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The Government of the People's Republic of China () is collectively the state authority in the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...
(PRC) under the exclusive political leadership of the
Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congress, 13th) , seats1 = , seats2_title = Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, NPC Standing ...
(CCP). It consists of
legislative A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday l ...
,
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
, military, supervisory,
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori ...
, and procuratorial branches. The
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China ...
(NPC) is the highest state organ, with control over the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
and basic laws, as well as over the election and supervision of officials of other government organs. The congress meets annually for about two weeks in March to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. The NPC's
Standing Committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were ...
(NPCSC) is the permanent legislative organ that adopts most national legislation, interprets the constitution and laws, and conducts constitutional reviews. The
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
acts as a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
in compliance with decisions made by the NPCSC, but exercises an independent power to nominate the
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a vice-premier or deputy premier. Examples by country The word comes from french "Premier mi ...
. Elected separately by the NPC, the
Vice-president A vice president (in British English: vice-president for governments and director for businesses) is an officer in government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), ...
has no power themselves, but assists the President. The
State CouncilState Council may refer to: Government * State Council of the Republic of Korea, the national cabinet of South Korea, headed by the President of South Korea, President * State Council of the People's Republic of China, the national cabinet and ch ...
, also referred to as the Central People's Government, is China's executive organ headed by the Premier of China. Besides the Premier, the State Council has a variable number of Vice Premiers, five State Councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), the
Secretary-General Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social intera ...
, and 26 ministers and other cabinet-level department heads. It consists of ministries and agencies with specific portfolios. The State Council presents most initiatives to the NPCSC for consideration after previous endorsement by the CCP's
Politburo Standing Committee The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Chinese Communist Party, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Chinese Communist Party The Communist Pa ...
, which is headed by the CCP General Secretary. The NPC generally approves State Council policy, although will occasionally force revisions in proposed laws. China's judicial organs perform prosecutorial and court functions. China's courts are supervised by the
Supreme People's Court The Supreme People's Court (), officially the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China, is the highest level of court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Except for cases investigated by the Office for Saf ...
(SPC), which is headed by the
Chief Justice The chief justice is the Chief judge, presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Ghana, the C ...
. The
Supreme People's Procuratorate The Supreme People's Procuratorate also translated as the "Prosecutor General's Office" () is the highest national level agency responsible for both prosecution A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either th ...
(SPP) is responsible for prosecutions and supervises procuracies at the provincial, prefecture, and county levels. At the same administrative ranking as the SPC and SPP, the
National Supervisory Commission National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China is the highest anti-corruption agency of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
(NSC) was established in 2018 to investigate corruption within the CCP and state organs. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the former deciding general policy and the latter carrying it out. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the CCP. This dual structure thereby creates a single
centralized government#REDIRECT Centralized government A centralized government (also united government) is one in which both executive and legislative power is concentrated centrally at the higher level as opposed to it being more distributed at various lower level g ...
. At the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government, as it is not unheard of for a sub-national executive to also be
party secretary In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social s ...
. This frequently causes conflict between the
chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit insti ...
and the party secretary, and such is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful. Some special cases include: the Special Administrative Regions of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...

Hong Kong
and
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the Chi ...

Macau
, where, according to constitution and respective basic law, most national laws do not apply; and the
autonomous regions An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
, where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is typically a member of the local
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
while the CCP General Secretary is non-local and usually
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han peopleinterim constitutionA provisional constitution, interim constitution or transitional constitution is a constitution intended to serve during a transitional period until a permanent constitution is adopted. The following countries currently have, or have had in the past, ...
-like document created by the
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC, zh, 中国人民政治协商会议), also known as the People's PCC (, ) or simply the PCC (), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China and a central part of t ...

Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
was in force. The second
promulgation Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statutoryA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules an ...
in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, containing Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone. The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the very-recent
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), com ...
. The current constitution is the PRC's fourth promulgation, declared on 4 December 1982, and has served as a stable constitution for 30 years. Under the constitution, the roles of the presidency and the courts were normalized, and all citizens were declared equal. Amendments in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2018 recognized
private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental Legal personality, legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity, and from Collective ownersh ...
, safeguarded
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Th ...
, and further promoted the non-public sector of the economy. The legal power of the CCP is guaranteed by the PRC Constitution and its position as the supreme political authority in the People's Republic of China is realised through its comprehensive control of the state, military, and media.


National People's Congress

image:The 1st Session of the 12th National People's Congress open 20130305.jpg, 270px, The 12th
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China ...
held in 2013 The National People's Congress (NPC) is the national legislature of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billion ...
. With 2,924 members in 2017, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's current Constitution, the NPC is structured as a
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which con ...
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
, with the power to legislate, to oversee the operations of the government, and to elect the major officials of state. Its delegates are elected for a five-year term through a multi-tiered
electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may ta ...
. The NPC and the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various
social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, social groups come in a myriad of sizes and varieties. ...
s, are the main deliberative bodies of China, and are often referred to as the ''
Lianghui The Two Sessions (NPC & CPPCC National Committee annual sessions), or in Chinese ''Lianghui'' is a common Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The ...
'' ('Two Sessions'). The NPC, elected for a term of five years, holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the
Great Hall of the People The Great Hall of the People is a state building located at the western edge of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. It is used for legislative and ceremonial activities by the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the ruling Chinese Comm ...

