, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, art (as well as crafts and design), music, history, philosophy,
civics Civics is the study of the rights and obligations of citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditi ...
/citizenship, social sciences, and several foreign languages. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but also on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory, even in
non-denominational A non-denominational person or organization that does not follow or is not restricted to any particular or specific religious denomination. Overview The term has been used in the context of various faiths including Jainism, Baháʼí Faith, Zoroast ...
schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences. In some countries, there is a notion of , which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the
prefix A prefix is an affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...
''pro''- is equivalent to ''pre''-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies.


History

In Central European,
Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#North, North Atlantic * Scandinavia, a cultural ...

Nordic
,
Benelux The Benelux Union ( nl, Benelux Unie; french: Union Benelux; lb, Benelux-Unioun), also known as simply Benelux, is a politico ''Politico'', known originally as ''The Politico'', is an American political journalism Political journalism i ...

Benelux
and
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea, a sea in Europe * Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea * Baltic states (also Baltics, Baltic nations, Baltic countries or Baltic rep ...

Baltic
countries, this meaning for "gymnasium" (that is a secondary school preparing the student for
higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion ...
at a university) has been the same at least since the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity File:Petersdom von Engelsburg gesehen.jpg, 250px, St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the larges ...
in the 16th century. The term was derived from the
classical Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, nati ...
word "" (), which was originally applied to an exercising ground in ancient
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, and thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning. This use of the term did not prevail among the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, and from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century. In 1538,
Johannes Sturm Johannes Sturm (also known as Jean Sturm; Latinized as Ioannes Sturmius; 1 October 1507 – 3 March 1589), was a German educator and Protestant reformer, who was influential in the design of the gymnasium system of secondary education. Biogra ...
founded at
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburig ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est Re ...

Strasbourg
the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
n regulation ordered all schools with the right to send their students to the university to bear the name of gymnasium. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in almost the entire
Austrian-Hungarian
Austrian-Hungarian
,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, and
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
s. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires.


By country


Albania

In Albania, a gymnasium ( al, Gjimnaz) education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called al,
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

Matura
Shtetërore. The final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. These can be either public (state-run, tuition-free) or private (fee-paying). The subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, computer science, the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education, and the social sciences (sociology, ethics, psychology, politics and economy). The gymnasium is generally viewed as a destination for the best-performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades, or some combination of the two.


Austria

In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, and from 15 to 18, concluding with
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

Matura
. Historically, three types existed. The focuses on
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
. The puts its focus on actively spoken languages. The usual combination is English, French, and Latin; sometimes French can be swapped with another foreign language (like Italian, Spanish or Russian). The ''Realgymnasium'' emphasizes the sciences. In the last few decades, more autonomy has been granted to schools, and various types have been developed, focusing on sports, music, or economics, for example.


Belarus

In Belarus, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, which provides advanced knowledge in various subjects. The number of years of instruction at a Gymnasium is 12, which is different from usual secondary education (11 years). However, it is possible to cover all required credits in 11 years, by taking additional subjects each semester. In Belarus, gymnasium is generally viewed as a destination for the best-performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university.


Czech Republic and Slovakia

In the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
, (also spelled ''gymnasium'') is a type of school that provides secondary education. leads to the exam. There are different types of distinguished by the length of study. In the Czech Republic there are eight-year, six-year, and four-year types, and in
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
there are eight-year and four-year types, of which the latter is more common. In both countries, there are also bilingual (Czech or Slovak with English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, or Russian; in Slovakia, bilingual are five-year) and private .


Germany

German gymnasiums are selective schools. They offer the most academically promising youngsters a quality education that is free in all state-run schools (and generally not above €50/month cost in Church-run schools, though there are some expensive private schools). Gymnasiums may expel students who academically under-perform their classmates or behave in a way that is often seen as undesirable and unacceptable. Historically, the German ' also included in its overall accelerated curriculum post-secondary education at college level and the degree awarded substituted for the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureate) previously awarded by a college or university so that universities in Germany became exclusively graduate schools. In the United States, the German Gymnasium curriculum was used at a number of prestigious universities, such as the University of Michigan, as a model for their undergraduate college programs. Pupils study subjects such as German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, arts, music, physical education, religion, history and
civics Civics is the study of the rights and obligations of citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditi ...
/citizenship/
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s and
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ...
. They are also required to study at least two foreign languages. The usual combinations are English and French or English and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
, although many schools make it possible to combine English with another language, most often Spanish,
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
, or Russian. Religious education classes are a part of the curricula of all German schools, yet not compulsory; a student or their parents or guardians can conscientiously object to taking them, in which case the student (along with those whose religion is not being taught in the school) is taught
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, al ...

