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Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ) is an island country in the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
in the
Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Karayib; jam, Kiaribiyan Sii; nl, Caraïbische Zee; pap, Laman Karibe) is an Americas, American Mediterranean sea (oceanography), mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean ...
at the southern end of the
Grenadines The Grenadines are a chain of small islands that lie on a line between the larger islands of Saint Vincent and Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ''Gwenad'') is an island country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the sou ...

Grenadines
island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself, two smaller islands,
Carriacou Carriacou is an island of the Grenadine Islands. It is a Dependent territory, dependency of Grenada, and is located in the south-eastern Caribbean Sea, northeast of the island Grenada and the north coast of South America. The name is derived from ...
and
Petite Martinique Petite Martinique is one of the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique, which is a dependency of Grenada. It is 4 km (2½ miles) away from Carriacou. With its and population of 900, it is smaller than Carriacou. Petite Martinique is much small ...
, and several small islands which lie to the north of the main island and are a part of the Grenadines. It is located northwest of
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
, northeast of
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
and southwest of
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (), often Pars pro toto#Geography, simply referred to as Saint Vincent, is an island country in the Caribbean. It is located in the southeast Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, which lie in the West Ind ...

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
. Its size is , and it had an estimated population of 112,523 in July 2020. Its capital is
St. George's
St. George's
. Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of
nutmeg Nutmeg is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was release ...

nutmeg
and
mace Mace may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Mace (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe * Mace, a fictional character in the 1995 film ''Strange Days (film), Strange Days'' * Mace, a fictional character in the 2007 film ''Sunsh ...
crops. Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous peoples from South America.
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from resident
Island Caribs The Kalinago, also known as the Island Caribs or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic group ...
, French settlement and colonisation began in 1649 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued until 1974 (except for a brief French takeover between 1779 and 1783). However, on 3 March 1967, it was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State, and from 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the
Federation of the West Indies A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a political union, union of partially Federated state, self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central #Federal governments, federal gover ...
, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. Independence was granted on 7 February 1974 under the leadership of
Eric Gairy Sir Eric Matthew Gairy PC (18 February 192223 August 1997) was the first Prime Minister of Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ''Gwenad'') is an island country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Gr ...
, who became the first
Prime Minister of Grenada This is a list of heads of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authori ...
of the
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
. The new country became a member of the Commonwealth, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist
New Jewel Movement The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM), was a Marxist–Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label= Antillean ...
overthrew Gairy's government in a bloodless ''coup d'état'' and established the
People's Revolutionary Government The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM), was a Marxist–Leninist ...
(PRG), headed by
Maurice Bishop Maurice Rupert Bishop (29 May 1944 – 19 October 1983) was a Grenada, Grenadian revolutionary and the leader of New Jewel Movement – a Marxist–Leninist party which sought to prioritise socio-economic development, education, and black liberat ...
as Prime Minister. Bishop was later arrested and executed by members of the People's Revolutionary Army, prompting a U.S.-led invasion in October 1983. Since then, the island has returned to a
parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
representative democracy Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy, is a type of democracy where elected persons represent Represent may refer to: * Represent (Compton's Most Wanted album), ''Represent'' (Compton's Most Wanted album) or the title song ...
and has remained politically stable.


Etymology

The origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors named the island for the
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
n city of
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
. The name "Gr''a''nada" was recorded by Spanish maps in the 1520s and referred to the islands to the north as ''Los Granadillos'' ("Little Granadas"); although those named islands were deemed the property of the
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI Felipe VI or Philip VI (; Felipe Juan ...
, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever attempted to settle Grenada. The French maintained the name (as "La Grenade" in French) after settlement and colonisation in 1649. On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. The British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place-name
anglicisation Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English English usually ...
s they made there. It carried at least two other European names during the
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
. The island was given its first by
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
who sighted it on his third voyage to the region in 1498 and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...
. It is said that he may have actually named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, it became accepted that he named Tobago "Assumpción" and Grenada "La Concepción". The year after, Italian explorer
Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci (; ; 9 March 1451 – 22 February 1512) was an Italian-born merchant, explorer, and navigator from the Republic of Florence, from whose name the term " America" is derived. He became a Castillian citizen in 1505. Between 1 ...

Amerigo Vespucci
traveled through the region with the Spanish explorer
Alonso de Ojeda Alonso de Ojeda (; c. 1466 – c. 1515) was a Spanish explorer, governor and conquistador. He travelled through Guyana, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago Tobago () is an List of islands of Trinidad and Tobago, island within the Trinidad and Toba ...

