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Greater London is an
administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...
governed by the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A gove ...
, and a
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
that covers the bulk of the same area, with the exception of the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
. It forms the London
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
. Greater London is the administrative boundary for
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, and is organised into 33
local government districts
local government districts
: the 32
London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as cerem ...

London boroughs
and the City of London, which is part of the region but forms a separate ceremonial county. The Greater London Authority, based in
Newham The London Borough of Newham is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lie ...
as of the start of 2022, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
and the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
. Greater London was first established in 1965 as a ''
sui generis ''Sui generis'' ( , ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
'' council area and ceremonial county under the
Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. Thi ...
on 1 April 1965 through the
London Government Act 1963 The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an of the , which created and a new structure within it. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas an ...
. The GLC was abolished in 1986. In 1994, the area was established as a government office
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
(simply called "London"). The Greater London Authority was formed in 2000.Travers, T., ''The Politics of London'', (2004) The region covers and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2018 the estimated population surpassed 9 million. The
Greater London Built-up Area The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, ha ...

Greater London Built-up Area
is used in some national statistics and is a measure of most of the continuous urban area, and includes areas outside the administrative region. Although the of Greater London administrative area constituents a city in the informal sense (usually known simply as
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
), it lacks any formal recognised city status in the UK, having not been granted an official city charter from the monarch (though two local authorities within the region -
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
and the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
have been granted that title). Greater London is officially a
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...
(excluding the City of London), and with the City of London also forms the London
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
. However, the ancient "Square Mile"
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
, which lies in the centre of Greater London (but is not one of Greater London's 32 boroughs) does have its own separate official city status, with its own separate
Lord Mayor Lord mayor is a title of a mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or ...
and separate City of London police force. The City of London is also a separate ceremonial county, the smallest in England. As a ceremonial county, Greater London has a
Lord-Lieutenant A lord-lieutenant () is the British monarch's personal representative in each lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as th ...
and a High Sheriff, both appointed by the British monarch, but Greater London is not one of England's historic counties. Before the UK seceded from the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
in 2020 after
Brexit Brexit (; a portmanteau of "British exit") was the Withdrawal from the European Union, withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) at 23:00 31 January 2020 Green ...

Brexit
, Greater London had also a been a regional constituency of the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legi ...

European Parliament
, known generally as .


History

The term ''Greater London'' has been and still is used to describe different areas in governance, statistics, history and common parlance. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
and the much wider Greater London. This arrangement has come about because as the area of London grew and absorbed neighbouring settlements, a series of administrative reforms did not amalgamate the City of London with the surrounding
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...

metropolitan
area, and its unique political structure was retained. Outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The term ''Greater London'' was used well before 1965, particularly to refer to the
Metropolitan Police District The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the police area which is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service in London. It currently consists of the Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of E ...
(such as in the 1901 census), the area of the
Metropolitan Water Board 250px, The Metropolitan Water Board's headquarters at New River Head. Now residential (2005). The Metropolitan Water Board was founded in 1903 to bring the nine private water companies supplying water to London under a single public body. The mem ...
(favoured by the London County Council for statistics),Young, K. & Garside, P., ''Metropolitan London: Politics and Urban Change'', (1982) the
London Passenger Transport Area The London Passenger Transport Board was the organisation responsible for local public transport in London and its environs from 1933 to 1948. In common with all London transport authorities from 1933 to 2000, the public name and brand was London ...
and the area defined by the
Registrar General General Register Office or General Registry Office (GRO) is the name given to the civil registry Civil registration is the system by which a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, ge ...
as the ''Greater London Conurbation''.Westergaard, J., ''The Structure of Greater London'', London: Aspects of Change, (1961) The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916. One of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied and included 9 million people.