ethics
or philosophy. In-state schools, a student who is not baptized into either the Catholic or Protestant faiths is allowed to choose which of these classes to take. The only exception to this is in the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of Berlin, where the subject ethics is mandatory for all students and (Christian) religious studies can only be chosen additionally. A similar situation is found in
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
where the subject life skills, ethics, and religious education (''Lebensgestaltung, Ethik, Religionskunde, LER'') is the primary subject but parents/guardians or students older than 13 can choose to replace it with (Christian) religious studies or take both. The intention behind LER is that students should get an objective insight on questions of personal development and ethics as well as on the major world religions. For younger students nearly the entire curriculum of a Gymnasium is compulsory; in higher years additional subjects are available and some of the hitherto compulsory subjects can be dropped, but the choice is not as wide as in other school systems, such as US high schools. Although some specialist Gymnasiums have English or French as the language of instruction, at most Gymnasiums lessons (apart from foreign language courses) are conducted in
Standard German Standard High German (SHG), less precisely Standard German or High German (not to be confused with High German The High German languages or High German dialects (german: hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south ...
. The number of years of instruction at a Gymnasium differs between the states. It varies between six and seven years in Berlin and
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
(primary school is six years in both as opposed to four years in the rest of Germany) and eight in
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...

Bavaria
,
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
and
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ...
among others. While in
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
and
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
students have never been taught more than eight years in Gymnasium (by default), nearly all states now conduct the ' examinations, which complete the Gymnasium education, after 13 years of primary school and Gymnasium combined. In addition, some states offer a 12-year curriculum leading to the '. These final examinations are now centrally drafted and controlled (') in all German states except for
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''T ...
and provide a qualification to attend any German university.


Italy

In Italy originally the indicated a typology of five-year
junior high school A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teac ...
(age 11 to 16) and preparing to the three year (age 16 to 19), a high school focusing on
classical studies Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world traditionally refers to the study of Ancient Greek literature, Classical Greek and Latin literature, Roman literature in their original languages of An ...
and
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classic ...

humanities
. After the school reform that unified the junior high school system, the term stayed to indicate the first two year of , now five years long. An Italian high school student who enrolls in follows this study path: (gymnasium fourth year, age 14), (gymnasium fifth year, age 15), (lyceum first year, age 16), (lyceum second year, age 17) and (lyceum third year, age 18). Some believe this still has some sense, since the two-year has a differently oriented curriculum from the . students spend the majority of their schooling studying Greek and Latin grammar, laying the bases for the "higher" and more in depth set of studies of the , such as Greek and Latin literature and Philosophy. In July 1940 the Fascist Minister of National Education
Giuseppe Bottai Giuseppe Bottai (3 September 1895 – 9 January 1959) was an Italian journalist, and member of the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini. Early life Born in Rome, Giuseppe was son of Luigi, a wine dealer with republican sympathies, and Elen ...
got a bill of law approved that abolished the first three years of the Gymnasium and instituted a unique path of studies for children aged from 12 to 14. The last two years of the Gymnasium kept the previous denomination and the related scholastic curriculum for the following decades.


Netherlands

In the Netherlands, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, offering the academically most promising youngsters (top 5%) a quality education that is in most cases free (and in other cases at low cost). It consists of six years, after 8 years (including
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

kindergarten
) of primary school, in which pupils study the same subjects as their German counterparts, with the addition of compulsory
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
and (Classical Cultural Education), history of the Ancient Greek and Roman culture and literature. Schools have some freedom in choosing their specific curriculum, with for example Spanish, Philosophy and , a very technical and highly demanding course, being available as final exams. Usually, schools will have all classes mandatory in switching combinations for the first three or so years (with the exception of which is a free choice from the second year onward), after which students will choose their subjects in the directions of Economics and Society, Culture and Society, Nature and Health, Nature and Technology or Technology. The equivalent without classical languages is called , and gives access to the same university studies (although some extra classes are needed when starting a degree in classical languages or theology). All are government-funded. See (in English) for the full article on Dutch "preparatory scientific education".