Alonso de Ojeda
and mapmaker
Juan de la Cosa Juan de la Cosa (c. 1450 – 28 February 1510) was a Castilian navigator and cartographer, known for designing the earliest European world map that incorporated the territories of the Americas that were discovered in the 15th century. De la C ...
. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", although this is the only map where the name appears. The indigenous
Arawak The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The t ...

Arawak
that once lived in the island before the arrival of the Europeans gave the name ''Camajuya''.


History


Geological history

Approximately 2 million years ago in the
Pliocene The Pliocene ( ; also Pleiocene) epoch (geology), Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58shallow sea Shallow may refer to: Places * Shallow (underwater relief), where the depth of the water is low compared to its surroundings * Shallow Bay (disambiguation), various places * Shallow Brook, New Jersey, United States * Shallow Inlet, Victoria, Au ...
as a submarine volcano. In recent times,
volcanic activity A volcano is a rupture in the Crust (geology), crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. On Earth, volcanoes are most often fo ...
has been non-existent, except for some of its
hot spring A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of w ...

hot spring
and underwater volcano
Kick 'em Jenny Kick 'em Jenny (also: Kick-'em-Jenny or Mt. Kick-'Em-Jenny) is an active submarine volcano or seamount on the Caribbean Sea floor, located north of the island of Grenada and about west of Ronde Island in the Grenadines. Kick-'em-Jenny rises abo ...
. Most of Grenada's terrain is made up from volcanic activity that would have taken place 1-2 million years ago. There would have been many unknown volcanoes responsible for the formation of Grenada including Grenada's capital St. George's with its horseshoe-shaped harbour, the carenage. Two extinct volcanoes which are now crater lakes, and Lake Antoine, would have also contributed towards the formation of Grenada.


Pre-Columbian history

Grenada was first populated by peoples from South America, possibly during the Caribbean Archaic Age, although definitive evidence is lacking. The earliest potential human presence comes from
proxy Proxy may refer to: * Proxy or agent (law), a substitute authorized to act for another entity or a document which authorizes the agent so to act * Proxy (climate), a measured variable used to infer the value of a variable of interest in climate r ...
evidence of lake cores, beginning ~3600 BC. Less ephemeral, permanent villages began around ~AD 100-200. The population peaked between AD 750–1250, with major changes in population afterwards, potentially the result of regional droughts and/or the "Carib Invasion", although the latter rests on highly circumstantial evidence.


European arrival

In 1498, Christopher Columbus was the first European to report sighting Grenada during his third voyage, naming it 'La Concepción', but Amerigo Vespucci may have renamed it Mayo in 1499. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish attempted to settle, although various Europeans are known to have passed and both fought and/or traded with the indigenous peoples there. The first known settlement attempt was a failed venture by the English in 1609, but they were massacred and driven away by the native "Carib" peoples.


French colony (1649–1763)

In 1649, a French expedition of 203 men from
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
, led by
Jacques Dyel du Parquet Jacques Dyel du Parquet (1606 – 3 January 1658) was a French soldier who was one of the first governors of Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Matinik or ; Kalinago language, Kalinago: or ) is an island and an Oversea ...
, founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. They signed a peace treaty with the Carib chief Kairouane, but within months conflict broke out between the two communities. This lasted until 1654 when the island was completely subjugated by the French. The indigenous peoples who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to more remote parts of Grenada, where they ultimately disappeared during the 1700s. Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Do ...

Dominica
and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The French named their new colony La Grenade, and the economy was initially based on
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugar cane
and
indigo InterGlobe Aviation Ltd d/b/a IndiGo is an Indian low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. It is the largest List of airlines of India, airline in India by passengers carried and fleet size, with a 57% domestic market shar ...

indigo
, worked by African slaves. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal (later St. George's). To shelter from hurricanes, the French navy would often take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby French islands had a natural harbour to compare with that of Fort Royal. The British captured Grenada during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
in 1762.