Proposals to expand the County of London

Although the
London County Council London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of th ...
(LCC) was created covering the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Ac ...
in 1889, the county did not cover all the built-up area, particularly
West Ham West Ham is a district in East London, located east of Charing Cross in the west of the modern London Borough of Newham. The West Ham electoral ward covers part of the central area of that borough. The area, which lies immediately to the north ...
and
East Ham East Ham is a district of the London Borough of Newham The London Borough of Newham is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater Lond ...
, and many of the LCC housing projects, including the vast Becontree Estates, were outside its boundaries. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
, noting that within the Metropolitan and City Police Districts there were 122 housing authorities. A
Royal Commission on London Government The Royal Commission on London Government, also known as the Ullswater Commission, was a Royal Commission A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies. They have been held in the United Kin ...
was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties. Protests were made at the possibility of including
Windsor Windsor may refer to: Places Australia *Windsor, New South Wales ** Municipality of Windsor, a former local government area *Windsor, Queensland, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland **Shire of Windsor, a former local government authority around Winds ...

Windsor
,
Slough Slough () is a large town in Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other pu ...

Slough
and Eton in the authority. The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCC's scheme. Two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The
London Traffic Act 1924 The London Traffic Act 1924 (14 & 15 Geo.5, C. 34) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the U ...
was a result of the Commission. Reform of local government in the County of London and its environs was next considered by the
Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, also known as the Herbert Commission, was established in 1957 and published its report in 1960. The report made recommendations for the overhaul of the administration of the capital. They w ...
, chaired by Sir Edwin Herbert, which issued the 'Herbert Report' after three years of work in 1960. The commission applied three tests to decide if a community should form part of Greater London: how strong is the area as an independent centre in its own right; how strong are its ties to London; and how strongly is it drawn outwards towards the country rather than inwards towards London.


Greater London is created

Greater London was created by the
London Government Act 1963 The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an of the , which created and a new structure within it. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas an ...
, which came into force on 1 April 1965, replacing the
administrative counties An administrative county was a first-level administrative division in England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England ...
of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
and
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...
, including the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
, where the London County Council had limited powers, and absorbing parts of
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
,
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
and
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
. Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the
Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. Thi ...
(GLC) sharing power with the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
(governing the small City of London) and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the
Local Government Act 1985 The Local Government Act 1985 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most cou ...
. Its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London formed the London
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
in 1994.


Greater London Authority

The 1998 London referendum established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A gove ...
,
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
and the directly elected
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
were created in 2000 by the
Greater London Authority Act 1999 The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (c. 29) is the Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council) ...
. In 2000, the outer boundary of the
Metropolitan Police District The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the police area which is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service in London. It currently consists of the Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of E ...
was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary. The
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
and 2004 mayoral elections were won by
Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London The Mayor of London is the h ...

Ken Livingstone
( L), who had been the final leader of the GLC. The 2008 and 2012 elections were won by
Boris Johnson Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (; born 19 June 1964) is a British politician and writer serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of govern ...

Boris Johnson
(). The 2016 election was won by
Sadiq Khan Sadiq Aman Khan (; born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016. He previously was Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting (UK Parliament constituency), Tooting from 200 ...

Sadiq Khan
( L). London was covered by a in the European Parliament prior to from the European Union.


Geography

Greater London includes the most closely associated parts of the
Greater London Urban Area The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London, and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statist ...
and their historic
buffers Buffer may refer to: Science * Buffer gas, an inert or nonflammable gas * Buffer solution, a solution used to prevent changes in pH * Buffering agent, the weak acid or base in a buffer solution * Lysis buffer, in cell biology * Metal ion buffer * M ...

buffers
and includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the
Metropolitan Green Belt The Metropolitan Green Belt is a statutory Green belt (United Kingdom), green belt around London, England. It comprises parts of Greater London, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent and Surrey, parts of two of the three distr ...
which protects designated greenfield land in a similar way to the city's parks. The closest and furthest boundaries are with
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
to the northeast between Sewardstonebury next to
Epping Forest Epping Forest is a area of ancient woodland between Epping, Essex, Epping in Essex to the north, and Forest Gate in Greater London to the south, straddling the border between London and Essex. It is a former royal forest, and is managed by th ...
and
Chingford Chingford is a town in east London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more for ...
and with the Mar Dyke between
Bulphan Bulphan (pronounced 'Bul-ven') is a village in the borough of Thurrock in the East of England and one of the List of traditional (Church of England) parish churches in Thurrock, traditional (Church of England) parishes in Thurrock. In 2019 it had ...
and
North Ockendon North Ockendon is the easternmost and most outlying settlement of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. This Regions of England, regio ...
. Greater London is also bounded by
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
to the north,
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