Nordic and Baltic countries

In
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
,
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
, the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
,
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
,
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
and
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
, gymnasium consists of three years, usually starting at the year the students turn 16 years old after nine or ten years of primary school. In
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countr ...
the gymnasium usually consists of four years of schooling starting at the age of 15–16, the last year roughly corresponding to the first year of
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
. In the Nordic countries, education is meant to be free. This includes not only primary school but most gymnasiums and universities as well. Furthermore, to help decrease the heritage of historic
social injustice Social justice is the relation of balance between individuals and society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or s ...
, all countries except
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
have universal grants for students. However, entrance is competitive and based on merit. In Denmark (see also
Gymnasium (Denmark) The Danish Gymnasium offers a 3-year general academically-oriented upper secondary programme which builds on the 9th-10th form of the '' Folkeskole'' and leads to the upper secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that prov ...
), there are four kinds of gymnasiums: STX (Regular Examination Programme), HHX (Higher Business Examination Programme), HTX (Higher Technical Examination Programme) and HF (Higher Preparatory Examination Programme). HF is only two years, instead of the three required for STX, HHX, and HTX. All four type of gymnasiums theoretically gives the same eligibility for university. However, because of the different subjects offered, students may be better qualified in an area of further study. E.g. HHX students have subjects that make them more eligible for studies such as business studies or economics at university. There is also EUX, which takes four years and ends with both the STX exam and status as a journeyman of a craft. Compared to the somewhat equivalent A-levels in the UK, Danish gymnasia have more mandatory subjects. The subjects are divided into levels, where A-levels run through all three years, B-levels two years and C-levels one year (apart from PE which exists as a C-level lasting tree years). In
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
, there are two different kinds of branches of studies: the first branch focuses on giving a vocational education while the second branch focuses on giving preparation for higher education. While students from both branches can go on to study at a university, students of the vocational branch graduate with a degree within their attended program. There are 18 national programs, 12 vocational and 6 preparatory. In the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
, there are also four kinds of gymnasiums, which are the equivalents of the Danish programmes: (equivalent to STX), (HHX), (HTX) and ''HF'' (HF). and HF are usually located at the same institutions as can be seen in the name of the institute in
Eysturoy Eysturoy (pronounced estroimeaning 'East Island') is a Regions of the Faroe Islands, region and the second-largest of the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic, both in size and population. Description Eysturoy is separated by a narrow Sundini, so ...

Eysturoy
: Studentaskúlin og HF-skeiðið í Eysturoy. In
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
, there is a single kind of gymnasium, Den Gymnasiale Uddannelse (Ilinniarnertuunngorniarneq), that replaced the earlier Greenlandic Secondary Education Programme (GU), the Greenland Higher Commercial Examination Programme ( HHX) and the Greenland education to Higher Technical Examination Programme ( HTX), which were based on the Danish system. This program allows a more flexible Greenland gymnasium, where students based on a common foundation course can choose between different fields of study that meet the individual student's abilities and interests. The course is offered in
Aasiaat Aasiaat or Ausiait, formerly Egedesminde, is a town in the Qeqertalik municipalities of Greenland, municipality in western Greenland, located in the heart of Aasiaat Archipelago at the southern end of Disko Bay. With a population of 3,069 as of 202 ...
,
Nuuk Nuuk (; da, Nuuk, formerly ) is the capital (political), capital and List of cities and towns in Greenland, largest city of Greenland, part of the Kingdom of Denmark. Nuuk is the seat of Government of Greenland, government and the country's la ...
,
Sisimiut Sisimiut (), formerly known as Holsteinsborg, is the capital and largest city of the , the , and the largest arctic city in North America.The term 'city' is loosely used to describe any populated area in , given that the most populated place is ...

Sisimiut
and
Qaqortoq Qaqortoq, formerly Julianehåb, is a city in the Kujalleq municipalities of Greenland, municipality in southern Greenland, located near Cape Thorvaldsen. With a population of 3,050 in 2020, it is the most populous town and the municipal capital in ...

Qaqortoq
, with one in
Ilulissat Ilulissat, formerly Jakobshavn or Jacobshaven, is the municipal seat and largest town of the Avannaata Avannaata (English language, English: ''The Northern'', (, da, Det Nordlige) is a new municipality of Greenland created on 1 January 2018 ...