British colonial period


Early colonial period

Grenada was formally ceded to
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The French re-captured the island during the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, after
Comte d'Estaing Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector, comte d'Estaing (24 November 1729 – 28 April 1794) was a France, French General officer, general and admiral. He began his service as a soldier in the War of the Austrian Succession, briefly spending time as a p ...
won the bloody land and naval
Battle of Grenada The Battle of Grenada took place on 6 July 1779 during the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from T ...
in July 1779. However, the island was restored to Britain with the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
in 1783. A decade later, dissatisfaction with British rule led to a pro-French revolt in 1795–96 led by Julien Fédon, which was successfully defeated by the British. As Grenada's economy grew, more and more African slaves were forcibly transported to the island. Britain eventually outlawed the slave trade within the British Empire in 1807, and slavery was completely outlawed in 1833, leading to the emancipation of all enslaved by 1838. In an effort to ameliorate the subsequent labour shortage, migrants from India were brought to Grenada in 1857.
Nutmeg Nutmeg is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

Nutmeg
was introduced to Grenada in 1843, when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East Indies. The ship had a small quantity of nutmeg trees on board which they left in Grenada, and this was the beginning of Grenada's nutmeg industry that now supplies nearly 40% of the world's annual crop.


Later colonial period

In 1877, Grenada was made a
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
. Theophilus A. Marryshow founded the Representative Government Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian people. Partly as a result of Marryshow's lobbying, the Wood Commission of 1921–22 concluded that Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the form of a modified Crown colony government. This modification granted Grenadians the right to elect five of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted property franchise enabling the wealthiest 4% of adult Grenadians to vote. Marryshow was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1943. In 1950,
Eric Gairy Sir Eric Matthew Gairy PC (18 February 192223 August 1997) was the first Prime Minister of Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ''Gwenad'') is an island country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Gr ...
founded the
Grenada United Labour Party The Grenada United Labour Party (GULP) is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about po ...
(GULP), initially as a trade union, which led the 1951
general strike A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour (economics), labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers ...
for better working conditions. This sparked great unrest, and so many buildings were set ablaze that the disturbances became known as the "red sky" days. The British authorities decided to call in military reinforcements to help regain control of the situation. On 10 October 1951, Grenada held its first general elections on the basis of universal adult suffrage, with Gairy's party winning six of the eight seats contested. From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the
Federation of the West Indies A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a political union, union of partially Federated state, self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central #Federal governments, federal gover ...
. After the federation's collapse, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State on 3 March 1967.
Herbert Blaize Herbert Augustus Blaize Privy Council of the United Kingdom, PC (26 February 1918 – 19 December 1989) was a Grenada, Grenadian politician and leader of the Grenada National Party. When Grenada was still a British Crown Colony he served as th ...

Herbert Blaize
of the
Grenada National Party The Grenada National Party (GNP) was a conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional ...
(GNP) was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...
from August 1967 until February 1974.


Post-independence era

Independence was granted on 7 February 1974 under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first
Prime Minister of Grenada This is a list of heads of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authori ...
. Grenada opted to remain within the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
, retaining Queen Elizabeth as
Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...
, represented locally by a Governor-General. Civil conflict gradually broke out between Eric Gairy's government and some opposition parties, including the Marxist
New Jewel Movement The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM), was a Marxist–Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label= Antillean ...
(NJM). Gairy and the GULP won the
1976 Grenadian general election General elections were held in Grenada on 7 December 1976.Dieter Nohlen, Nohlen, D (2005) ''Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I'', p307 The result was a victory for the Grenada United Labour Party of Eric Gairy, which won nine of ...
, albeit with a reduced majority; however, the opposition deemed the results invalid due to fraud and the violent intimidation performed by the so-called ' Mongoose Gang', a private militia loyal to Gairy. Nohlen, D (2005) ''Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I'', p301-302 On 13 March 1979, whilst Gairy was out of the country, the NJM launched a
bloodless coup A nonviolent revolution is a revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms ...
which removed Gairy, suspended the constitution, and established a
People's Revolutionary Government The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM), was a Marxist–Leninist ...
(PRG), headed by
Maurice Bishop Maurice Rupert Bishop (29 May 1944 – 19 October 1983) was a Grenada, Grenadian revolutionary and the leader of New Jewel Movement – a Marxist–Leninist party which sought to prioritise socio-economic development, education, and black liberat ...
who declared himself Prime Minister. His Marxist–Leninist government established close ties with
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
, Nicaragua, and other countries. All political parties except for the New Jewel Movement were banned and no elections were held during the four years of PRG rule.


Invasion by the United States (1983)


Coup and execution of Maurice Bishop

Some years later, a dispute developed between Bishop and certain high-ranking members of the NJM. Though Bishop cooperated with Cuba and the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...

