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The cuisine of Germany () is made up of many different local or regional
cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation traditions ...

cuisine
s, reflecting the country's federal history. Germany itself is part of a larger cultural region, Central Europe, sharing many traditions with neighbouring countries such as
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
and the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
. Southern regions, like
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
and
Swabia Swabia ; german: Schwaben , colloquially ''Schwabenland'' or ''Ländle''; archaic English also Suabia or Svebia is a cultural, historic History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stud ...

Swabia
, share dishes with
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
and parts of
Swiss cuisine Swiss cuisine is influenced by French, German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German natio ...
. The
Michelin Guide The Michelin Guides ( ) are a series of guide books that have been published by the French tyre company Michelin since 1904. The Guide awards up to three Michelin star (classification), stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The ac ...
of 2015 awarded 11 restaurants in Germany
three stars
three stars
, the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and 233 one star. , Germany had the fourth-highest number of Michelin three-star restaurants in the world, after Japan, France, and the United States.


Hot foods


Meat

The average annual meat consumption is per person. The most common varieties are pork, poultry and beef. Other varieties of meat are widely available, but are considered to be insignificant. Source: Statista.com, 2017 Meat is usually
braised Braising (from the French language, French word ''braiser'') is a combination-cooking method that uses both wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first browned at a high temperature, then simmered in a covered pot in cooking liquid (such as ...
; fried dishes also exist, but these recipes usually originate from
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...
. Several cooking methods used to soften tough cuts have evolved into national specialties, including ''
Sauerbraten Sauerbraten is a traditional German roast of heavily marinated meat. It is regarded as a national dish A national dish is a culinary dish that is strongly associated with a particular country. A dish can be considered a national dish for a vari ...

Sauerbraten
'' (sour roast), involving marinating beef, horse meat or venison in a vinegar or wine vinegar mixture over several days. A long tradition of sausage-making exists in Germany; more than 1,500 different types of sausage (german: Wurst) are made. Most ''Wurst'' is made with natural casings of pork, sheep or lamb intestines. Among the most popular and most common are ''
Bratwurst Bratwurst (; plural Bratwürste) is a type of German sausage typically made from pork, and less commonly from beef or veal. The name is derived from the Old High German ''Brätwurst'', from ''brät-'', finely chopped meat, and ''Wurst'', sausage, ...

Bratwurst
'', usually made of ground pork and spices, the ''Wiener'' (Viennese), which may be pork or beef and is smoked and fully cooked in a water bath, and ''Blutwurst'' (
blood sausage A blood sausage is a sausage A sausage is a type of meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few excep ...
) or ''Schwarzwurst'' (black sausage) made from blood (often of pigs or geese). Thousands of types of cold cuts also are available which are also called "Wurst" in German. There are many regional specialties, such as the '''' (Munich white sausage) popular in
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
or the ''
Currywurst Currywurst () is a fast food dish of German origin consisting of steamed, then fried pork sausage File:Grinners breakfast.jpg, Full Scottish breakfast: Black pudding, Lorne sausage, toast, fried mushrooms and baked beans. A sausage is a ...

Currywurst
'' (depending on region, either a steamed pork sausage or a version of the ''Bratwurst'', sliced and spiced with curry ketchup) popular in the metropolitan areas of
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
,
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
and the
Ruhr Area The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' ( ...
. Strict regulations governing what may and may not be put into them have been in force in Germany since the 13th century. In the market ordinance of Landshut in 1236, it was set down that only top-quality meat could be made into sausages. In Germany alone, sales reach a staggering more than 3.5 billion euros each year, and 600 tons of döner meat are consumed each day, making it one of the most popular fast food items in the country.