Berkshire
and
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
to the west,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
to the southeast and
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
to the south and southwest. The
highest point A list of highest points typically contains the name, elevation, and location of the highest point in each of a set of geographical regions. Such a list is important in the sport of highpointing Highpointing is the sport of ascending to the point ...
is Westerham Heights, in the
North Downs The North Downs are a ridge of chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Stric ...
and on the boundary with Kent, at . Central government has implemented small boundary changes. The greatest were the 1969 transfers of Farleigh to Surrey and
Knockholt Knockholt is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or ...
to Kent. Others have included exchange of two
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
islands with Surrey and adjustments during the 1990s to parts of the boundaries of three boroughs near the
M25M25 or M-25 may be: Aerospace * M-25 Dromader Mikro, a variant of the Polish PZL-Mielec M-18 Dromader agricultural aircraft * Cors-Air M25Y Black Devil, an Italian aircraft engine * Shvetsov M-25, an aircraft radial engine produced in the Soviet Un ...
. The only part of Greater London outside the motorway is
North Ockendon North Ockendon is the easternmost and most outlying settlement of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. This Regions of England, regio ...
, the furthest land unit from its centre. The majority of Greater London forms the London low emission zone. The
London postal district The London postal district is the area in England of to which mail addressed to the London post town is delivered. The General Post Office under the control of the Postmaster General of the United Kingdom, Postmaster General directed Rowland Hil ...

London postal district
does not cover all of Greater London.


Governance


Greater London Authority

Greater London is under the strategic local governance of the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the devolved Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government A central government is the government A gove ...
(GLA).Jones, B. et al., ''Politics UK'', (2004) It consists of an elected assembly, the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
, and an executive head, the
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
.Arden Chambers Barristers, ''A Guide to the Greater London Authority Act'', (2000) The current Mayor (not to be confused with the
Lord Mayor of London The Lord Mayor of London is the mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organi ...
) is
Sadiq Khan Sadiq Aman Khan (; born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016. He previously was Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting (UK Parliament constituency), Tooting from 200 ...

Sadiq Khan
. He is scrutinised by the elected
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA, previously at
City Hall#REDIRECT Town hall#REDIRECT Town hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the United Kingdom, UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administration (government), admini ...
in
Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed ...

Southwark
, will move to in
Newham The London Borough of Newham is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lie ...
by the start of 2022. The Mayor is responsible for Greater London's strategic planning and is required to produce or amend the
London Plan The London Plan is the statutory spatial planning, spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority. The regional planning docu ...
each electoral cycle.


Mayor of London

The
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
is a directly elected politician who, along with the London Assembly, is responsible for the strategic government of Greater London.


London Assembly

For elections to the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
, London is divided into 14 constituencies, each formed from two or three boroughs. The City of London forms part of the
City and East City and East is a constituency represented in the London Assembly. Created in 2000 it was represented by John Biggs (politician), John Biggs until 2016. Since the 2016 assembly elections the constituency has been represented by Unmesh Desai, of ...
constituency.


UK Parliament

London is divided into 73 Parliamentary
borough constituencies In the United Kingdom (UK), each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one member to the British House of Commons, House of Commons. Within the United Kingdom there are five bodies with members elected by electoral distr ...
, formed from the combined area of several wards from one or more boroughs. Typically a
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
is covered by two or three constituencies.


Status

The London region does not have
city statusCity status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-governmen ...
granted by the Crown. The Cities of
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
within it have received formal city status. Despite this, Greater London is commonly regarded as a city in the general senses of a conurbation and a municipality. A
Lord Lieutenant of Greater London The Lord-Lieutenant of Greater London is the personal representative of the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, in Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majorit ...
is appointed for its area, excluding the City of London. For the purposes of the
Lieutenancies Act 1997 The Lieutenancies Act 1997 (1997 c. 23) is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In mo ...
, this area is defined as a
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
. The term "London" usually refers to region or to the conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London.Mills, A., ''Dictionary of London Place Names'', (2001), Oxford That small area is often referred to as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically, the urbanised area of London was known as the
Metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural cen ...