USSR
on various trade and foreign policy issues, he sought to maintain a "non-aligned" status. Bishop had been taking his time making Grenada wholly
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...

socialist
, simultaneously encouraging private-sector development in an attempt to make the island a popular tourist destination. Hardline
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
party members, including
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communist
Deputy Prime Minister
Bernard Coard Winston Bernard Coard (born 10 August 1945) is a Grenadian politician who was Deputy Prime Minister in the People's Revolutionary Government The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the Marxist–L ...
, deemed Bishop insufficiently revolutionary and demanded that he either step down or enter into a power-sharing arrangement. On 16 October 1983, Bernard Coard and his wife, Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under
house arrest In justice Justice, one of the four cardinal virtues, by Vitruvio Alberi, 1589–1590. Fresco, corner of the vault, studiolo of the Virgin of Mercy, Madonna of Mercy, Palazzo Altemps, Rome Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle t ...
. These actions led to street demonstrations in various parts of the island because Bishop had widespread support from the population. Because Bishop was a widely popular leader, he was freed by impassioned supporters who marched en masse to his guarded residence from a rally in the capital's central square. Bishop then led the crowd to the island's military headquarters to reassert his power. Grenadian soldiers were dispatched in armored vehicles by the Coard faction to retake the fort. A confrontation between soldiers and civilians at the fort ended in gunfire and panic. Three soldiers and at least eight civilians died in the tumult that also injured 100 others, a school-sponsored study later found. When the initial shooting ended with Bishop's surrender, he and a group of seven of his closest supporters were taken prisoner and executed by firing squad. Besides Bishop, the group included three of his cabinet ministers, a trade union leader and three service-industry workers. After the execution of Bishop, the People's Revolutionary Army (PRA) formed a military Marxist government with General
Hudson Austin Hudson Austin (born 26 April 1938) is a former general in the People's Revolutionary Army of Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ) is an island country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines ...
as chairman. The army declared a four-day total curfew, during which anyone leaving their home without approval would be shot on sight.


United States and allied response and reaction

US President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
stated that particularly worrying was the presence of Cuban construction workers and military personnel building a
airstrip An aerodrome (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither. A ...
on Grenada. Bishop had stated the purpose of the airstrip was to allow commercial jets to land, but some US military analysts argued that the only reason for constructing such a long and reinforced runway was so that it could be used by heavy military transport planes. The contractors, American and European companies, and the
EEC The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

EEC
, which provided partial funding, all claimed the airstrip did not have military capabilities. Reagan claimed that Cuba, under the direction of the Soviet Union, would use Grenada as a refuelling stop for Cuban and Soviet airplanes loaded with weapons destined for Central American communist insurgents. The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS),
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
, and Jamaica all appealed to the United States for assistance. On 25 October 1983, combined forces from the United States and from the
Regional Security SystemThe Regional Security System (RSS) is an international agreement for the defence and security of the eastern Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label= Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; P ...
(RSS) based in Barbados invaded Grenada in an operation codenamed ''
Operation Urgent Fury The United States invasion of Grenada began at dawn on 25 October 1983. The U.S. and a coalition of six Caribbean nations invaded the island nation of Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ''Gwenad'') is an island country in the ...
''. The US stated this was done at the behest of Barbados,
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Do ...

Dominica
and Governor-General . Scoon had requested the invasion through secret diplomatic channels, but it was not made public for his safety. Progress was rapid, and within four days the Americans had removed the military government of Hudson Austin. The invasion was heavily criticized by the governments of Britain,
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
, and Canada. The
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations System consists of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) ...
condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law" by a vote of 108 to 9, with 27 abstentions. The
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
considered a similar resolution, which was supported by 11 nations. However, the United States vetoed the motion.


Post-invasion arrests

After the invasion, the pre-revolutionary Grenadian constitution came into operation once again. Eighteen members of the PRG/PRA were arrested on charges related to the murder of Maurice Bishop and seven others. The 18 included the top political leadership of Grenada at the time of the execution, along with the entire military chain of command directly responsible for the operation that led to the executions. Fourteen were
sentenced to death Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

sentenced to death
, one was found not guilty, and three were sentenced to 45 years in prison. The death sentences were eventually commuted to terms of imprisonment. Those in prison have become known as 'the '.


