''Gray's Anatomy'' is a reference book of
The human body is the structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body.
It comprises a hea ...
written by Henry Gray
, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter
, and first published in London in 1858. It has gone through multiple revised editions and the current edition, the 42nd (October 2020), remains a standard reference, often considered "the doctors'
The Bible (from Koine Greek , , 'the books') is a collection of religious texts or scriptures that are held to be sacredness, sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions. The Bible is an anthologya compilation of ...
Earlier editions were called ''Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical'', ''Anatomy of the Human Body'' and ''Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied'', but the book's name is commonly shortened to, and later editions are titled, ''Gray's Anatomy''. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject.
English usually refers to:
* English language
* English people
English may also refer to:
Peoples, culture, and language
* ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England
** English national i ...
anatomist Henry Gray
was born in 1827. He studied the development of the
Endocrine glands are ductless glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroi ...
The spleen is an organ found in almost all vertebrates. Similar in structure to a large lymph node, it acts primarily as a blood filter. The word spleen comes .
and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School
London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...
. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter
with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries
through the Anatomy Act
of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book. Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker
It was dedicated by Gray to Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet
An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations.
Gray prepared a second, revised edition, which was published in the United Kingdom in 1860, also by J.W. Parker.
However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by variola virus (often called smallpox virus) which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the World Health Organization (WHO) cer ... [ while treating his nephew (who survived). His death had come just three years after the initial publication of his ''Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical''.
Even so, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others.
Longman, also known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Since 1968, Longman has been used primarily as an imprint by Pearson's Schools business. The Longman brand is also ...'s publication reportedly began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J.W. Parker publishing business. This coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of ''Gray's Anatomy.'' [ p. iv (Previous Editions and Editors – listings)] Successive British editions of ''Gray's Anatomy'' continued to be published under the Longman, and more recently Churchill Livingstone
Churchill Livingstone is an academic publisher.
It was formed in 1971 from the merger of Longman's medical list, E & S Livingstone (Edinburgh, Scotland) and J & A Churchill (London, England) and was owned by Pearson. Harcourt acquired Churchi .../ Elsevier
Elsevier () is a Dutch academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as ''The Lancet'', '' Cell'', the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, '' Trends'', th ... imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five
[This count excludes the previously mentioned 1859 US publication of the English first edition.] distinct American editions of ''Gray's Anatomy'' in 1862, and whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990.
The first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He was previously the natio .... Dunglison edited the next four editions. These were: the ''Second American Edition'' (February 1862); the ''New Third American from the Fifth English Edition'' (May 1870); the ''New American from the Eighth English Edition'' (July 1878); and the ''New American from the Tenth English Edition'' (August 1883). W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the ''New American from the Eleventh English Edition'' (September 1887); and the ''New American from the Thirteenth English Edition'' (September 1893).
In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the ''Fourteenth Edition'', edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, and J. P. McMurrich, who also edited the ''Fifteenth Edition'' (October 1901). There is also an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.R.C.S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co., Philadelphia and New York.
The ''Sixteenth Edition'' (October 1905) was edited by J. C. DaCosta, and the ''Seventeenth'' (September 1908) by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the ''Eighteenth'' (Oct. 1910) and ''Nineteenth'' (July 1913) editions, and in October 1913, R. Howden edited the ''New American from the Eighteenth English Edition''. The "American" editions then continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th (September. 1918), 21st (August 1924), 22nd (August 1930), 23rd (July 1936), and 24th (May 1942). Charles Mayo Goss edited the 25th (August 1948), 26th (July 1954), 27th (August 1959), 28th (August 1966), and 29th (January 1973). Carmine D. Clemente edited and extensively revised the 30th edition (October 1984). [ pp. vi–ix] With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition.
Discrepancies in numbering of American and British editions
Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of ''Gray's Anatomy'': the U.S. and the British one. This can easily cause misunderstandings and confusion, especially when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept roughly apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or simply matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions. Then the American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the ''New American from the Eighteenth English'', which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were then published in the same year (1918). Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, and the 21st American edition in 1924. This discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984.