Ilulissat
to be opened in 2015, latest in 2016 if approved by . In Finland, the admissions to gymnasiums are competitive, the accepted people comprising 51% of the age group. The gymnasiums concludes with the
matriculation examination A matriculation examination or matriculation exam is a university entrance examination Entrance generally refers to the place of entering like a gate or door, or the permission to do so. Entrance may also refer to: * ''Entrance'' (album), a 19 ...
, an exam whose grades are the main criteria for university admissions.


Switzerland

In Switzerland, gymnasia (, ) are selective schools that provide a three- to six-year (depending on the canton) course of advanced secondary education intended to prepare students to attend university. They conclude with a nationally standardized exam, the or , often shortened to "
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

Matura
or ''Matur''", which if passed allows students to attend a Swiss university. The gymnasia are operated by the
cantons of Switzerland The 26 cantons of Switzerland (german: Kanton; french: canton; it, cantone; Sursilvan Sursilvan (; also ''romontsch sursilvan'' ; Sursilvan, Vallader Vallader (Vallader, Sursilvan, Puter, Surmiran, and Rumantsch Grischun: ''vallader'' ...
, and accordingly in many cantons they are called (cantonal school).


Former Yugoslav countries

In
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
,
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
,
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A sub ...
,
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
, and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, l ...

Slovenia
, a gymnasium education takes four years following a compulsory eight or nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called ''
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

Matura
''. In these countries, the final test is standardized at the state level and can serve as an entrance qualification for universities. There are either public (state-run and tuition-free), religious (church-run with secular curriculum and tuition-free) or private (fee-paying) gymnasium schools in these countries. The subjects taught are mathematics, the native language, one to three foreign languages, history, geography, informatics (computers), the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), history of art, music, philosophy, logic, physical education, and the social sciences (sociology, ethics or religious education, psychology, politics, and economy). Religious studies are optional. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Serbia and North Macedonia,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
is also a mandatory subject in all gymnasiums, just as
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
is, with Latin, in a certain type of gymnasiums called Classical Gymnasiums (). In all of the countries, the gymnasium (/) is generally viewed as a destination for best-performing students and as the type of school that serves primarily to prepare students for university studies, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades, or a combination of the two.


Countries with gymnasium systems

*

: 3 years, after 9 years (4 years primary school and 5 years lower high school) of education, ends with at the age of 18. *

:
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires (''National School of Buenos Aires'') is a public high school in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The c ...

Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires
, 6 years; Rafael Hernández National College of
La Plata La Plata () is the capital city of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. According to the , it has a population of 793,144 and its metropolitan area, the Greater La Plata, has 987,294 inhabitants. La Plata was Planned city, planned and developed t ...

La Plata
, 5 years (formerly 6 years), after 7 years of primary school; and
Gymnasium UNT The Gymnasium is a high school for men and women (formerly for men) belonging to the National University of Tucumán, located in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. It is characterized by its humanistic orientation, using a system of self-discipline, ...
8 years, ends at the age of 18. *

: 8 years, after 4 years of primary school; or 4 years, after primary school and 4 years of ; ending in ''
matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

matura
'' at the age 18. *

: 7 years, after 4 years of primary school. *

: 6 years, starting at age 11/13, after 6 years of primary school, ends at the age of 18 where students progress to a university. *

: Deutsche Schule Mariscal Braun La Paz, 6 years, ends with Abitur. *

: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 9 years in
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

elementary school
, ends with Matura *

: Humboldt Schule of São Paulo is a German school in São Paulo. There are more Gymnasiums in the country and some of them receive resources from the German government. *

: 5 years, after 7 years of primary school. Currently graduation after passing at least two
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

Matura
s. *

: (all-male, traditional and conservative Pre-K to 11th grade private school located in Bogotá, Colombia). *

: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, five different educational tracks: (general education), (focused on Latin and Ancient Greek), (focused on modern languages), (biology, chemistry, physics) and (mathematics, physics and computer science), ends with Matura. Students of all tracks have compulsory classes in Latin and English as well as in at least one additional foreign language (most commonly German, Italian, Spanish and French). *

: 3 years, starting at age 12 and following 6 years of elementary school. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory
Lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. ...