Grenada since 1983

When US troops withdrew from Grenada in December 1983,
Nicholas Brathwaite Sir Nicholas Alexander Brathwaite Order of the British Empire, OBE (8 July 1925 – 28 October 2016) was the prime minister of Grenada from 1983 to 1984 and from 1990 to 1995. Brathwaite was born in Carriacou, Grenada. Following the 1983 invasion ...
of the National Democratic Congress was appointed Prime Minister of an interim administration by Governor-General Scoon until elections could be organised. The first democratic elections since 1976 were 1984 Grenadian general election, held in December 1984, and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989.''Political Parties of the World'' (6th edition, 2005), ed. Bogdan Szajkowski, page 265."Jan 1985 – General election and resumption of Parliament – Formation of Blaize government – Foreign relations Opening of airport – Start of murder trial", ''Keesing's Record of World Events'', volume 31, January 1985, Grenada, page 33,327. Ben Jones (Grenada), Ben Jones briefly succeeded Blaize as Prime Minister and served until the 1990 Grenadian general election, March 1990 election, which was won by the National Democratic Congress under Nicholas Brathwaite who returned as Prime Minister for a second time until he resigned in February 1995. He was succeeded by George Brizan who served for a brief period until the 1995 Grenadian general election, June 1995 election which was won by the New National Party (Grenada), New National Party under Keith Mitchell, who went on to win the 1999 Grenadian general election, 1999 and 2003 elections, serving for a record 13 years until 2008. Mitchell re-established relations with Cuba and also reformed the country's banking system, which had come under criticism over potential money laundering concerns. In 2000–02, much of the controversy of the late 1970s and early 1980s was once again brought into the public consciousness with the opening of the truth and reconciliation commission. The commission was chaired by a Holy Orders, Roman Catholic priest, Father Mark Haynes, and was tasked with uncovering injustices arising from the PRA, Bishop's regime, and before. It held a number of hearings around the country. Brother Robert Fanovich, head of Presentation Brothers' College (PBC) in St. George's, tasked some of his senior students with conducting a research project into the era and specifically into the fact that Maurice Bishop's body was never discovered. Paterson also uncovered that there was still a lot of resentment in Grenadian society resulting from the era and a feeling that there were many injustices still unaddressed. On 7 September 2004, after being hurricane-free for 49 years, the island was directly hit by Hurricane Ivan. Ivan struck as a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, Category 3 hurricane, resulting in 39 deaths and damage or destruction to 90% of the island's homes. On 14 July 2005, Hurricane Emily (2005), Hurricane Emily, a Category 1 hurricane at the time, struck the northern part of the island with winds, killing one person and causing an estimated US$110 million (EC$297 million) worth of damage. Agriculture, and in particular the nutmeg industry, suffered serious losses, but that event caused changes in crop management and it is hoped that as new nutmeg trees mature, the industry will gradually rebuild. Mitchell was defeated in the 2008 Grenadian general election, 2008 election by the NDC under Tillman Thomas, however he won the 2013 Grenadian general election by a landslide and the NNP returned to power, winning again by another landslide 2018 Grenadian general election, in 2018. In March 2020, 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Grenada, Grenada confirmed its first case of COVID-19, of which the economic effects are expected to rival past downturns, including Hurricane Ivan.


Environment


Geography

The island of Grenada is the southernmost island in the Antilles archipelago, bordering the eastern Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic Ocean, and roughly north of both
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
and Trinidad and Tobago. Its sister islands make up the southern section of the Grenadines, which include
Carriacou Carriacou is an island of the Grenadine Islands. It is a Dependent territory, dependency of Grenada, and is located in the south-eastern Caribbean Sea, northeast of the island Grenada and the north coast of South America. The name is derived from ...
,
Petite Martinique Petite Martinique is one of the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique, which is a dependency of Grenada. It is 4 km (2½ miles) away from Carriacou. With its and population of 900, it is smaller than Carriacou. Petite Martinique is much small ...
, Ronde Island, Caille Island, Diamond Island (Grenadines), Diamond Island, Large Island, Saline Island, and Frigate Island, Grenada, Frigate Island; the remaining islands to the north belong to St Vincent and the Grenadines. Most of the population lives on Grenada, and major towns there include the capital, St. George's, Grenville, Grenada, Grenville and Gouyave. The largest settlement on the sister islands is Hillsborough, Grenada, Hillsborough on Carriacou. Grenada is of volcanic origin, as evident in its soil, mountainous interior, and several explosion craters, including Lake Antoine, Grand Etang Lake and Levera Pond. Grenada's highest point is Mount Saint Catherine (Grenada), Mount St. Catherine, rising to above sea level. Other major mountains include Mount Granby and South East Mountain. Several small rivers with waterfalls flow into the sea from these mountains. The coastline contains several bays, most notably on the southern coast which is split into numerous thin peninsulas. Grenada is home to four ecoregions: Windward Islands moist forests, Leeward Islands dry forests, Windward Islands dry forests, and Windward Islands xeric scrub. It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.22/10, ranking it 131st globally out of 172 countries.