[Carmine D. Clemente (1985) p. vi (American Editions of ''Gray's Anatomy'' – listings)]
Currently available editions
The current editions also contain
also known as microscopic anatomy or microanatomy, is the branch of biology which studies the microscopic anatomy of biological tissues. Histology is the microscopic counterpart to gross anatomy, which looks at larger structures vis ..., embryology
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, ''embryon'', "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, ''-logia'') is the branch of animal biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and ..., and pathology
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word ''pathology'' also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of biology research fields and medical practices. However, when used in ... subjects that complements anatomical
Anatomy () is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science that deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its ... knowledge. The newest edition is the 42nd edition. The more popular 41st edition of ''Gray's Anatomy'' was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier
Elsevier () is a Dutch academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as ''The Lancet'', '' Cell'', the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, '' Trends'', th ... in both print and online versions, and is the first edition to have enhanced online content including anatomical videos and a bonus ''Gray's'' imaging library. The 41st edition also has 24 specially invited online commentaries on contemporary anatomical topics such as advances in electron
The electron ( or ) is a subatomic particle with a negative one elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family,
and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no k ... and fluorescent microscopy; the neurovascular bundles of the prostate
The prostate is both an accessory gland of the male reproductive system and a muscle-driven mechanical switch between urination and ejaculation. It is found only in some mammals. It differs between species anatomically, chemically, and physi ...; stem cells
In multicellular organisms, stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells that can differentiate into various types of cells and proliferate indefinitely to produce more of the same stem cell. They are the earliest type o ... in regenerative medicine
Regenerative medicine deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human or animal cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function". This field holds the promise of engineering damaged tissues and organs by st ...; the anatomy of facial aging; and technical aspects and applications of diagnostic radiology.
The senior editor of this book and accompanying website on ExpertConsult is Professor Susan Standring, who is Emeritus Professor
''Emeritus'' (; female: ''emerita'') is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retain as an honorary title ... of Anatomy at King's College London. The three most recent editions differ from all previous editions in an important aspect: they present anatomical structures by their regional anatomy (i.e. ordered according to what part of the body the structures are located in – e.g. the anatomy of the bones, blood vessels and nerves, etc. of the upper extremity is described in one place). All editions of ''Gray's Anatomy'' previous to the 39th were organized by systemic anatomy (i.e. there were separate sections for the body's entire skeletal system
A skeleton is the structural frame that supports the body of an animal. There are several types of skeletons, including the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside ..., entire circulatory system and entire nervous system
In biology, the nervous system is the highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes ..., etc.). The editors of the 39th edition acknowledged the validity of both approaches but switched to regional anatomy by popular demand.
Older, out-of-copyright editions of the book continue to be reprinted and sold, particularly on the internet. However it is not always clear which (British or American) edition these books are republications of. Many seem to be reprints of the 1901 (probably U.S.) edition. Additionally, there are several sites where various older versions can be read online.
Henry Gray wrote ''Gray's Anatomy'' with an audience of medical student
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB ...s and physician
A physician (American English), medical practitioner (Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a health professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring health through the ...s in mind, especially surgeon
In modern medicine, a surgeon is a medical professional who performs surgery. Although there are different traditions in different times and places, a modern surgeon usually is also a licensed physician or received the same medical training a ...s. For many decades however, precisely because Gray's textbook became such a classic, successive editors made major efforts to preserve its position as possibly the most authoritative text on the subject in English. Toward this end, a long-term strategy appears to have been to make each edition come close to containing a ''fully comprehensive'' account of the anatomical medical understanding available at the time of publication. The explosion of medical knowledge in the 20th century led to a vast expansion of the book, which threatened to collapse under its own weight metaphorically and physically. From the 35th edition onward, increased efforts were made to reverse this trend and keep the book readable by students. Nevertheless, the 38th edition contained 2,092 pages in large format – the highest page count of any and an increase from the 35th edition, which had 1,471 pages. [Description of 35th Edition (1973) at WorldCat] The current 41st edition has 1,584 pages.
Newer editions of ''Gray's Anatomy'' – and even several recent older ones – are still considered to be the most comprehensive and detailed textbooks on the subject. Despite previous efforts to keep ''Gray's Anatomy'' readable by students, when the 39th edition was published, students were identified as a secondary market for the book, and companion publications such as '' Gray's Anatomy for Students'',
Retrieved 21 March 2012
[Written by Richard L. Drake, Wayne Vogl and Adam W. M. Mitchell] ''Gray's Atlas of Anatomy'' and ''Gray's Anatomy Review'' have also been published in recent years.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was praised as the "greatest humorist the United States has p ...'s '' The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'', the book that Tom catches Becky Thatcher reading, and from which she tears a page, is implied to be ''Gray's Anatomy''.
* In Bette Bao Lord's 1984 book " In the Year of the Boar and Jackie Robinson", Shirley Temple Wong and her new friend Emily secretly look at the "naked people" in ''Gray's Anatomy''.
* Early in the 1970 Tamil
Tamil may refer to:
* Tamils, an ethnic group native to India and some other parts of Asia
**Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka also called ilankai tamils
** Tamil Malaysians, Tamil people native to Malaysia
* Tamil language, nati ... film ''Malathi'', medical students Gemini Ganesan
Ramasamy Ganesan (17 November 1920 – 22 March 2005), better known by his stage name Gemini Ganesan, was an Indian actor who worked mainly in Tamil cinema. He was referred to as the ''Kaadhal Mannan'' (King of Romance) for his romantic roles ... and B. Saroja Devi try to obtain the 28th edition of ''Gray's Anatomy'' from an old book shop.
