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The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century American producer of military and civilian aircraft. Founded on December 6, 1929, by Leroy Grumman and partners, it merged in 1994 with Northrop Corporation to form Northrop Grumman.


History

Leroy Grumman worked for the Loening Aircraft Engineering Corporation beginning in 1920, and when it was bought by Keystone Aircraft Corporation and the operations were moved from New York City to Bristol, Pennsylvania, in 1929, Grumman and his partners, all ex-Loening Aircraft employees,Jordan, Corey C
"Grumman's Ascendency: Chapter One."
''Planes and Pilots Of World War 2,'' 2000. Retrieved: July 22, 2011.
(Edmund Ward Poor, William Schwendler, Jake Swirbul, and Clint Towl) started their own company in an old Cox-Klemin, Cox-Klemin Aircraft Co. factory in Baldwin, Nassau County, New York, Baldwin on Long Island, New York. The company registered as a business on December 6, 1929, and officially opened on January 2, 1930. While maintaining the business by welding aluminum tubing for truck frames, the company eagerly pursued contracts with the United States Navy, US Navy. Grumman designed the first practical floats with a retractable landing gear for the Navy, and this launched Grumman into the aviation market. The first Grumman aircraft was also for the Navy, the Grumman FF-1, a biplane with retractable landing gear. This was followed by a number of other successful designs. During World War II, Grumman became known for its "Cats", Navy fighter aircraft, Grumman F4F Wildcat, F4F Wildcat and Grumman F6F Hellcat, F6F Hellcat, the less well known Grumman F7F Tigercat and Grumman F8F Bearcat, and for its torpedo bomber Grumman TBF Avenger, TBF Avenger. Grumman ranked 22nd among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Grumman's first jet aircraft was the Grumman F9F Panther, F9F Panther; it was followed by the upgraded Grumman F-9 Cougar, F9F/F-9 Cougar, and the less well known Grumman F-11 Tiger, F-11 Tiger in the 1950s. The company's big postwar successes came in the 1960s with the Grumman A-6 Intruder, A-6 Intruder and Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, E-2 Hawkeye and in the 1970s with the Grumman EA-6B Prowler and Grumman F-14 Tomcat, F-14 Tomcat. Grumman products were prominent in several feature movies including ''The Final Countdown (film), The Final Countdown'' in 1980, ''Top Gun'' in 1986, as well as ''Flight of the Intruder'' in 1990. The U.S. Navy still employs the Hawkeye as part of Carrier Air Wings on board aircraft carriers, while the U.S. Marine Corps, the last branch of service to fly the Prowler, retired it on March 8, 2019. Grumman was the chief contractor on the Apollo Lunar Module, the first spacecraft to ever land humans on the Moon. The firm received the contract on November 7, 1962, and built 13 lunar modules; six of which successfully landed on the Moon, with one serving as a lifeboat on Apollo 13, after an explosion crippled the main Apollo spacecraft. LM-2, a test article which never flew in space, is displayed permanently in the Smithsonian Institution. As the Apollo program neared its end, Grumman was one of the main competitors for the contract to design and build the Space Shuttle, but lost to Rockwell International. In 1969, the company changed its name to Grumman Aerospace Corporation, and in 1978 it sold the Grumman-American Division to Gulfstream Aerospace. That same year, it acquired the bus manufacturer Flxible. The company built the Grumman Grumman LLV, Long Life Vehicle (LLV), a light transport mail truck designed for and used by the United States Postal Service. The mail truck had been built from 1987 until 1994. Originally, it was supposed to stay in usage for 24 years, although some of them are still in service today. In December 1982, Grumman announced that they will be selling Flxible for $40 million to the General Automotive Corporation of Ann Arbor. Grumman was responsible for a successful line of business aircraft including the Gulfstream I turboprop (Grumman model G-159) and Gulfstream II business jet (Grumman model G-1159) which were operated by a number of companies and private individuals as well as by government agencies including various military entities and NASA. In addition, the Gulfstream I propjet was operated by several commuters/regional airlines in scheduled passenger services and included a stretched version, being the Gulfstream I-C (Grumman model G-159C) which could transport 37 passengers. Gulfstream business jets are currently manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics.


Long Island location

For much of the Cold War period, Grumman was the largest corporate employer on Long Island. Grumman's products were considered so reliable and ruggedly built that the company was often referred to as the "Grumman Iron Works". As the company grew, it moved to Valley Stream, New York, then Farmingdale, New York, finally to Bethpage, New York, with the testing and final assembly at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Calverton, Naval Weapons Station in Calverton, New York, all located on Long Island. At its peak in 1986 it employed 23,000 people on Long Island and occupied in structures on it leased from the U.S. Navy in Bethpage."Commercial Property/Selling Off Northrop Grumman's Surplus; Cablevision Takes Last of the Grumman Buildings."
''The New York Times'', December 28, 1997.
The end of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s reduced defense spending and led to a wave of mergers as aerospace companies shrank in number; in 1994 Northrop Corporation, Northrop bought Grumman for $2.1 billion to form Northrop Grumman, after Northrop topped a $1.9 billion offer from Martin Marietta. The new company closed almost all of its facilities on Long Island and converted the Bethpage plant to a residential and office complex, with its headquarters becoming the corporate headquarters for Cablevision and the Calverton plant being turned into a business/industrial complex. Former aircraft hangars have become Grumman Studios, a film and television production center. A portion of the airport property has been used for the Grumman Memorial Park.