Climate

The climate is tropical: hot and humid in the dry season and cooled by the moderate rainfall in the rainy season. Temperatures range from and are rarely below . Grenada, being on the southern edge of the hurricane belt, has suffered only three hurricanes in fifty years. Hurricane Janet passed over Grenada on 23 September 1955, with winds of , causing severe damage. The most recent storms to hit Grenada have been Hurricane Ivan on 7 September 2004, causing severe damage and thirty-nine deaths, and Hurricane Emily on 14 July 2005, causing serious damage in Carriacou and in the north of Grenada, which had been relatively lightly affected by Hurricane Ivan.


Fauna

Like much of the Caribbean, Grenada is generally considered depauperate of List of mammals of Grenada, large animals. However, native opossums, armadillos, and introduced Mona monkey, mona monkeys and mongoose, mongeese are common. It also boasts a rich List of birds of Grenada, avifauna of 184 bird species, with one endemic (Grenada dove), six introduced, and 116 rare or accidental.


Politics

Grenada is a Commonwealth realm with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, represented locally by a List of Governors-General of Grenada, Governor-General. Executive (government), Executive power lies with the head of government, the Prime Minister of Grenada, Prime Minister. The Governor-General role is largely ceremonial, while the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in Parliament of Grenada, Parliament. The Parliament of Grenada consists of a Senate (13 members) and a House of Representatives (15 members). Senators are appointed by the government and the opposition, while the Representatives are elected by the population for five-year terms. Grenada operates a multi-party system, with the largest parties being the centre-right New National Party (NNP) and the centre-left National Democratic Congress (NDC). In February 2013, the governing National Democratic Congress (NDC) lost the 2013 Grenadian general election, election. The opposition New National Party (Grenada), New National Party (NNP) won all 15 seats in the general election. Keith Mitchell, leader of NNP, who had served three terms as prime minister between 1995 and 2008, returned to power. Mitchell has led NNP to win all 15 seats in the House of Representatives on 3 separate occasions. In November 2021, Prime Minister Keith Mitchell said that the upcoming general elections which are constitutionally due no later than June 2023, will be the last one for him.


Foreign relations

Grenada is a full and participating member of both the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).


The Commonwealth

Grenada is, along with much of the Caribbean region, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The organization, which primarily consists of former British colonies, focuses on fostering international relations between its members.


Organization of American States (OAS)

Grenada is one of the 35 states which has ratified the Organization of American States, OAS charter and is a member of the Organization. Grenada entered into the Inter-American system in 1975 according to the OAS's website.


Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty

On 6 July 1994 at Lloyd Erskine Sandiford Centre, Sherbourne Conference Centre in St. Michael, Barbados, George Brizan signed the Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty on behalf of the Government of Grenada. This treaty covered concepts such as taxes, residence, tax jurisdictions, capital gains, business profits, interest, dividends, royalties and other areas.


FATCA

On 30 June 2014, Grenada signed a Model 1 agreement with the United States of America in relation to Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA).


ALBA

In December 2014, Grenada joined Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a full member. Prime minister Mitchell said that the membership was a natural extension of the co-operation Grenada have had over the years with both Cuba and Venezuela.


Military

Grenada has no standing military, leaving typical military functions to the Royal Grenada Police Force (including a Special Service Unit) and the Coast Guard of Grenada. In 2019, Grenada signed the UN treaty on the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.


Administrative divisions

Grenada is divided into Parishes of Grenada, six parishes: Carriacou and Petite Martinique (''not pictured'') have the status of a dependency.


Human rights

Homosexuality is illegal in Grenada and punishable by prison time.


Economy

Grenada has a small economy in which tourism is the major Foreign exchange market, foreign exchange earner. Major short-term concerns are the rising Government budget deficit, fiscal deficit and the deterioration in the external account balance. Grenada shares a common central bank and a common currency (the East Caribbean dollar) with seven other members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). Grenada has suffered from a heavy external debt problem, with government debt service payments running at about 25% of total revenues in 2017; Grenada was listed as ninth from bottom in a study of 126 developing countries.