Lyceum
(ages 15–18) for students with academic aspirations or Secondary Technical and Vocational Lyceum TVE for students who prefer vocational training. After successfully completing the program, students of TVE are awarded a School Leaving Certificate, which is recognized as equivalent to a Lyceum School Leaving Certificate (three-grade Senior Secondary School). * : 4 years, starting at age 15 or 16; 6 years, starting at age 13 or 14 (not usual); 8 years, starting at age 11 or 12; all ending in ''
matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

matura
''. *

: 3 years, or 4 years for athletes who are part of the ''
Team Danmark Team Danmark is an organization funded by the Denmark, Danish government through the proceeds from Danske Spil, the state-controlled organization for betting on sports in Denmark, with the purpose of promoting elite sports in Denmark. External lin ...
'' elite sports program, and musicians who have chosen ''MGK'' ("Musical Elementary Course"), usually starting after 10 or 11 years of
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...
. This is more like a prep school or the first years of college than high school. Everyone is eligible to go to a US high school, but one needs to be deemed competent to get into a gymnasium. (For more information, see
Gymnasium (Denmark) The Danish Gymnasium offers a 3-year general academically-oriented upper secondary programme which builds on the 9th-10th form of the '' Folkeskole'' and leads to the upper secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that prov ...
.) Gymnasium is also available in an intensive 2-year program leading to the ("Higher Preparatory Exam"). *

: 3 years, after 9 years of primary school. *

: 3 years, usually starting after 9 or 10 years of primary school. The system is similar to the Danish system. A gymnasium-level education is also available in an intensive 2-year programme leading to ("Higher Preparatory Exam"). *

: (educational language is Finnish) or (educational language is Swedish) takes 2–5 years (most students spend 3 years), after 9 years of primary school ( fi, peruskoulu, sv, grundskola); starts usually in the autumn of the year when the student turns 16 and ends with
abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a sta ...
after passing the matriculation examination; is not compulsory and its entrance is competitive. * : the French equivalent of a gymnasium is called a (3 years, after 5 years of primary school and 4 years of secondary school, age 15/18). The last year (called ) ends with passing the , an examination to enter
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
. *

: formerly 8–9 years depending on the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
—now being changed to 8 years nationwide, starting at 5th (at age 11), in 12th or 13th grade; for more information, see
Gymnasium (Germany) ''Gymnasium'' (; German plural: ''Gymnasien''), in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usu ...
. * : 3 years, starting at age 12 after 6 years of primary school. Compulsory for all children, it is followed by the non-mandatory , (
Lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. ...

Lyceum
, ages 15–18), or the
Vocational A vocation () is an job, occupation to which a person is especially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified. People can be given information about a new occupation through student orientation. Though now often used in non-religi ...
Lyceum (EPAL). The EPAL School Leaving Certificate is recognized equally as a Senior Secondary School Leaving Certificate (high school). *

: 4/6/8 years, starting after 8/6/4 years of primary school, ends with Matura; see
Education in Hungary Education in Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, ...
*

: usually 3–4 years, starting at age 15 or 16 after 10 years of
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

elementary school
. *

: five schools termed "gymnasium" located in
Tel Aviv Tel Aviv-Yafo ( he, תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ, ''Tel Aviv-Yafo'' ; ar, تَلّ أَبِيب - يَافَا, ''Tall ʾAbīb-Yāfā''), often referred to as just Tel Aviv, is the most populous city in the metropolitan area of . Locate ...

Tel Aviv
,
Rishon LeZion Rishon LeZion ( he, רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן , ''lit.'' First to Zion) is a city in Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of ...
,
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, and
Haifa Haifa ( he, חֵיפָה ' ; ar, حيفا ') is the third-largest city in Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, ...

Haifa
. *

: is the name of the two first years of *

: 7 years, after 5 years of primary school *

: 3 years, after 9 years of primary school *

: ends with Matura * : —usually 4 years: 2 years of basic school after 4 years of basic school and 2 years of secondary school, sometimes 8 years: 6 of basic school and 2 of secondary school, 12 years in rural areas or in art/music gymnasiums. *

: usually 7 years, starting at age 12–13 after 6 years of primary school. *

: 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, 3 years for those who went in the elementary for 9 years; ends with Matura. * : 6 years, starting at age 11–13, after 8 years of primary school. Prepares for admission to university. Gymnasia in the Netherlands have compulsory classes in Ancient Greek and/or Latin; the same high level secondary school without the classical languages is called Atheneum. They are both variants of . *

