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Guilin (
Standard Zhuang Standard Zhuang (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric or infraspecific name See also * ...
: ''Gveilinz''; alternatively
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
as Kweilin) is a
prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefect ...
in the northeast of China's
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit ...

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
. It is situated on the west bank of the
Li River The Li River or Li Jiang (), which belongs to the Xi River, Xijiang River system in the Pearl River (China), Pearl River Basin, is a generic term for the tributary of the upper reaches of the Gui River, Guijiang River and is located in the northea ...
and borders
Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roma ...

Hunan
to the north. Its name means "forest of
sweet osmanthus ''Osmanthus fragrans'' (lit. "fragrant osmanthus"; Chinese language, Chinese: , ''guìhuā'', and , ''mùxī''; ; Wu Chinese, Shanghainese: ''kue35 ho53''; ja, wikt:木犀, 木犀, ''mokusei''; hi, , ''silang''), variously known as sweet o ...
", owing to the large number of fragrant sweet osmanthus trees located in the region. The city has long been renowned for its scenery of
karst Karst is a topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). Topography ...

karst
topography. Its population was 4,747,963 as of the 2010 census (4,931,137 as of the 2020 census) whom 1,770,464 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 6 urban Districts plus Lingchuan County now being conurbated. Guilin is one of China's most popular tourist destinations, and the epithet "By water, by mountains, most lovely, Guilin" () is often associated with the city. The State Council of China has designated Guilin a National Famous Historical and Cultural City, doing so in the first edition of the list.


History

Before the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a Romanization of Chinese, romanization system for Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th ...
, Guilin region was settled by the Baiyue people. In 314 BC, a small settlement was established along the banks of the
Li River The Li River or Li Jiang (), which belongs to the Xi River, Xijiang River system in the Pearl River (China), Pearl River Basin, is a generic term for the tributary of the upper reaches of the Gui River, Guijiang River and is located in the northea ...
. During the Qin dynasty's (221–206 BC) campaigns against the state of
Nanyue Nanyue (, also called Southern Yue) or Nam Việt ( vi, Nam Việt; za, Namzyied), was an ancient kingdom ruled by Chinese monarchs of the Triệu dynasty that covered the modern Chinese subdivisions of Guangdong, Guangxi Guangxi (; alt ...

Nanyue
, the first administration was set up in the area around Guilin. The modern city was located within the
Guilin CommanderyYulin Commandery () was a Chinese commandery that existed from Qin dynasty to Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It wa ...
, which is origin of the modern name "Guilin". In 111 BC, during the reign of of the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
, Shi'an County () was established, which could be regarded as the beginning of the city. In AD 507, the town was renamed Guizhou (Gui Prefecture, ). In 634,
Lingui County Lingui District () is a District (China), district administered by Guilin, Guangxi, China, and located midway between Guilin and Yangshuo. The district is mostly rural and hilly, marked by the same dramatic karst topography for which Guilin is fam ...
was established at the modern site of Guilin, under Gui Prefecture. In 868,
Pang XunPang Xun (龐勛) (died October 14, 869Academia Sinica Academia Sinica (AS, la, 1=Academia Sinica, 3=Chinese Academy; ), headquartered in Nangang, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan (Republic of China). It supports research activities in ...
rebelled against the Tang from Gui Prefecture. Guilin prospered in the Tang and
Song A song is a musical composition intended to be performed by the human voice. This is often done at melody, distinct and fixed pitches (melodies) using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various song form, forms, such as those includi ...
dynasties but remained a county. The city was also a nexus between the central government and the southwest border, and it was where regular armies were placed to guard that border.
Canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * C ...

Canal
s were built through the city so that food supplies could be directly transported from the food-productive
Yangtze along the Yangtze River. in Hubei Hubei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the provinc ...
plain to the farthest southwestern point of the empire. In 997, Guangnan West Circuit, predecessor of modern Guangxi, was established, with Guizhou as the capital. In 1133, Guizhou was renamed Jingjiang Prefecture (). In 1367, the name was changed to Guilin Prefecture (). In 1921, Guilin became one of the headquarters of the Northern Expeditionary Army led by
Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat-sen (; born Sun Deming; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) Singtao daily. Saturday edition. 23 October 2010. section A18. Sun Yat-sen Xinhai revolution 100th anniversary edition . was a Chinese statesman, physician, and political ph ...