Fish

Of salt water fish,
Alaska pollock The Alaska pollock or walleye pollock (''Gadus chalcogrammus'') is a marine fish species of the cod genus ''Gadus'' and family Gadidae. It is a semi-pelagic Shoaling and schooling, schooling fish widely distributed in the North Pacific Ocean, Nor ...
is the most common. Popular freshwater fish on the German menu are
trout Trout are species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms ...

trout
,
pike Pike, Pikes or The Pike may refer to: Fish * Blue pike or blue walleye, an extinct freshwater fish * Ctenoluciidae, the "pike characins", some species of which are commonly known as pikes * ''Esox'', genus of pikes ** Northern pike, common north ...
,
carp Carp are various species of oily fish, oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. While carp is consumed in many parts of the world, they are generally considered an invasive species in ...

carp
, and
European perch The European perch (''Perca fluviatilis''), also known as the common perch, redfin perch, big-scaled redfin, English perch, Euro perch, Eurasian perch, Eurasian river perch, Hatch or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the perch, is a predatory ...
also are listed frequently. Seafood traditionally was restricted to the northern coastal areas, except for
pickled herring Pickled herring is a traditional way of preserving herring as food by pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an ...
, which was often served in a Fischbrötchen, as ''
Rollmops Rollmops () are pickled herring Pickled herring is a traditional way of preserving herring as food by pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutri ...

Rollmops
'' (a pickled herring fillet rolled into a cylindrical shape around a piece of pickled gherkin or onion), or '' Brathering'' (fried,
marinated Marination is the process of soaking foods in a Seasoning, seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. The origin of the word alludes to the use of brine (''aqua marina'') in the pickling process, which led to the technique of adding flavor by i ...
herring Herring are forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical ocean forage fish fee ...
). Today, many sea fish, such as fresh herring,
tuna A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the Tribe (biology), tribe Thunnini, a subgrouping of the Scombridae (mackerel) family. The Thunnini comprise 15 species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly, ranging from the bullet ...

tuna
,
mackerel Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone The pelagic zone consists of the water column A water column is a Concept, conceptual column of water from the ...
,
salmon Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish Actinopterygii ( New Latin ('having rays') + Greek ( 'wing, fins')), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', ...
and
sardines "Sardine" and "pilchard" are common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachus ...
, are well established throughout the country. Prior to the industrial revolution and the ensuing pollution of the rivers, salmon were common in the rivers
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
,
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
, and
Oder The Oder ( , ; Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is ...

Oder
and only slowly started to return along with a growing consciousness for environmental questions and resulting measures, such as state-of-the-art sewage plants, reduction of agricultural deposits, et cetera.
Fish fingers Fish fingers (British English) or fish sticks (American English) are a Food processing, processed food made using a Whitefish (fisheries term), whitefish, such as cod, hake, haddock or pollock, which has been batter (cooking), battered or bread ...

Fish fingers
, known as Fischstäbchen (lit.: "fish sticklets"), are a popular
processed food Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, ...
made using a whitefish, such as
cod Cod is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometim ...

cod
,
haddock The haddock (''Melanogrammus aeglefinus'') is a saltwater ray-finned fish from the Family (biology), family Gadidae, the true cods. It is the only species in the Monotypy, monotypic genus ''Melanogrammus''. It is found in the North Atlantic Ocea ...
or
pollock Pollock or pollack (pronounced ) is the common name used for either of the two species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

pollock
, which has been battered or
breaded Bread crumbs or breadcrumbs (regional variants: breading, crispies) consist of crumbled bread of various dryness, sometimes with seasonings added, used for breading or crumbing foods, topping casseroles, stuffing poultry, thickening stews, addin ...
.


Vegetables

Vegetables are often used in
stew A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been Cooking, cooked in Soup, liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat, especially tougher meats su ...

stew
s or vegetable soups, but are also served as
side dish A side dish, sometimes referred to as a side order, side item, or simply a side, is a food item that accompanies the entrée An entrée (, ; ) in modern French table service and that of much of the English-speaking world (apart from the United ...
es. Carrots, cauliflower, turnips, spinach, peas, beans, broccoli and many types of cabbage are very common. Fried onions are a common addition to many meat dishes throughout the country. Circa 1900, carrots were sometimes roasted in water, with the broth used in place of coffee.
Asparagus Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name ''Asparagus officinalis'', is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom ...

Asparagus
is a popular seasonal side or main dish with a yearly per-capita consumption of . The white variety is especially popular in Germany and more common than green asparagus. Restaurants will sometimes devote an entire menu to nothing but white asparagus when it is in season. Spargel season (german: Spargelzeit or ''Spargelsaison'') traditionally begins in mid-April and ends on St. John's Day (24 June).