Products


Aircraft


Projects

* Grumman 674 Nutcracker tilting fuselage VTOL * Grumman 698 VTOL * Grumman G-3 project only * Grumman G-4 project only * Grumman G-17 project only * Grumman G-25 project only * Grumman G-27 project only * Grumman G-29 project only * Grumman G-30 project only * Grumman G-35 project only * Grumman G-48 project only * Grumman G-49 project only * Grumman G-57 project only * Grumman G-62 project only * Grumman G-68 project only * Grumman G-71 project only * Grumman G-76 project only * Grumman G-77 swept-back wing research aircraft project * Grumman G-78 towed target glider project * Grumman G-84 project only * Grumman G-85 project only * Grumman G-86 project only * Grumman G-91 project only * Grumman G-92 project only * Grumman G-97 project only * Grumman G-107 project only * Grumman G-108 project only * Grumman G-110 project only * Grumman G-113 project only * Grumman G-114 * Grumman G-115 * Grumman G-116 project only * Grumman G-118 project only * Grumman G-119 project only * Grumman G-122 project only * Grumman G-124 jet trainer design * Grumman G-127 * Grumman G-132 * Grumman XTB2F * Grumman XTSF


Spacecraft

* Space ** Apollo Lunar Module ** Grumman 619 Space Shuttle


Other products

* Grumman manufactured fire engines under the name Firecat (not to be confused with the firefighting variant of the Grumman S-2 Tracker, which is sold under the same name) and Fire engine#Aerial platform, aerial tower trucks under the Aerialcat name. The company entered the fire apparatus business in 1976 with its purchase of Howe Fire Apparatus. * Grumman canoes were developed in 1944 as World War II was winding down. Company executive William Hoffman used the company's aircraft aluminum to replace the traditional wood design. The canoes had a reputation for being sturdier, lighter and stronger than their wood counterparts and had a considerable market share. Grumman moved its boat making division to Marathon (town), New York, Marathon, New York in 1952. : Outboard Marine Corp. bought the division in 1990 and produced the last Grumman-brand canoe in 1996. Shortly thereafter former Grumman executives formed the Marathon Boat Group to produce the canoes. In 2000 the Group worked out an agreement with Northrop Grumman to sell the canoes using Grumman name and logo. * Grumman sport boat * Flxible Metro, Grumman-Flxible 870 transit buses (1978–1982) * Ben Franklin (PX-15), a science submarine * Grumman LLV postal vehicle widely used by the United States Postal Service and Canada Post * In honor of Grumman's aviation and aerospace inventions, a Grumman Memorial Park was established in Calverton, New York.


References


Footnotes


Notes


Bibliography

* Ferguson, Robert G. "One Thousand Planes a Day: Ford, Grumman, General Motors and the Arsenal of Democracy." ''History and Technology'', Volume 21, Issue 2, 2005. * Fetherston, Drew
"Pioneers on the Runway: Raising Grumman."
''LI History.com'', Grumman Park. Retrieved: March 18, 2009. * Kessler, Pamela. "Leroy Grumman, Sky King." ''The Washington Post (Weekend)'', October 11, 1985. * O'Leary, Michael, ed. "Leroy Grumman." ''Air Classics'', Volume 19, no. 2, February 1983, pp. 27–29. * Skurla, George M. and William H. Gregory. ''Inside the Iron Works: How Grumman's Glory Days Faded''. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2004. . * Tillman, Barrett. ''Hellcat: The F6F in World War II''. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001. . * Thruelsen, Richard. ''The Grumman Story''. New York: Praeger Publishers, Inc., 1976. . * Treadwell, Terry. ''Ironworks: Grumman's Fighting Aeroplanes''. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishers, 1990. .


External links


''International Directory of Company Histories'', Vol. 11. St. James Press, 1995 (via fundinguniverse.com)





WW2DB: Grumman aircraft of WW2

1994 Aerial photograph of Bethpage Headquarters
including intact runways
Grumman Firecat on multimedia gallery

Archived 2007 ''Newsday'' article on decline of Grumman
{{DEFAULTSORT:Grumman Aerospace companies of the United States Defunct aircraft manufacturers of the United States Manufacturing companies based in New York (state) Companies based in Nassau County, New York Manufacturing companies established in 1929 Technology companies established in 1929 Vehicle manufacturing companies established in 1929 Manufacturing companies disestablished in 1994 Technology companies disestablished in 1994 Airports in Nassau County, New York Defunct technology companies based in New York (state)