Sun Yat-sen
. In 1940, Guilin City was established. Guilin was the provincial capital of Guangxi before 1912 and from 1936 to 1949. Guilin became one of the most important military, transport and cultural centers of China during the World War II. The city drastically expanded as refugees from all over China poured in, and by 1944 its population had grown from 70,000 pre-war to more than 500,000. It hosted intellectuals and artists including
Guo Moruo Guo Moruo (; November 16, 1892 – June 12, 1978), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, includi ...

Guo Moruo
,
Mao Dun Shen Dehong (Shen Yanbing; 4 July 1896 – 27 March 1981), known by the pen name of Mao Dun, was a Chinese essayist, journalist, novelist, and playwright. Mao Dun, as a 20th-century Chinese novelist, literary and cultural critic, and Ministry ...

Mao Dun
,
Ba Jin Ba Jin ( Chinese: 巴金; pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to teach ...
,
Tian Han Tian Han (12 March 1898 – 10 December 1968), Wade-Giles, formerly romanized as T'ien Han, was a Chinese people, Chinese drama activist, playwright, a leader of revolutionary music and films, as well as a translator and poet. He emerged at the ...
,
Xu Beihong Xu Beihong (; 19 July 1895 – 26 September 1953), also known as Ju Péon, was a Chinese painter. He was primarily known for his Chinese ink paintings of horses and birds and was one of the first Chinese artists to articulate the need for artist ...
, Feng Zikai and many others. In 1950, the provincial capital of Guangxi was moved from Guilin to
Nanning Nanning (; za, Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush subtropical The subtropical zones or subt ...

Nanning
. In 1981, Guilin was listed by the
State CouncilState Council may refer to: Government * State Council of the Republic of Korea, the national cabinet of South Korea, headed by the President of South Korea, President * State Council of the People's Republic of China, the national cabinet and ch ...
as one of the four cities (the other three being
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...

Beijing
,
Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franc ...

Hangzhou
and
Suzhou Suzhou (; ; , Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and ca ...

Suzhou
) where the protection of historical and cultural heritage, as well as natural scenery, should be treated as a priority project.


Administrative divisions

Guilin administers seventeen county-level divisions, including 6
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
, 8
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
, 2 autonomous counties, and 1
county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China China ( ...
. *
District A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipali ...
: **
Xiufeng District Xiufeng District (; za, Siufungh Gih) is a district of the city of Guilin, Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People ...
() ** Xiangshan District () ** Diecai District () **
Qixing District Qixing District (; za, Gihsingh Gih) is a district of the city of Guilin, Guangxi, China. Qixing District is divided into Qixingqu Subdistrict, Dongjiang Subdistrict, Chuanshan Subdistrict, Lidong Subdistrict, Chaoyang Township, Guilin, Chaoyang T ...
() **
Yanshan District Yanshan District (; za, Yensanh Gih) is a district covering part of the southern suburbs of Guilin, Guangxi, China. There is 1 subdistrict, 2 towns, 1 township, and 1 ethnic town in Yanshan District: * Liangfeng Subdistrict * Yanshan, Guangxi, Ya ...