Metropolis
. In common usage, the terms "London" and "Greater London" are usually used interchangeably. Greater London is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county ...
and
Outer London Outer London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by ...
. For some strategic planning purposes, it is divided into five sub-regions.


Local government

Greater London is divided into 32 London Boroughs, each governed by a London Borough council. The
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
has a unique government dating back to the 12th century and is separate from the county of Greater London, although is still part of the region served by the Greater London Authority. All London Borough councils belong to the
London Councils London Councils is the local government association for Greater London, England. It is a cross-party organisation that represents London's 32 borough councils and the City of London. It was formed in 1995 as a merger of the London Boroughs Asso ...
association. Three London Boroughs carry the honorific title of ''
Royal Borough The following list of place names with royal patronage in the United Kingdom includes both those granted a royal title or status by express wish of a specific monarch, and those with prefixes or suffixes such as "King's" or "Regis" that relate to ...
'': Kensington and Chelsea,
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
, and
Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, located in the Historic county of England, historic county of Kent and the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London. It is situated east ...
. Within the City of London are the liberties of
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
and
Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four (professional associations for s and judges) in London. To be and practise as a barrister in , a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is ...

Inner Temple
.


Demography

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,753,600 official residents in mid-2009. London's wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 13 million depending on the definition of that area. According to Eurostat, London has been the most populous city and
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...

metropolitan
area of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometre, more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world. It is ranked 4th in the world in the number of US dollar billionaires residing in the city. It ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
and
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
.


Ethnic groups

In the 2001 UK Census, 71.15% of the population classed their ethnic group as White, including White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish and Portuguese). 12.09% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.91% classed themselves as Black British (around 6% as Black African, 4% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"). 3.15% were of mixed race; 1.12% as Chinese; and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. Irish people, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, number about 200,000, as do the Scots and Welsh combined. In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000. Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that in 2006 London's foreign-born population was 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2001 UK Census showed that 27.1% of the population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as Non-White. In the 2011 UK Census, 59.79% of the population classed their ethnic group as White, including White British (44.89%), White Irish (2.15%) or "Other White" (12.65%, mostly Greek-Cypriot, Italian, Polish, Spanish, Colombians and Portuguese). 18.49% classed themselves as British Asian, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 13.32% classed themselves as Black British (7% as Black African, 4.22% as Black Caribbean, 2.08% as "Other Black"). 4.96% were of mixed race; and 3.44% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other "British Orientals"). The table shows the top 21 countries of birth of residents in 2011, the date of the last UK Census. These figures do not give a fair indication of the total population of the specific ethnic groups associated with each country. For example, Londoners of Greek origin (from both Greece and Cyprus) number 300,000, since an organised Greek community has been established for nearly two centuries. The same can be said for Italian and French Londoners whose communities have been here for centuries (the French Embassy estimates there are between 300,000 and 400,000 French citizens living in the UK, with "a huge majority of them living in London"). Though a Polish community has existed in London since the late-Middle Ages, it was not significant in the 2001 Census but has grown significantly since 2004, when Poland joined the European Union and by June 2010; London had 122,000 Polish residents. The German-born population figure may be misleading, however, because it includes British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany. London has been a focus for immigration for centuries, whether as a place of safety or for economic reasons.
Huguenot The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a Religious denomination, religious group of French people, French Protestantism, Protestants who held to the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition of Protestantism. The term, which may be derived from the name of a ...

Huguenot
s, Eastern European Jews, Cypriots and East African Asians are examples of the former; Irish, Bangladeshis and West Indians came for new lives. The
East End The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London London is the Capital city, cap ...
district around
Spitalfields Spitalfields is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several m ...
has been first home for several ethnic groups, which have subsequently moved elsewhere in London as they gained prosperity.


