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Global politics, also known as world politics, names both the discipline that studies the political and economic patterns of the world and the field that is being studied. At the centre of that field are the different processes of
political globalization Political globalization refers to the growth of the worldwide political system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of p ...
in relation to questions of social power. The discipline studies the relationships between cities,
nation-states A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
, shell-states,
multinational corporations A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whethe ...
,
non-governmental organizations upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase ...
and
international organizations An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations ...
. Current areas of discussion include national and
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously a ...

ethnic
conflict regulation,
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
and the politics of national
self-determination The right of a people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an ...
,
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
and its relationship to democracy, conflict and peace studies,
comparative politics Comparative politics is a field in political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also sp ...
,
political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
, and the
international political economy International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), pro ...
of the environment. One important area of global politics is contestation in the global political sphere over legitimacy. Global politics is said by some to be distinct from the field of international politics (commonly seen as a branch of
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
), as it "does not stress the primacy of intergovernmental relations and transactions". This distinction however has not always been held among authors and political scientists, who often use the term "international politics" to mean global politics.


Defining the field

Beginning in the late nineteenth century, several groups extended the definition of the political community beyond nation-states to include much, if not all, of humanity. These internationalists include
Marxists Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
, human rights advocates, environmentalists, peace activists,
feminists Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender equality, equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that societies priori ...
, and minority groups. This was the general direction of thinking on global politics, though the term was not used as such. The way in which modern world politics is implemented is structured by a set of interpretations dating back to the rise of the European powers. They were able to overtake the rest of the world in terms of economic and military power. Europeans, with their global supremacy, imposed their own system and views on others, through envisioning the world as a whole and defining the regions of the world as ‘modern’ or ‘backward’. They saw nation statehood as the best and highest form of political organization, therefore viewing world politics as the result of the pursuit of hegemony by competing states. The modern world politics perspective is often identified with the works, in particular their 1972 work ''Transnational Relations and World Politics''. Here, the authors argued that state-centric views of international relations were inadequate frameworks to utilize in political science or international relations studies due to the increased globalization. Today, the practices of global politics are defined by values: norms of
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
, ideas of
human developmentHuman development may refer to: * Development of the human body * Developmental psychology * Human development (economics) * Human Development Index, an index used to rank countries by level of human development * Human evolution, the prehistoric p ...
, and beliefs such as Internationalism or
cosmopolitanism Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an o ...
about how we should relate to each. Over the last couple of decades cosmopolitanism has become one of the key contested ideologies of global politics:


Debates

The intensification of
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
led some writers to suggest that states were no longer relevant to global politics.Matthew Horsman and Andrew Marshall, After the Nation-State, London, Harper Collins, 1995 This view has been subject to debate:


See also

*
Anti-globalization movement The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. This may be to carry out, r ...
*
Global citizenship Global citizenship is the idea that one's identity transcends geography or political borders and that responsibilities or rights are derived from membership in a broader class: "humanity". This does not mean that such a person denounces or waives ...
*
Global governance ''Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations'' is an academic quarterly journal. It was published by Lynne Rienner Publishers in the past, and is now published by Brill Publishers. It is published in associatio ...
* World society *


References

*


Notes


Further reading

* Held, David, Anthony McGrew, David Goldblatt and Jonathan Perraton, ''Global Transformations: Politics, Economy and Culture'', Cambridge, Polity Press, 1999. * McGrew, AG, and Lewis, PG, ''Global Politics'', Cambridge, Polity Press, 1992.


External links


Global Power BarometerCenter for Global PoliticsBerlin Forum on Global Politics
{{Globalization, state=collapsed Cultural globalization