Yanshan District
() **
Lingui District Lingui District () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several ...
() *
County-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China China ( ...
: ** Lipu city () *
County A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
: **
Yangshuo County Yangshuo County () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term ...
() ** Lingchuan County () **
Xing'an County Xing'an County is a county (China), county in the northeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Guilin. Its area is , with a population of 370000. The postal code is 541300. Clima ...
() **
Quanzhou County Quanzhou County (; za, Cenzcouh Yen) is a county in the northeast of Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's R ...
() ** Yongfu County () **
Ziyuan County Ziyuan County (; za, Swhyenz Yen) is a county in the northeast of Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republ ...
() **
Guanyang County Guanyang County (; Zhuang language: ) is a county in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous R ...
() **
Pingle County Pingle County (; za, Bingzloz Yen) is a county in the northeast of Guangxi Guangxi (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an Autonomous ...
() *
Autonomous county Autonomous counties and autonomous banners are Counties of China, county-level autonomous administrative divisions of China. The two are essentially identical except in name. There are 117 autonomous Counties of China, counties and three autonomo ...
: **
Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County () is a county within the prefecture-level city of Guilin, Guangxi, China. The county spans a total area of , and has a population of approximately 300,000 as of 2011. History The area was first incorporated under ...
() **
Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County Longsheng Various Nationalities (Gezu) Autonomous County ( zh, s=龙胜各族自治县, t=龍勝各族自治縣, p=Lóngshèng Gèzú Zìzhìxiàn; za, Lungzhingz Gakcuz Swciyen; usually referred to as "Longsheng County" ) is a county in the north ...
()


Geography

Guilin is located in northern Guangxi, bordering
Liuzhou Liuzhou (; , IPA Pronunciation:) is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. The prefecture's population was 3,758,700 in 2010, including 1,436,599 in the built-up area made of 4 urban ...

Liuzhou
to the west,
Laibin Laibin (, Zhuang: Laizbinh) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ...

Laibin
to the southwest,
Wuzhou Wuzhou (, postal: Wuchow; za, Ngouzcouh / Ŋouƨcouƅ), formerly Ngchow, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a ...

Wuzhou
to the south,
Hezhou Hezhou () is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located ''already'' with ...

Hezhou
to the southeast, and within neighbouring
Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roma ...

Hunan
,
Huaihua Huaihua () is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipali ...

Huaihua
to the northwest,
Shaoyang Shaoyang (), formerly named Baoqing (Paoking) (), is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Hunan province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It has a history of 2500 years and remains an important commercial and transportation city in Hunan. ...

Shaoyang
to the north, and
Yongzhou Yongzhou, formerly known as Lingling, is a prefecture-level city in the south of Hunan province, People's Republic of China, located on the southern bank of the Xiang River, which is formed by the confluence of the Xiao River, Xiao and Xiang Riv ...

Yongzhou
to the east. It has a total area of . The topography of the area is marked by
karst formations Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, Dolomite (rock), dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for more weath ...

karst formations
. The karsts surrounding Guilin are made of
Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions int ...

Triassic
period
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different Polymorphism (materials science), crystal forms of calcium carbonate (). Limestone forms ...

limestone
and
dolomite rock Silurian.html"_;"title="Trilobite_fossil_preserved_as_an_internal_cast_in_Silurian">Trilobite_fossil_preserved_as_an_internal_cast_in_Silurian_dolomite_from_southwestern_Ohio,_USA Dolomite_(also_known_as_dolomite_rock,_dolostone_or_dolomitic_ro ...
s. The
Li River The Li River or Li Jiang (), which belongs to the Xi River, Xijiang River system in the Pearl River (China), Pearl River Basin, is a generic term for the tributary of the upper reaches of the Gui River, Guijiang River and is located in the northea ...
flows through the city. *Hills and mountains: Diecai Hill (),
Elephant Trunk Hill :''This article is for the landmark in Guilin, China. For the similarly named hill and provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, see Elephant Hill Provincial Park. Image:Elephant Trunk Hill.jpg, 300px, Elephant Trunk Hill The Elephant Trunk Hill ...