* Jean-Michel Basquiat
Jean-Michel Basquiat (; December 22, 1960 – August 12, 1988) was an American artist who rose to success during the 1980s as part of the Neo-expressionism movement.
Basquiat first achieved fame as part of the graffiti duo SAMO, alongside ...'s art was inspired by the book's illustrations since it was read by him many times when he was a child, especially when recovering from an accident he suffered.
* In the 1980 '' Little House on the Prairie'' episode "Laura Ingalls Wilder Part 1", Mrs. Harriet Oleson ( Katherine MacGregor) is seen reading ''Gray's Anatomy'' in a perturbed manner.
* In the 1991 movie '' The Addams Family
''The Addams Family'' is a fictional family created by American cartoonist Charles Addams. They originally appeared in a series of 150 unrelated single-panel cartoons, about half of which were originally published in ''The New Yorker'' over a ...'' Granny ( Judith Malina) reads ''Gray's Anatomy'' while Gomez ( Raul Julia) is playing with his train sets.
* In Diana Gabaldon's 1994 novel '' Voyager'', Claire Fraser references a description of maxillary muscles in ''Gray's Anatomy.''
* The 1996 Steven Soderbergh
Steven Andrew Soderbergh (; born January 14, 1963) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, cinematographer and editor. A pioneer of modern independent cinema, Soderbergh is an acclaimed and prolific filmmaker.
Soderbergh's direc ... film '' Gray's Anatomy'', featuring monologuist Spalding Gray
Spalding Gray (June 5, 1941 – January 11, 2004) was an American actor, novelist, playwright, screenwriter and performance artist. He is best known for the autobiographical monologues that he wrote and performed for the theater in the 1980s a ..., also takes its name from the title of the book, as does ''Gray's Anatomy: Selected Writings'', a 2009 book by British political philosopher John N. Gray.
* In the 1998 '' Star Trek: Voyager'' episode " Message in a Bottle", the new Emergency Medical Hologram designed by Ensign Kim begins reciting the contents of ''Gray's Anatomy'' when activated, beginning with a description of the cell.
* The American medical drama
A medical drama is a television show or film in which events center upon a hospital, an ambulance staff, or any medical environment. Most recent medical dramatic programming go beyond the events pertaining to the characters' jobs and portray some ... '' Grey's Anatomy
''Grey's Anatomy'' is an American medical drama television series that premiered on March 27, 2005, on ABC as a mid-season replacement. The series focuses on the lives of surgical interns, residents, and attendings as they develop into ...'' (2005–present) is a play on words referring to both the textbook and the name of the series' lead character. [Horbury, Alison (28 July 2015)]
* The name of Jim Leonard Jr.'s 2006 play '' Anatomy of Gray'', which centers on a doctor visiting a small town in Indiana in 1880, takes its title as a play on ''Gray's Anatomy''.
''Post-feminist Impasses in Popular Heroine Television: The Persephone Complex''
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search, Google Print, and by its code-name Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical .... Retrieved 15 January 2018. Dan Brown
Daniel Gerhard Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author best known for his thriller novels, including the Robert Langdon novels '' Angels & Demons'' (2000), ''The Da Vinci Code'' (2003), ''The Lost Symbol'' (2009), '' Inferno'' (2013), ...'s 2013 novel '' Inferno'', Sienna Brooks, as a child, reads all 1,600 pages of ''Gray's Anatomy'' in ten days.
* In the ABC television series '' The Good Doctor'' (2017–present), the lead character, Dr. Shaun Murphy, an autistic savant
Savant syndrome () is a rare condition in which someone with significant mental disabilities demonstrates certain abilities far in excess of average. The skills that savants excel at are generally related to memory. This may include rapid calcu ..., often visualizes illustrations from ''Gray's Anatomy'' as he mentally diagnoses a patient's condition.
* In the series '' Buffy the Vampire Slayer'' (season 2, episode 2), Willow found the book in the locker of a student who is suspected of digging up a body in a graveyard.
General and cited references
* N.B.: This is the most recent American version that is in the public domain.
Online version of ''Gray's Anatomy''
– The complete 20th U.S. edition of Gray's ''Anatomy of the Human Body'', published in 1918.
''Anatomy of the Human Body, 20th US Edition (1918)''
at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
First edition of ''Gray's Anatomy''
direct PDF link
2014. Episode 5 of the
BBC #REDIRECT BBC
Here i going to introduce about the best teacher of my life b BALAJI sir. He is the precious gift that I got befor 2yrs . How has helped and thought all the concept and made my success in the 10th board exam. ... TV series ''The Beauty of Anatomy''.
Video of @Google Talk by Bill Hayes on ''Gray's Anatomy''
Selected images from the 1st edition of ''Gray's Anatomy''
From The College of Physicians of Philadelphia Digital Library
History of anatomy
Physical therapy books