: the traditional but now discontinued gymnasium led to the completion of . This has now been succeeded by a 2-, 3-, or 4-year program (), depending on course path taken, starting at the age of 15/16, culminating with an exam that qualifies for university matriculation (). *

: was the name of the 3-year Polish compulsory
middle school A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained tea ...

middle school
, starting at age of 12 or 13, following 6 years of
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
. ended with a
standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 f ...
. Further education was encouraged but optional, consisting of either 3-year , 4-year , or 2 to 3 years of vocational school (potentially followed by a supplementary or ). In 2017, Poland reverted to a compulsory 8-year primary school, optionally followed by a 4-year , a 5-year , or 2 to 3 years of vocational school. *

: 4 years, starting at age 10 ends with at the age of 14. Primary education lasts for four years. Secondary education consists of: 1) lower secondary school education organized in a gymnasium for grades 5 to 8 and lower cycle of high school or arts and trades schools (vocational) for grades 9 and 10; 2) upper secondary school education organized in for grades 11, 12, and 13 followed, if necessary, by an additional high school year for those who want to move from vocational training (grade 10) to upper secondary school education. High school education (lower cycle of high school and upper secondary school education) offers three different orientations (academic, technological, specialization). *

**
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
: since 1726, 8 years since 1871. Women's gymnasiums since 1862; 7 years plus an optional 8th for specialisation in
pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is ...
. Progymnasiums: equivalent to 4 first years of gymnasium. **
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
: full 11 or 6–7 years after primary school. Nowadays there are very few schools in Russia which in their teaching principles and curriculum resemble the prerevolutionalry tradition of Classical Gymnasium. The notable exception is the St Petersburg Classical Gymnasium where Latin, Ancient Greek, and mathematics are the three core subjects. In the majority of other cases, Russian Gymnasiums are schools specialised in a certain subject (or several subjects) in the humanities (e.g
Chelyabinsk School No. 1
. *Serbia, : 4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary/primary school. There are three most common types of gymnasiums: 1) general gymnasium () which offers broad education in all sciences; 2) natural sciences (); and 3) social studies (), available all over Serbia, and a few specialised ones, e.g. mathematics ()—only one in all of Serbia, in Belgrade; sports ()—just two in Serbia; language ()—a total of four in Serbia; and military gymnasium ()—only one in all of Serbia. In the end, all students take a final exam—a Matura. Completion of the Gymnasium is a prerequisite for enrollment into a university. English and another foreign language (from the selection of German, French, Russian (most common languages), Italian or Spanish (far less common) or Chinese and Japanese (only philological gymnasiums have these two) in addition to the mother tongue, and in case of minorities also Serbian) are compulsory throughout. *Slovakia, : 4 years starting at age 15/16 after completing 9 years of elementary school (more common); 8 years starting at age 11/12 after completing 5 years of elementary school; both end with Matura, Maturita. *Slovenia, : 4 years, starting at age 14/15; ends with Matura. *South Africa, : Paul Roos Gymnasium is a well-known gymnasium for boys in the town of Stellenbosch. The school is a boarding school, based on the classic British boarding schools; however, it was more influenced by the Protestant faith, hence the German Gymnasium. Foreign languages such as French, German, Mandarin, and Latin are studied; Afrikaans and English are compulsory. School in South Africa: 5 years, starting at age 13/14, at a secondary institution, after 7 years of primary school, ends with Matric. *Sweden, : Upper secondary school in Sweden lasts for three years (formerly four years on some programmes). "Gymnasium" is the word used to describe this stage of the education system in Sweden. The National Agency for Education (Sweden), National Agency of Education has decided that ''gymnasium'' is equivalent to the international upper secondary school. The gymnasium is optional and follows after nine years in elementary school. However, the Swedish term ("high school") may cause some confusion. In Swedish it is used almost synonymously with "university," with the only difference being that universities have the right to issue doctoral examinations. In the case of technical universities, these could also be called even when they have right to issue doctoral examinations (e.g., , officially named a "Technical University" in English; , Faculty of Engineering, Lund University; and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Royal Institute of Technology"). A is often located in cities with lower population, except for the technical ones that can be found also in the largest cities. *Switzerland, : usually 4 years after 9 years of compulsory schooling (primary and secondary I); it is also possible to attend a so-called which lasts 6 years, following a six-year primary schooling; the Gymnasium ends with Matura at the age of 18/19. *Ukraine, : 8 years, starting after 4 years of
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