Elephant Trunk Hill
, Wave-Subduing Hill (), Lipu Mountains,
Kitten Mountain Kitten Mountain (also ''Mao'er Mountains''; ) is a mountain located on the border between Ziyuan County and Xing'an County Xing'an County is a county (China), county in the northeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is administere ...
, the highest peak of Guangxi, and Yao Hill () *Caves:
Reed Flute Cave The Reed Flute Cave (), also known as "the Palace of Natural Arts," is a landmark and tourist attraction in Guilin, Guangxi, China. Image:Reed flute cave.jpg, left, Lake inside the cave, with artificial lighting The cave got its name from the ty ...
,
Seven-star Cave 400px, A limestone formation in Seven-star Cave Seven-star Cave () is an extensive limestone cave complex in Seven-star Park, both of which are popular tourist attractions in the city of Guilin in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The name deriv ...


Climate

Guilin has a monsoon-influenced
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography, latitude is a g ...
( Köppen ''Cfa'', bordering on ''Cwa''), with short, mild winters, and long, hot, humid summers. Winter begins dry but becomes progressively wetter and cloudier. Spring is generally overcast and often rainy, while summer continues to be rainy though is the sunniest time of year. Autumn is sunny and dry. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from in January to in July, and the annual mean is . The annual rainfall is just under , and is delivered in bulk (~50%) from April to June, when the
plum rain The East Asian rainy season, commonly called the plum rain (), is caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary front known as the Meiyu front for nearly two months during the late spring and early summer in East Asia between mainland Chin ...
s occur and often create the risk of flooding. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 14% in March to 53% in September, the city receives 1,487 hours of bright sunshine annually.


Demographics

*Population: 4,747,963 China Census 2010 *Urban population: 976,638 According to the
2010 census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
, the largest ethnic group in the prefecture-level city was
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleYao Yao or YAO may refer to: * Yao (surname), the transliteration of Chinese family names 姚, 銚, and 么 * Yao (ruler), a mythical Chinese ruler and emperor * Yao Ming, Chinese Basketball All-Star that played for the Houston Rockets * Euphrasie Kouas ...
at 7.79% and
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
at 4.81%. Citizens of Guilin's urban area speak a dialect of
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
, while
Pinghua Pinghua (; Yale: ''Pìhng Wá''; sometimes disambiguated as /) is a pair of Sinitic languages spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is a ...
is predominantly spoken in suburbs and surrounding areas.


Economy

* The GDP per capita was ¥41891 (ca. US$6569) in 2020, ranked no. 134 among 659 Chinese cities. * Local industries:
condoms A condom is a sheath-shaped Barrier contraception, barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a Sexually transmitted disease, sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are both male and female cond ...

condoms
,
pharmaceutical A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug File:Aspirine macro shot.jpg, Uncoated aspirin Tablet (pharmacy), tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along w ...
goods,
tire A tire (American English) or tyre (British English) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a Rim (wheel), wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide Traction (engineering), tr ...

tire
s,
machinery A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, forces and control Motion, movement ...

machinery
,
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

fertilizer
,
silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...

silk
, perfume, wine, tea,
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice SPICE ("Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis")Nagel, L. W, and Pederson, D. O., ''SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis)'', Memorandum No. ERL-M382, University of California, Berkeley ...

cinnamon
,
herbal medicine Herbal medicine (also herbalism) is the study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which are a basis of traditional medicine. There is limited evidence-based medicine, scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of plants used in ...
*Local agricultural products: , summer orange, Fructus Momordicae,
ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. ...

ginkgo
, moon persimmon, Lipu Taro, Sanhua Alcohol,
pepper sauce Hot sauce is a type of condiment Image:Salt, sugar and pepper shakers.jpg, Salt, black pepper, pepper, and sugar are commonly placed on Western restaurant tables. A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food, after cooking ...

pepper sauce
,
fermented bean curd Fermented tofu (also called fermented bean curd, white bean-curd cheese, tofu cheese, soy cheese or preserved tofu) is a Chinese condiment consisting of a form of processed, Food preservation, preserved tofu used in East Asian cuisine. The ingred ...
, Guilin Rice Noodle,
water chestnutWater chestnut may refer to either of two plants (both sometimes used in Chinese cuisine): * The Chinese water chestnut ('' Eleocharis dulcis''), eaten for its crisp corm * The water caltrop (''Trapa natans''), eaten for its starchy seed See also ...

water chestnut
,
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, ...

grain
, fish and dried bean milk cream in tight rolls Until 1949 only a thermal power plant, a cement works, and some small textile mills existed as signs of industrialization in Guilin. However, since the 1950s Guilin has added electronics, engineering and agricultural equipment, medicine, rubber, buses, textile and cotton yarn factories. Food processing, including the processing of local agricultural produce, remains the most important industry. More recent and modern industry features high technology, and the tertiary industry characterized by tourism trading and service.