Agriculture and exports

Grenada is an exporter of several different spices, most notably nutmeg, its top export and depicted on the national flag, and
mace Mace may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Mace (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe * Mace, a fictional character in the 1995 film ''Strange Days (film), Strange Days'' * Mace, a fictional character in the 2007 film ''Sunsh ...
. Other major exports include bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, chocolate and fish.


Tourism

Tourism is the mainstay of Grenada's economy. Conventional beach and water-sports tourism is largely focused in the southwest region around St George, the airport and the coastal strip. Ecotourism is growing in significance. Most small ecofriendly guesthouses are located in the Saint David Parish, Grenada, Saint David and Saint John Parish, Grenada, Saint John parishes. The tourism industry is increasing dramatically with the construction of a large cruise ship pier and esplanade. Grenada has many beaches around its coastline, including the long Grand Anse Beach in St. George's, often hailed as one of the best beaches in the world. Grenada's many waterfalls are also popular with tourists. The nearest to St. George's is the Annandale Waterfalls, but other notable ones like Mt. Carmel, Concord, Seven Sisters and Tufton Hall also being within easy reach. Several festivals also draw in tourists, such as Carriacou Maroon and String Band Music Festival in April, the Annual Budget Marine Spice Island Billfish Tournament, the Island Water World Sailing Week, and the Grenada Sailing Festival Work Boat Regatta.


Education

Education in Grenada consists of kindergarten, pre-primary school, primary school, secondary school and tertiary education. The government has prioritised education, spending 10.3% of its budget to the sector in 2016, the third highest rate in the world. Literacy rates are very high, with 98.6% of the population being able to read and write. Schools include:


Primary schools


Secondary schools


Tertiary education


Transport

Maurice Bishop International Airport is the country's main airport, connecting the country with other Caribbean islands, the United States, Canada, and Europe. There is also an airport on Carriacou.


Demographics

A majority of Grenadians (82%) are descendants of the Atlantic slave trade, enslaved Africans. Few of the indigenous Carib and Arawak population survived the French purge at Sauteurs. A small percentage of descendants of indentured workers from India were brought to Grenada between 1857 and 1885, predominantly from the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Today, Grenadians of Indian descent constitute 2.2% of the population. There is also a small community of French and English descendants. The rest of the population is of mixed descent (13%). Grenada, like many of the Caribbean islands, is subject to a large amount of out-migration, with a large number of young people seeking more prospects abroad. Popular migration points for Grenadians include more prosperous islands in the Caribbean (such as Barbados), North American Cities (such as New York City, Toronto and Montreal), the United Kingdom (in particular, London and Yorkshire; see Grenadian British, Grenadians in the UK) and Australia.


Religion

Figures are 2011 estimates * Protestant 49.2%; includes ** Pentecostalism, Pentecostal 17.2% ** Seventh-day Adventist Church, Seventh Day Adventist 13.2% ** Anglicanism, Anglican 8.5% ** Baptists, Baptist 3.2% ** Church of God in Christ, Church of God 2.4% ** Evangelical 1.9% ** Methodist 1.6% ** other 1.2% * Roman Catholicism in Grenada, Roman Catholic 36% * none 5.7% * unspecified 1.3% * Jehovah's Witness 1.2% * Rastafari 1.2% * other 5.5%


Languages

English is the country's official language but the main spoken language is either of two creole languages (Grenadian Creole English and, less frequently, Grenadian Creole French) (sometimes called 'patois') which reflects the African, European, and native heritage of the nation. The creoles contain elements from a variety of African languages, French and English. Grenadian Creole French is mainly spoken in smaller rural areas. Some Hindi/Bhojpuri terms are still spoken amongst the Indo-Grenadian community descendants. The indigenous languages were Iñeri language, Iñeri and Karina language, Karina (Carib).


