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The government of Argentina, within the framework of a
federal system Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magaz ...
, is a
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
representative democratic
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
. The
President of Argentina The president of Argentina ( es, Presidente de Argentina), officially known as the president of the Argentine Nation ( es, Presidente de la Nación Argentina), is both head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public pe ...
is both
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
and
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
.
Executive power The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
is exercised by the President.
Legislative power A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure ...
is vested in the
National Congress''National Congress'' is a term used in the names of various political parties and legislatures . Political parties *Ethiopia: Oromo National Congress *Guyana: People's National Congress (Guyana) *India: Indian National Congress *Iraq: Iraqi Natio ...

National Congress
. The
Judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
is independent from the Executive and from the Legislature.


Executive Branch

The current composition of the Executive Branch includes only the
Head of State A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
and
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, formally given the power over the Administration to follow through with the interests of the Nation. The President is also the Chief of the Argentine Armed Forces. '' The
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
and the
Vice President A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously apply ...
are elected through
universal suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (a ...
by the nation considered as a whole. The Constitutional reform of 1994 introduced a ''two-round system'' by which the winning President-Vice President ticket has to receive either more than 45% of the overall valid votes, or at least 40% of it and a 10% lead over the runner-up. In any other case, the two leading tickets get to face a second round whose victor will be decided by a simple majority. This mechanism was not necessary in the 1995 election, when it could have first come into use, nor in the
1999 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older PersonsIn its Proclamation on Aging, the United Nations General Assembly decided to declare 1999 as the International Year of Older Persons. The proclamation was launched on 1 October 1 ...
election, nor in the last two presidential elections, occurred in
2007 2007 was designated as the International Heliophysical YearImage:IHY logo.png, 200px, right The International Heliophysical Year is a United Nations, UN-sponsored scientifically driven international program of scientific collaboration to unde ...
and
2011 A series of protests and government overthrows, known as the Arab Spring The Arab Spring ( ar, الربيع العربي) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab worl ...
. However, it was instrumental in the selection of
Néstor Kirchner Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. (; 25 February 195027 October 2010) was an Argentine lawyer and politician who served as the 50th President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007, Governor of Santa Cruz, Governor of Santa Cruz Province from 1991 to 2003, S ...
in
2003 2003 was designated the International Year of the Fresh Water Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids Total dissolved ...
. The cabinet of ministers is appointed by the president, but is not technically part of the Executive Power. The vice-president belongs to the legislative branch, since the position also holds the presidency of the Senate.


Legislative branch

The
National Congress''National Congress'' is a term used in the names of various political parties and legislatures . Political parties *Ethiopia: Oromo National Congress *Guyana: People's National Congress (Guyana) *India: Indian National Congress *Iraq: Iraqi Natio ...

National Congress
( es, Congreso Nacional) constitutes the legislative branch of government. The Congress consists of the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
(72 seats), presided by the Vice-President of the Nation, and the
Chamber of Deputies The chamber of deputies is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apa ...
(257 seats), currently presided by Julián Domínguez, deputy for
Buenos Aires province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province. It takes its name from the city of Buenos Aires, the capital of the country, whic ...

Buenos Aires province
. Senators stay in office for six years, and deputies, for four. Each of the
Provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
and the
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
elect deputies and senators directly. Deputies are representatives of the whole people of the Nation, while Senators represent their districts. Each district elects a number of deputies roughly proportional to their overall population by
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
, and three senators: two for the majority, and one for the first minority. Members of both chambers are allowed indefinite re-elections. Every two years, each of the 24 electoral districts (the twenty-three Provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires) elects one half of their lower chamber representatives. Districts with an odd number of Deputies elect one more or one fewer of them on each election. As for the Senators, the twenty-four districts are divided into three groups consisting of eight districts. Every two years all eight districts of one of those groups elect all their three senators, assigning two of them from the party that obtains the majority, and one from the first minority party. Six years later, the same group of districts will hold its next senatorial elections.