Transportation


Air

The airport is
Guilin Liangjiang International Airport Guilin Liangjiang International Airport is the airport serving the city of Guilin in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is located in Liangjiang, about southwest of the city center. In 2014, Guilin Liangjiang International Airport was ...
(ICAO:ZGKL, IATA:KWL). Airlines that fly to the airport are: * *Asiana Airlines *China Southern *Air China *Hainan Airlines *Shanghai Airlines *Shandong Airlines *Xiamen Airlines *Tianjin Airlines *EVA Air *Air Asia *Beijing Capital Airlines *Hebei Airlines


Rail

Guilin has the most high-speed rail stations out of all cities in China. There is , , Guilin and a new station in the
Lingui District Lingui District () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several ...
. Guilin station and Guilin North station are on the Hunan–Guangxi railway, Hengyang–Liuzhou intercity railway and Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway, the main railways connecting Guangxi with central and southern China. Arriving at North station, high-speed trains between Guilin and Changsha and
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...

Beijing
came into operation in December 2013. In December 2014, high-speed operations began connecting Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Guiyang, and Shanghai. This made it more convenient for people to come to Guilin. It takes only about 2 or 3 hours from Guangzhou to Guilin, 9 hours from Shanghai to Guilin and 13 hours from Beijing to Guilin."High-speed Trains Available in Guilin" ChinaTour.Net
Accessed 2014-12-29
Trains traveling between Kunming South railway station, Kunming South and Hong Kong West Kowloon railway station, West Kowloon stations (for example) stop at Guilin West railway station."G314 timetable"
Accessed 2019-02-12


Urban

The city's public transportation includes bus routes and taxis. Guilin is the leading city in Mainland China operating double-decker buses regularly on major routes; in its main street the double-deckers run one-by-one almost every minute. Sightseeing boats also run on the city's canals and lakes. A Guilin Metro is planned for 7 lines by 2040 with 117 stations and a total length of 273.2 kilometres. Line 1 is planned to have been opened by 2025, and it will be 29.23 km with 13 stations.


Public colleges and universities

*Guilin University of Technology *Guilin Medical University *Guilin University of Electronic Technology *Guangxi Normal University *Guilin University of Aerospace Technology () ''Note:'' Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.


Scenic spots

1 li jiang guilin yangshuo 2011.jpg, The
Li River The Li River or Li Jiang (), which belongs to the Xi River, Xijiang River system in the Pearl River (China), Pearl River Basin, is a generic term for the tributary of the upper reaches of the Gui River, Guijiang River and is located in the northea ...
connects Guilin and
Yangshuo County Yangshuo County () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term ...
1 ping an longji terrace 2011.jpg, Longsheng Rice Terrace (Ping An) 1 pano cuiping yangshuo 2016.jpg, Cuiping Village 1 pano xinping yangshupo.jpg, Xingping Village 1 aerial yangshuo panorama 2017.jpg, Rafts sailing down the Yulong River in Yangshuo, a county of Guilin Sun and Moon Pagodas Guilin November 2017 HDR panorama.jpg, Sun and Moon Pagodas in Shan Lake Reed flute cave.jpg, Reed flute cave Guilin scenic.jpg, Scenic view on town from Seven-star Park
Scenic spots around Guilin include: *Jingjiang Princes City, a royal complex dating from the Ming Dynasty that lies near the center of modern Guilin *
Reed Flute Cave The Reed Flute Cave (), also known as "the Palace of Natural Arts," is a landmark and tourist attraction in Guilin, Guangxi, China. Image:Reed flute cave.jpg, left, Lake inside the cave, with artificial lighting The cave got its name from the ty ...
*Silver Cave *
Li River The Li River or Li Jiang (), which belongs to the Xi River, Xijiang River system in the Pearl River (China), Pearl River Basin, is a generic term for the tributary of the upper reaches of the Gui River, Guijiang River and is located in the northea ...
*Yangshuo *
Seven-star Cave 400px, A limestone formation in Seven-star Cave Seven-star Cave () is an extensive limestone cave complex in Seven-star Park, both of which are popular tourist attractions in the city of Guilin in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The name deriv ...
and Seven Star Park () *Camel Mountain () and
Elephant Trunk Hill :''This article is for the landmark in Guilin, China. For the similarly named hill and provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, see Elephant Hill Provincial Park. Image:Elephant Trunk Hill.jpg, 300px, Elephant Trunk Hill The Elephant Trunk Hill ...