Great Hall of the People
on the west side of
Tiananmen Square Tiananmen Square or Tian'anmen Square (天安门, Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. ...

Tiananmen Square
,
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...
. These annual meetings are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the CPPCC, providing an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation. The fourth session of the 12th NPC was held from 5 to 16 March 2016. The NPC generally has a reputation of approving the work of the State Council and not engaging in overmuch drafting of laws itself. However, it and its Standing Committee do occasionally assert themselves. For example, the State Council and the CCP were unable to secure passage of a fuel tax in 2009 to finance the construction of expressways.


Leadership


National leadership

The CCP Politburo Standing Committee consists of the government's top leadership. Historically it has had five to nine members, and currently has seven members. Its officially mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the CCP's
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must also be a member of the CCP Politburo Standing Committee. The membership of the PSC is strictly ranked in protocol sequence. Historically, the general secretary (or party chairman) has been ranked first; the rankings of other leaders have varied over time. Since the 1990s, the general secretary (also the president), premier,
chairman of the NPC Standing Committee The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually ...
, the
chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference The Chairperson of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference () is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), which is a political advisory body ...
, the
secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China is the head of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) is the highest internal c ...
, the party's top anti-graft body, and the first-ranked secretary of the CCP secretariat have consistently also been members of the Politburo Standing Committee.


Paramount leader

Power is concentrated in the paramount leader, currently Xi Jinping, who heads the four most important political and state offices: He is the general secretary of the CCP Central Committee, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
of the PRC. Near the end of Hu Jintao's term in office, experts observed growing limitations to the Paramount leader's ''de facto'' control over the government, but at the
19th Party Congress The 19th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (commonly referred to as ''Shíjiǔ Dà''; ) was held at the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, between 18 and 24 October 2017. 2,280 delegates represented the party's estimated 89 million ...
in October 2017, Xi Jinping's term limits were removed and his powers were expanded considerably.


President

The President of the People's Republic of China is the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "
he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English, ''he'' is a Grammatical number, singular, Grammatical gender, masculine, Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard M ...
being an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international perso ...
. Under the PRC's
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, the presidency is a largely
ceremonial office
ceremonial office
with limited powers.Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University
EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, the top
leader Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
in the
one-party system A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state A unitary state is a State (polity), state governed as a single entity in which the central government is ultimately supreme. Unitary st ...
. The office is officially regarded as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post; theoretically, the president serves at the pleasure of the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China ...
, the legislature, and is not legally vested to take executive action on its own prerogative. The current president is
Xi Jinping Xi Jinping ( ; , ; born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician who has served as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (China), Chairman of the Central Military Commission (Chin ...

Xi Jinping
, who took office in March 2013. The office was first established in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China in 1954 and successively held by Mao Zedong and
Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi ( ; 24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist. He was Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee from 1954 to 1959, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, First Vice Chairman of the Chin ...

Liu Shaoqi
. Liu fell into political disgrace during the Cultural Revolution, after which the office became vacant. The office was abolished under the Constitution of 1975, then reinstated in the Constitution of 1982, but with reduced powers. The official English-language
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed ...

translation
of the title was "
Chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office, who is typically elected or appointed by members of the gro ...
"; after 1982, this translation was changed to "
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
", although the Chinese title remains unchanged. In March 2018, presidential term limits were abolished.


State Council

The
State CouncilState Council may refer to: Government * State Council of the Republic of Korea, the national cabinet of South Korea, headed by the President of South Korea, President * State Council of the People's Republic of China, the national cabinet and ch ...
is the chief authority of the People's Republic of China. It is appointed by the National People's Congress and is chaired by the Premier of China and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency. There are about 50 members in the council. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the
Central People's Government The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China China, officia ...
forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Chinese Communist Party and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains an interlocking membership with the top levels of the CCP. Currently the Premier of the State Council is Li Keqiang and the Vice Premiers are
Han Zheng Han Zheng (; born 22 April 1954) is a Chinese politician serving as the Senior Vice Premier of the State Council and Politburo Standing Committee member of the Chinese Communist Party The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as ...

Han Zheng
,
Sun Chunlan Sun Chunlan (; born 24 May 1950) is a Chinese politician, a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, and a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China. From 2009 to 2014, Sun served in two prominent regional posts, first as ...
,
Hu Chunhua Hu Chunhua (; born April 1963) is a China, Chinese politician, a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, and a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China. He worked in Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet for much of his career and ...

Hu Chunhua
and Liu He. Together with the five
State Councilor The state councillor () is a high-ranking position within the State Council of the People's Republic of China The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to loc ...
s, they form the inner cabinet that regularly convenes for the State Council Executive Meeting.