Current situation

Following the 9/11 mid-term elections, half the Chamber of Deputies seats and one third of the seats in the Senate were subjected to the ballot box. The
Front for Victory The Front for Victory ( es, Frente para la Victoria, FPV) was a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standar ...
(FPV) and other allies of Néstor and Cristina Kirchner, Argentina's
progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
ruling couple, secured 113 of 257 seats in the lower house, losing 24 seats and their previous absolute majority (the fractious
Justicialist Party The Justicialist Party ( es, Partido Justicialista, ; abbr. PJ) is a major political party in Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of S ...
, to which the FPV formally adheres, continue to enjoy the control of the lower house since 1989). Among
Justicialist The Justicialist Party ( es, Partido Justicialista, ; abbr. PJ) is a major political party in Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of S ...
s representatives, a further 17 seats went to ''anti-Kirchnerites'' (mostly
conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...
), gaining just one seat from the previous situation. The centrist social democratic Radical Civic Union, Argentina's oldest party, allied itself in various districts with the centrist Civic Coalition (Argentina), Civic Coalition or with the social democratic Socialist Party (Argentina), Socialist Party, secured 77 seats, thus gaining 16. The conservative Republican Proposal secured 26 seats, gaining 12 from the previous election. A further 24 seats went to smaller parties, mostly provincially oriented, but also from the center-left spectrum.''Clarín'': Infografía
/ref> Something similar took place in the Senate, where the Kirchners'
Front for Victory The Front for Victory ( es, Frente para la Victoria, FPV) was a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standar ...
secured 36 of 72 seats (losing 4), the Radical Civic Union, UCR/Civic Coalition (Argentina), CC/Socialist Party (Argentina), PS grouping secured 23 (gaining 7), and the
Justicialist Party The Justicialist Party ( es, Partido Justicialista, ; abbr. PJ) is a major political party in Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of S ...
wing opposed to the Kirchners maintained their presence of 9 seats. Smaller, provincial parties were left with 4 seats in all (losing 3); Justicialists (pro or against the current Administration) maintained the control over the Senate they've enjoyed since 1983. Riding a wave of approval during a dramatic economic recovery from a 2001-02 crisis, the Kirchners' Front for Victory, FPV enjoyed increasingly large majorities in Congress, reaching a peak at the Argentine general election, 2007, 2007 general elections (153 Congressmen and 44 Senators). However, soon after, on July 16, 2008, a presidentially sponsored bill to increase Argentina's export taxes on the basis of a sliding scale met with a legislative deadlock, and was ultimately defeated by the tie-breaking "against" vote of Julio Cobos, Vice President Julio Cobos. That controversial law cost the FPV 16 Congressmen and 4 Senators by way of defections. In 2009 elections, FPV candidates lost in the four most important electoral districts (home to 60% of Argentines), only in the Province of Buenos Aires by a narrow difference. Considering the overall national vote, FPV obtained only a very narrow victory, becoming the Congress first minority from December 10, 2009, onward. This will be reflected in strengthened opposition alliances, notably the center-right Republican Proposal, Unión Pro, the center-left Civic Coalition (Argentina), Civic Coalition and the left-wing Proyecto Sur, when elected candidates in both chambers take office on December 11, 2009.


Judiciary branch

The Judiciary Branch is composed of federal judges and others with different jurisdictions and of a Supreme Court of Argentina, Supreme Court with nine members (one President, one Vice President, and seven Ministers), appointed by the President with approval of the Senate, who may be deposed by Congress. As of December 2015 there are six vacancies, which then President Kirchner stated she did not intend to fill. * President of the Supreme Court: Dr. Carlos Rosenkrantz * Vice-President of the Supreme Court: Dra. Elena Highton, Elena I. Highton de Nolasco * Minister of the Court: Dr. Juan Carlos Maqueda


Provincial and municipal governments

Argentina is divided into 29 districts called provinces of Argentina, Provinces and one Autonomous city, autonomous district, which hosts the national capital, the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (which is Greater Buenos Aires, conurbated into the Buenos Aires Province, province of Buenos Aires). Each of the provinces has its own constitution, laws, authorities, form of government, etc., though these must first and foremost comply with the Constitution of Argentina, national constitution and laws. The government of each province has three branches. The Executive, Legislative and Judiciary. The Executive branch is led by a List of Governors in Argentina, governor. The Legislative Branch may be organized as a unicameral or a bicameral system (that is, either one or two chambers or houses). Each province, except for Buenos Aires Province, is divided into districts called departments of Argentina, departments (''departamentos''). Departaments are merely administrative divisions; they do not have governing structures or authorities of their own. They are in turn divided into municipality, municipalities (cities, towns and villages). Each province has its own naming conventions and government systems for different kinds of municipalities. For example, Córdoba Province, Argentina, Córdoba Province has ''municipios'' (cities) and ''comunas'' (towns); Santa Fe Province further distinguishes between first- and second- tier ''municipios''; Chaco Province refers to every populated center as ''municipios'', in three categories. The Province of Buenos Aires has a different system. Its territory is divided into 134 districts called ''Partidos of Buenos Aires, partidos'', each of which usually contains several cities and towns. Regardless of the province, each department/partido has a head town (''cabecera''), often though not necessarily the largest urban center, and in some provinces often named the same as their parent district. Municipalities are ruled by mayors, usually called Intendant#Argentina, Intendant (''intendente'') in the case of cities and towns (the larger categories). A city has a legislative body called the Deliberative Council (''Concejo Deliberante''). The smaller towns have simpler systems, often ruled by commissions presided by a communal president (''presidente communal'') or a similarly named authority. Buenos Aires city, seat of the National Government, was declared an autonomous city by the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution, 1994 constitutional reform. Its mayor, formerly chosen by the President of Argentina, President of the Republic, is now elected by the people, and receives the title of List of mayors and chiefs of government of Buenos Aires, Chief of Government (''Jefe de Gobierno''). Other than that, Buenos Aires, as the provinces, has its own Legislative Branch (a unicameral Legislature) and elect Chamber of Deputies of Argentina, deputies and Argentine Senate, senators as representatives to the
National Congress''National Congress'' is a term used in the names of various political parties and legislatures . Political parties *Ethiopia: Oromo National Congress *Guyana: People's National Congress (Guyana) *India: Indian National Congress *Iraq: Iraqi Natio ...

National Congress
.


References


External links

*
Text of the Constitution

Supreme Court of Justice of Argentina
{{DEFAULTSORT:Government Of Argentina Government of Argentina, Politics of Argentina ast:Gobiernu y política d'Arxentina