Elephant Trunk Hill
*Piled Festoon Hill () *Crescent Hill () *Fubo Hill () *Nanxi Hill () *Erlang Gorge () *Huangbu (Yellow Cloth) Beach () *Moon Hill *Longsheng Rice Terrace *Daxu Ancient Town () *Xingping Ancient Town () *Duxiu, Solitary Beauty Peak () *Liusanjie Landscape Garden () *Yao Hill () *Sun and Moon Pagodas ()


Cuisine

Guilin cuisine is a mixture of Cantonese cuisine and Zhuang cuisine. It is known for its snacks and the use of spices, especially chili. Guilin chili sauce (), used widely in cooking by locals, is made of fresh chili, garlic, and fermented soybeans, and is considered one of the city's Three Treasures (). The other two of the Three Treasures are Guilin Sanhua Jiu (), a variety of ''rice baijiu'', or liquor distilled from rice; and Guilin pickled tofu. Guilin Rice vermicelli, rice noodles have been the local breakfast staple since the Qin dynasty and are renowned for their delicate taste. Legend has it that when Qin troops suffering from diarrhea entered this region, a cook created the Guilin rice noodles for the army because they had trouble eating the local food. Specifically, the local specialty is noodles with horse meat, but this dish can also be ordered without the horse meat. ''Zongzi'', a dumpling made from glutinous rice and mung bean paste wrapped in a bamboo or banana leaf is another popular delicacy in Guilin.


Quotes

:"I often sent pictures of the hills of Guilin which I painted to friends back home, but few believed what they saw." ::- Fan Chengda (Chinese Song Dynasty scholar) :"Guilin's scenery is best among all under heaven." () ::- popular Chinese saying


International relations


Twin towns—Sister cities

Guilin is town twinning, twinned with: * – Nishikatsura, Yamanashi, Japan – Lingchuan County * – Kumamoto City, Japan – Guilin * – Toride, Toride City, Japan – Guilin * – Miho, Ibaraki, Japan – Lingui * – Jeju City, Jeju, South Korea * – Hastings, New Zealand * – Toruń, Poland * – Orlando, United States * – Tlaxcoapan, Hidalgo (state), Hidalgo, Mexico * – Langkawi, Malaysia The Guilin relationship with the New Zealand city Hastings started in 1977, after a research scientist, Stuart Falconer, identified a number of common areas of interest between the two cities, including horticulture and their rural-urban mix. In 1997 Guilin commenced an exchange relationship with Ōta, Gunma, Japan.


Notable residents

* Daniel Weihs (born 1942), Israeli Aeronautical Engineering professor at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology * Ou Hongyi (born 2002), climate activist


See also

* Bai Chongxi * Alcoholic drinks in China * Li Zongren


References


Further reading


"Guilin (China")
''Britannica Online Encyclopedia''


External links


Guilin Government Official website
{{Authority control Guilin, 314 BC 310s BC establishments 4th-century BC establishments in China Cities in Guangxi Populated places established in the 4th century BC