Central Military Commission

The
Central Military Commission A Central Military Commission or National Defense Commission is an organization typical of socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, ...
(CMC) exercises the command and control of the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) and the armed wing of the PRC's founding and ruling political party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Besides the Ce ...
(PLA) and is supervised by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. It is nominally considered the supreme military policy-making body and its chairman, elected by the National People's Congress. Actual command and control of the PLA resides with the Central Military Commission of the CCP Central Committee. The commission is headed by the CMC Chairman, who is also the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces including the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the
People's Armed Police The Chinese People's Armed Police Force (abbreviated: PAP) is a Chinese paramilitary organization primarily responsible for internal security, riot control, counter-terrorism, disaster response, law enforcement and admiralty law, maritime righ ...
(PAP), and the
Militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subjects of a state, who may perform military service during a time of need, as opposed to a pro ...
. Currently the chairman of the Central Military Commission is Xi Jinping.


National Supervisory Commission

The
National Supervisory Commission National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China is the highest anti-corruption agency of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
(NSC) is the highest supervisory (
anti-corruption Anti-corruption (or anticorruption) comprise activities that oppose or inhibit corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately w ...
) agency of the PRC. At the same administrative ranking as the
Supreme People's Court The Supreme People's Court (), officially the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China, is the highest level of court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Except for cases investigated by the Office for Saf ...
and
Supreme People's Procuratorate The Supreme People's Procuratorate also translated as the "Prosecutor General's Office" () is the highest national level agency responsible for both prosecution A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either th ...
, it supervises all public officials who exercise public power. Its operations are merged with the
Central Commission for Discipline Inspection The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) is the highest internal control institution of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), tasked with enforcing internal rules and regulations and combating corruption and malfeasance in the Part ...
of the CCP. It replaces the former
Ministry of Supervision The Ministry of Supervision of the People's Republic of China (MOS) was a Ministries of the People's Republic of China, Cabinet-level department of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, State Council responsible for maintaining an e ...
. Currently the director of National Supervisory Commission is
Yang Xiaodu Yang Xiaodu (; born 26 October 1953) is a Chinese politician, the Director of the National Supervisory Commission, and a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. He has served in Shanghai and Tibet during his early political career ...
.


Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate

The Supreme People's Court is the judicial organ of the People's Republic of China.
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...

Hong Kong
and
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the Chi ...

Macau
, as special administrative regions, have separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court. The judges of the Supreme People's Court are appointed by the National People's Congress. , the President of SPC and the Procurator-General of SPP are
Zhou Qiang Zhou Qiang (; born 25 April 1960) is a Chinese politician who is the current Chief Justice and President of the Supreme People's Court The Supreme People's Court (), officially the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China ...
and Zhang Jun, respectively.


Provincial and local government

The governors of China's
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gene ...
and
autonomous regions An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
and mayors of its centrally controlled municipalities are appointed by the central government in Beijing after receiving the nominal consent of the National People's Congress (NPC). The
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...

Hong Kong
and
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the Chi ...

Macau
special administrative regions (SARS) have some local autonomy since they have separate governments, legal systems, and basic constitutional laws, but they come under Beijing's control in matters of
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...
and
national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally c ...
, and their chief executives are handpicked by the central government. Below the provincial level in 2004 there were 50 rural
prefectures A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international ...
, 283 prefecture-level cities, 374 county-level cities, 852 county-level districts under the jurisdiction of nearby cities, and 1,636 counties. There also were 662 cities (including those incorporated into the four centrally controlled municipalities), 808 urban districts, and 43,258 township-level regions. Counties are divided into
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
and
villages A village is a clustered human settlement or Residential community, community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a population typ ...
. While most are run by appointed officials, some lower-level jurisdictions have direct popular elections. The organs of
self-governing __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems ...
ethnic autonomous areas (regions, prefectures, and counties)—peoples' congresses and peoples' governments—exercise the same powers as their provincial-level counterparts but are guided additionally by the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and require NPC Standing Committee approval for regulations they enact "in the exercise of autonomy" and "in light of the political, economic, and cultural characteristics of the ethnic group or ethnic groups in the areas." While operating under strict control and supervision by the central government, China's local governments manage relatively high share of fiscal revenues and expenditures.


Civil service


See also

* Central People's Government (1949–54) * Five Yuans of the Republic of China *
History of political parties in China In the history of political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and parties may ...
*
Political systems of Imperial China The political systems of Imperial China can be divided into a state administrative body, provincial administrations, and a system for official selection. The three notable tendencies in the history of Chinese politics includes, the convergence of ...
*
Politics of the People's Republic of China The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Chinese Communist Party The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) ...
**
Elections in China Elections in China are based on a hierarchical electoral system, whereby local People's Congresses are direct election, directly elected. All higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC), the national legislatur ...
**
Orders of precedence in China The orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most popu ...


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

*


External links


Official website of the Chinese Central Government
{{DEFAULTSORT:Government Of The People's Republic Of China