Culture

Island culture is heavily influenced by the Ethnic groups of Africa, African roots of most of the Grenadians, coupled with the country's long experience of colonial rule under the British. Although French influence on Grenadian culture is much less visible than on some other Caribbean islands, surnames and place names in French remain, and the everyday language is laced with French words and the local Creole, or Patois. Stronger French influence is found in the well seasoned Spice, spicy food and styles of cooking similar to those found in New Orleans, and some French architecture has survived from the 1700s. Indian and Island Caribs, Carib Amerindian influence is also seen, especially in the island's cuisine. Oil down, a stew, is considered to be the national dish. The name refers to a dish cooked in coconut milk until all the milk is absorbed, leaving a bit of coconut oil in the bottom of the pot. Early recipes call for a mixture of salted pigtail, pig's feet (trotters), salt beef and chicken, dumplings made from flour, and provision like breadfruit, green banana, yam and potatoes. Callaloo leaves are sometimes used to retain the steam and add extra flavour. Soca music, Soca, Calypso music, calypso, and reggae are popular music genres and are played at Grenada's annual Carnival. Over the years rap music became popular amongst Grenadian youths, and there have been numerous young rappers emerging in the island's underground rap scene. Zouk (musical movement), Zouk is also being slowly introduced onto the island. An important aspect of the Grenadian culture is the tradition of Storytelling, story telling, with Folklore, folk tales bearing both African and French influences. The character, ''Anansi, Anancy'', a spider who is a trickster, originated in West Africa and is prevalent on other islands as well. French influence can be seen in ''La Diablesse'', a well-dressed she-devil, and ''Loogaroo'' (from "loup-garou"), a werewolf.


Sports


Olympics

Grenada has competed in every Summer Olympics since the Grenada at the 1984 Summer Olympics , 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Kirani James won the first Olympic gold medal for Grenada in the Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres, men's 400 meters at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, the silver medal in the Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres, men's 400 meters at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro and the bronze medal in the Athletics at the 2020 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres, men's 400 meters at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.


Cricket

As with other islands from the Caribbean, cricket is the national and most popular sport and is an intrinsic part of Grenadian culture. The Grenada national cricket team forms a part of the Windward Islands cricket team in regional domestic cricket, however it plays as a separate entity in minor regional matches, as well as having previously played Twenty20 cricket in the Stanford 20/20. The Grenada National Cricket Stadium in St. George's hosts domestic and international cricket matches. Devon Smith, West Indies record holder to win the List-A cricket, List-A West Indian WICB Cup, domestic competition for the second time, was born in the small town of Hermitage (Carriacou), Hermitage. In April 2007, Grenada jointly hosted (along with several other Caribbean nations) the 2007 Cricket World Cup. The Island's Prime Minister was the CARICOM representative on cricket and was instrumental in having the World Cup games brought to the region. After Hurricane Ivan, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) paid for the new $40 million Queen's Park, Grenada, national stadium and provided the aid of over 300 labourers to build and repair it. During the opening ceremony, the anthem of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) was accidentally played instead of the PRC's anthem, leading to the firing of top officials.


See also

*Outline of Grenada *Index of Grenada-related articles


Notes


References

*Adkin, Mark. 1989. ''Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada: The Truth Behind the Largest US Military Operation Since Vietnam''. Trans-Atlantic Publications. *Robert J. Beck, Beck, Robert J. 1993. ''The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking''. Boulder: Westview Press. *Brizan, George 1984. ''Grenada Island of Conflict: From Amerindians to People's Revolution 1498–1979''. London, Zed Books Ltd., publisher; Copyright, George Brizan, 1984. *Martin, John Angus. 2007. ''A–Z of Grenada Heritage''. Macmillan Caribbean. * *Sinclair, Norma. 2003. ''Grenada: Isle of Spice (Caribbean Guides)''. Interlink Publishing Group; 3rd edition. *Stark, James H. 1897. ''Stark's Guide-Book and History of Trinidad including Tobago, Grenada, and St. Vincent; also a trip up the Orinoco and a description of the great Venezuelan Pitch Lake''. Boston, James H. Stark, publisher; London, Sampson Low, Marston & Company. *


External links

*
Official Website of the Government of GrenadaGrenada
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Grenada
at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''. *
Grenada
from the BBC News.
Presentation Brothers CollegeKey Development Forecasts for Grenada
from International Futures.
''The Grenada Newsletter'', 1974–1994
in the Digital Library of the Caribbean
The dream of a Black utopia
podcast from The Washington Post. Includes interview with Dessima Williams, Grenada’s former ambassador to the U.S. {{Authority control Grenada, Countries in the Caribbean Island countries Windward Islands English-speaking countries and territories Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas Former French colonies Member states of the Caribbean Community Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations Member states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States Member states of the United Nations Small Island Developing States 1640s establishments in the Caribbean 1649 establishments in the French colonial empire 1649 establishments in North America 1760s establishments in the Caribbean 1763 establishments in the British Empire 1763 establishments in North America States and territories established in 1974 1970s establishments in the Caribbean 1974 establishments in North America Countries in North America Volcanic islands