Population

The population of the current area of Greater London rose from about 1.1 million in 1801 (when only about 850,000 people were in the urban area, while 250,000 were living in villages and towns not yet part of London) to an estimated 8.6 million in 1939, but declined to 6.7 million in 1988, before starting to rebound in the 1990s. By 2006, the population had recovered to the level of 1970 (and the level of population in the 1920s). It has now surpassed the previous 1939 peak, and is over 9 million. Figures here are for Greater London in its 2001 boundaries. Figures before 1971 have been reconstructed by the Office for National Statistics based on past censuses to fit the 2001 boundaries. Figures from 1981 onward are mid-year estimates (revised in August 2007), which are more accurate than the censuses, known to underestimate the population of London.


Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional
gross value added In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods an ...
(GVA) of Inner London at current basic price
published
(pp. 240–253) by ''Office for National Statistics'' with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.
Eurostat Eurostat (European Statistical Office) is a Directorate-General Within the European Union, directorates-general are departments of the European Union government with specific zones of responsibility, the equivalent of Ministry (government depar ...

Eurostat
data shows the GDP of Inner London to be 232 billion euros in 2009 and per capita GDP of 78,000 euros. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic price
published
(pp. 240–253) by ''Office for National Statistics'' with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.
Eurostat Eurostat (European Statistical Office) is a Directorate-General Within the European Union, directorates-general are departments of the European Union government with specific zones of responsibility, the equivalent of Ministry (government depar ...

Eurostat
data shows the GDP of Outer London to be 103 billion euros in 2009 and per capita GDP of 21,460 euros.


Religion

The largest religious groupings are Christian (48.4%),
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
(12.4%),
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
(5.1%),
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
(1.8%), and
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
(1.5%), alongside those of (20.7%). The United Kingdom has traditionally been Christian, and London has a large number of churches, particularly in the City.
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Jun ...

St Paul's Cathedral
in the City and
Southwark Cathedral Southwark Cathedral ( ) or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the ...

Southwark Cathedral
south of the river are
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
administrative centres, while the clerical head of the Church of England and the worldwide
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, re ...
, the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
, has his main residence at
Lambeth Palace upright=1.3, The Great Hall, St Mary-at-Lambeth, and the Tudor gatehouse (from inside), with the river on the right. Lambeth Palace is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the seni ...

Lambeth Palace
in the
London Borough of Lambeth Lambeth () is a London borough in South London, England, which forms part of Inner London. Its name was recorded in 1062 as ''Lambehitha'' ("landing place for lambs") and in 1255 as ''Lambeth''. The geographical centre of London is at Frazier St ...
. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby
Westminster Cathedral John Southworth (martyr), John Southworth File:Westminster Cathedral, London - 02.jpg, Ceiling of the Lady Chapel Westminster Cathedral is the mother church of the Catholic Church in England and Wales, Roman Catholic Church in England a ...

Westminster Cathedral
, the largest
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
cathedral in England and Wales. Religious practice in London is lower than in any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, weekly observance is low within that
denomination Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
, although in recent years
church attendance Church attendance is a central religious practice for many Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Je ...
, particularly at
evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salv ...
Anglican churches in London, has started to increase. London is home to sizeable Hindu, Sikh, Muslim and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in
Tower Hamlets The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London boroughs, London borough located in East London; it covers much of the traditional East End of London, East End. It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan boroughs of the Co ...
and
Newham The London Borough of Newham is a London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lie ...
; the most important Muslim buildings are the
East London Mosque The East London Mosque (ELM) is situated in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a covering much of the traditional . It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former of , , and . 'Tower Hamlets' ...

East London Mosque
in Whitechapel and the
London Central Mosque The London Central Mosque (also known as the Regent's Park Mosque) is an mosque, Islamic place of worship located on the edge of Regent's Park in central London. Design and location It was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd, completed in 1977, ...

London Central Mosque
on the edge of
Regent's Park Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It occupies high ground in north-west Inner London, administratively split between the City of Westminster and the London Borough of Camden, Borough of Camden (and ...

Regent's Park
. London's large Hindu community is in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter containing one of Europe's largest Hindu temples,
BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir (also commonly known as the Neasden Temple) is a Hindu temple in Neasden, London, England. Built entirely using traditional methods and materials, the Swaminarayan mandir has been described as being Britain's first ...

BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London
. Sikh communities are in East and West London, particularly
Southall Southall () is a large suburban district of West London, England, part of the London Borough of Ealing and is one of its seven major towns. It is situated west of Charing Cross and had a population of 69,857 as of 2011. It is generally divide ...
in the western borough of Ealing, which is also home to the largest Sikh temple in the capital. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant communities in
Stamford Hill Stamford Hill is an area in Inner London, England, about 5.5 miles north-east of Charing Cross. The neighbourhood is a sub-district of Hackney, London, Hackney, the major component of the London Borough of Hackney, and is known for its Hasidic Ju ...

Stamford Hill
(the most
Orthodox Jew Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God to Moses Moses he, מֹש ...
ish area outside New York City and Israel) and St. John's Wood,
Golders Green Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in England. A smaller suburban linear settlement, near a farm and public grazing area green of medieval origins, dates to the early 19th century. Its bulk forms a late 19th century and ear ...

Golders Green
, and
Edgware Edgware () is a suburban town in northern Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level ...
in North London.


Education

Publicly funded education has been administered through 33 LEAs, which correspond to the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the
Education Reform Act 1988 The Education Reform Act 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education legislation in England and Wales since the 'Butler' Education Act 1944. Provisions The main provisions of the Education Reform Act are as follows: ...
.Tomlinson, S., ''Education in a post-welfare society'', (2001) From 1965 to 1990, 12 Inner London boroughs and the City of London were served by the
Inner London Education Authority The Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was an ad hoc local education authority Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west an ...
. The introduction of
comprehensive school A comprehensive school is a public school for elementary aged or secondary aged children (aged approximately 11-18) that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school A selecti ...
s, directed by
Circular 10/65Circular 10/65 was a government circular issued in 1965 by the Department of Education and Science (UK), Department of Education and Science (DES) requesting Local Education Authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales to begin converting their secondary ...
in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London; however, 19
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
s have been retained in some
Outer London Outer London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by ...
boroughs, with Sutton having the most with five, followed by Bexley with four and others in five other boroughs. In these boroughs the state schools outperform the (relatively few) independent schools. In inner London, private schools always get the best results and are larger in number. At
GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies north ...
and
A level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
, Outer London boroughs have broadly better results than
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county ...
boroughs. At GCSE, the best borough is Kingston upon Thames, closely followed by Sutton. Both boroughs have selective schools, and get the top two average GCSE results in England for LEAs. Next is Kensington and Chelsea, the third best in England, then Redbridge, Hammersmith and Fulham, Bromley, Barnet and Harrow. Only ten boroughs have GCSE results under the England average, and some inner-London boroughs have surprisingly good results considering where they lie on the scale of deprivation, e.g. Lambeth. Overall at GCSE in 2009, Greater London had the best results for regions of England. Greater London is generally a prosperous region, and prosperous areas generally have good GCSE results. The City of London has no state schools, just two independent schools. Haringey and Kensington and Chelsea have the most people that pass no GCSEs. At A-level, the average results for LEAs are disappointing compared to their good GCSE results. Although Kingston upon Thames gets the best GCSE results in England, at A-level it is not even above average. Sutton gets the best A-level results in London and in England. Three of the schools in the top four at A-level in London are in Sutton. It has only one independent school. The few other boroughs with above-average A-level results are Havering, Barnet, Bexley, Redbridge, and Ealing. The poor A-level results in many London boroughs is explained by the quantity of independent schools getting good A-level results. The state school system is often bypassed at age 16 by the more able pupils. Some London boroughs need more good sixth form colleges. The region's 34 further education colleges are funded through the
Skills Funding Agency The Skills Funding Agency was one of two successor organisations that emerged from the closure in 2010 of the Learning and Skills Council The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) was a non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-de ...

Skills Funding Agency
and the Young People's Learning Agency. Large colleges include Kingston College,
Havering College of Further and Higher Education Havering College of Further and Higher Education is a college founded in 1947 in the London Borough of Havering The London Borough of Havering () in East London, England, forms part of Outer London. It has a population of 259,552 inhabitan ...
, and
Croydon College Croydon College is a large further and higher education college located in Croydon Croydon is a large town in south London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the ...