primary school
. *United Kingdom, : historically, Grammar schools in the United Kingdom, grammar schools have been the English equivalent of the gymnasium, selecting pupils on the basis of academic ability (usually through the Eleven-plus, 11+ entrance examination in year 6, at the age of 10 or 11) and educating them with the assumption that they would go on to study at a
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
; such schools were largely phased out from 1965 under the Harold Wilson, Wilson and Edward Heath, Heath governments, and less than 5% of pupils now attend the remaining 146 grammar schools. The UK therefore no longer has a widespread equivalent of the gymnasium. The exception is Northern Ireland and some parts of England within the counties of Buckinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Kent, which have retained the system. Grammar schools are also to be found in some London boroughs, North Yorkshire, Essex, Lancashire, Warwickshire, and Devon in varying degrees. Many private, fee-paying independent school (United Kingdom), independent schools, including all those commonly referred to as "public" schools, seek to fulfill a similar role to the state grammar school if the scholar has the ability (and thus to the gymnasium in other countries) and, most importantly, the money to attend them. *United States, **Public school (government funded), Public school: As school districts continue to experiment with educational styles, the magnet school has become a popular type of high school. Boston Latin School and Central High School (Philadelphia), Central High School in Philadelphia are the two oldest public schools in the country and the oldest magnet schools. As the concept has not become entrenched in the various American educational systems, due partly to the Federation, federal—rather than unitary—style of education in the United States, the term may vary among states. **Private school: The equivalent among private schools is the university-preparatory school, preparatory school.


Final degree

Depending on country, the Matriculation examination, final degree (if any) is called Abitur, Artium, Diploma,
Matura ''Matura'' or its translated terms (''Mature'', ''Matur'', ''Maturita'', ''Maturità'', ''Maturität'', ''Maturité'', ''Mатура'', ''Érettségi'') is a Latin name for the secondary school A secondary school describes an institution tha ...

Matura
, Maturita or Student (degree), Student and it usually opens the way to professional schools directly. However, these degrees are occasionally not fully accredited internationally, so students wanting to attend a foreign
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
often have to submit to further exams to be permitted access to them.


Relationship with other education facilities

In countries like Austria, most university faculties only accept students from secondary schools that last four years (rather than three). This includes all Gymnasium students but only a part of vocational high schools, in effect making Gymnasium the preferred choice for all pupils aiming for university diplomas. In Germany, other types of secondary school are called , and . These are attended by about two thirds of the students and the first two are practically unknown in other parts of the world. A largely corresponds to a British or American comprehensive school. However, it offers the same school-leaving certificates as the other three types—the (school-leaving certificate of a after 9th grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th grade), the (also called , school-leaving certificate of a after 10th Grade) and (also called , school-leaving certificate after 12th Grade). Students who graduate from or may continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. It is also possible to get an after 10th grade that allows the students to continue their education at the of a gymnasium and get an . There are two types of vocational school in Germany: the , a part-time vocational school and a part of Germany's dual education system, and the , a full-time vocational school outside the dual education system. Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with a good Grade (education), grade point average from a can continue their schooling at another type of German secondary school, the :de:Fachhochschulreife, Fachhochschulreife, a vocational high school. The school leaving exam of this type of school, the , enables the graduate to start studying at a (institute of technology#German language areas – Technische Universitäten and Fachhochschulen, polytechnic) and in
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
also at a university within the state. Students who have graduated from vocational school and have been working in a job for at least three years can go to Berufsoberschule to get either a (meaning they may go to university, but they can only study the subjects belonging to the "branch" (economical, technical, social) they studied in at ) after one year, or the normal (after two years), which gives them complete access to universities.


See also

* Comparison of American and British English#Education, Comparison of US and UK Education * Gymnasium (ancient Greece) *
Gymnasium (Germany) ''Gymnasium'' (; German plural: ''Gymnasien''), in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usu ...
* Lyceum (Classical) * Educational stage * Realschule *
Lyceum The lyceum is a category of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. ...

Lyceum


Explanatory notes


Citations


External links

* {{Authority control Gymnasiums (school), School types Secondary education