Croydon College
.


Universities

The
University of London The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply post-nominals, are letters placed after a p ...
has 20 federated colleges and schools. The two main constituents of the University of London are (in order of total funding)
University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the Federa ...
(UCL) and
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
(KCL).
Imperial College , mottoeng = Scientific knowledge, the crowning glory and the safeguard of the empire , established = 1907 by royal charter , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the ...

Imperial College
was part of the University of London until 2007, and is now an independent university. UCL, KCL and Imperial have very large research grants – some of the largest in England after
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
and
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
, UCL and Imperial receive around £600 million each which is more than twice as much as any other in the region. The next largest institution by funding is
Queen Mary University of London , mottoeng = With united powers , established = 1785 – London Hospital Medical College1843 – St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College1882 – Westfield College1887 – East London College/Queen Mary College , parent = University of Londo ...

Queen Mary University of London
, followed by
City, University of London City, University of London, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the ...
. London is also home to the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), one of the few solely social science institutions in the world. Together with UCL and Imperial, they make up the London vertex of the Golden Triangle universities, the other institutions being Oxford and Cambridge. The region has many medical schools although these are part of other institutions such as UCL, KCL and Imperial. The
Royal Veterinary College , mottoeng = Confront disease at onset , established = (became a constituent part of University of London in 1949) , type = public university, Public veterinary school , chancellor = Anne, Princess Royal, The Princess Royal (Univer ...

Royal Veterinary College
is based in
Camden Camden may refer to: People * Camden (surname), a surname of English origin * Camden Joy (born 1964), American writer * Camden Toy (born 1957), American actor Places Australia * Camden, New South Wales * Camden, Rosehill, a heritage-listed ...
(with another site in
North MymmsNorth Mymms is a civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combin ...
in Hertfordshire). 50% of students come from the region, and around 30% from other regions. Most students from other regions come from
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
, the
East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics purposes from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, ...
, and, to a lesser degree,
South West England South West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England, established in 1994. Between 1994 and 2011, nine region ...
; the vast majority are from the
south of England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmost parts of Great Britain, considered separate due to distinct cultural differences from other areas – Scotland, Wales, the ...

south of England
. Over 50% students native to the region stay in the region, with 15% going to South East England, 30% to either Scotland, Wales or the
North East The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
and around 5% go elsewhere. London is a draw for UK graduates from all over the UK. Over 70% of UK students to graduate from the University of London remain in London; just under 15% go to the South-East, and just over 5% go to the East of England and 10% elsewhere.


Twin cities

The GLA has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities.The Mayor of London's City Partnership
webpage
For Borough twinning, see .


See also

; Geographical *
Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the ...
*
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county ...
*
Outer London Outer London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 districts of England, local authority districts that make up the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Greater London; each is governed by ...
*
London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as cerem ...

London boroughs
*
Greater London Urban Area The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London, and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statist ...

Greater London Urban Area
*
London commuter belt The London metropolitan area includes London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of Englan ...
*
Metropolitan Police District The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the police area which is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service in London. It currently consists of the Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of E ...
*
M25 motorway The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a major road encircling most of Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, su ...
; Political *
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
* List of Lord Lieutenants of Greater London * List of High Sheriffs of Greater London *
London Plan The London Plan is the statutory spatial planning, spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority. The regional planning docu ...
*
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
; Historical * Metropolitan Board of Works *
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Ac ...
*
Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region. Thi ...
; Others * Global city * Greater London Area War Risk Study * Megacity *
Metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural cen ...

Metropolis


Explanatory notes


References


External links


Greater London Authority

Greater London Online
– London Community News, Information and Business Directory
Greater London Business Community Directory
* {{Authority control Greater London, Geography of London Metropolitan areas of England NUTS 1 statistical regions of England Ceremonial counties of England Local government in London Regions of England Southern England NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union Interested parties in planning in England Counties of England established in 1965