Structure of meals

Breakfast Breakfast is the first meal of the day eaten after waking up, usually in the morning. The word in English refers to breaking the fasting period of the previous night.Anderson, Heather Arndt (2013)''Breakfast: A History'' AltaMira Press. There ...

Breakfast
(''Frühstück'') commonly consists of bread, toast, or bread rolls with butter or margarine,
cold cuts Lunch meats—also known as cold cuts, luncheon meats, cooked meats, sliced meats, cold meats, and deli meats—are precooked or Curing (food preservation), cured meats that are sliced and served cold or hot. They are typically served in sandwi ...
, cheeses, jam (''Konfitüre'' or more commonly called ''Marmelade''), honey and eggs (typically boiled). Common drinks at breakfast are coffee, tea, milk, cocoa (hot or cold) or fruit juices. It is very common to eat hearty toppings at breakfast, including deli meats like ham, salted meats, salami and meat-based spreads such as '''' (liver sausage),''Teewurst'' or ''Mettwurst'' and cheeses such as Gouda, ''Frischkäse'' (cream cheese), Brie, ''Harzer Roller'', ''Bergkäse'' and more. Most bakeries tend to sell ''belegte Brötchen'' (sandwiches from bread rolls), especially in the morning, for people on the go. Traditionally, the main meal of the day has been
lunch Lunch is a meal eaten around midday. It is commonly the second meal of the day, after breakfast, and varies in size by culture and region. Etymology According to the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED''), the etymology of ''lunch'' is ...

lunch
(''Mittagessen''), eaten around noon.
Dinner Dinner usually refers to what is in many Western cultures the largest and most formal meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In bi ...

Dinner
(''Abendessen'' or ''Abendbrot'') was always a smaller meal, often consisting only of a variety of breads, meat or sausages, cheese and some kind of vegetables, similar to breakfast, or possibly sandwiches. Smaller meals added during the day bear names such as ''Vesper'' (in the south), ''Brotzeit'' (bread time, also in the south), ''Kaffee und Kuchen'' (, literally for "coffee and cake"), or ''Kaffeetrinken''. It is a very German custom and comparable with the English Five-o'clock-Tea. It takes time between lunch and dinner, often on Sundays with the entire family. However, in Germany, as in other parts of Europe, dining habits have changed over the last 50 years. Today, many people eat only a small meal in the middle of the day at work, often also a second breakfast, and enjoy a hot dinner in the evening at home with the whole family. For others, the traditional way of eating is still rather common, not only in rural areas. Breakfast is still very popular and may be elaborate and extended on weekends, with friends invited as guests; the same holds for coffee and cake. Since the 1990s, the Sunday
brunch Brunch is a combination of breakfast and lunch, and regularly has some form of alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more genera ...

brunch
has also become common, especially in city cafés.


Side dishes

Noodle Noodles are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism ...

Noodle
s, made from wheat flour and egg, are usually thicker than the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
flat pasta. Especially in the southwestern part of the country, the predominant variety of noodles are ''
Spätzle Spätzle () is a type of small noodle or dumpling made with fresh eggs, typically serving as a side for meat dishes with gravy. Commonly associated with Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg: ''Or, three lions passant sable'', t ...

Spätzle
'', made with a large number of eggs, and '''', traditional stuffed noodles reminiscent of
ravioli Ravioli (; singular: ''raviolo'', ) are a type of pasta Pasta (, ; ) is a type of food typically made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or other shapes, then cooked by boiling or bak ...

ravioli
. Besides noodles, potatoes are common. Potatoes entered the German cuisine in the late 17th century, and were almost ubiquitous in the 19th century and since. They most often are boiled (in salt water, ), but
mashed ''Mashed'' is a Vehicular combat game, vehicular combat racing video game developed by Supersonic Software. The game was originally released in Europe for PlayStation 2, Xbox (console), Xbox and Microsoft Windows in June 2004. An updated version w ...
( or ''Kartoffelbrei'') and pan-roasted
potato The potato is a starch#Food, starchy tuber of the plant ''Solanum tuberosum'' and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial plant, perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found thro ...

potato
es () also are traditional.
French fries French fries (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equa ...

French fries
, called , (spoken as "Pom fritz" or, respectively, "Pommes", deviating from the French pronunciation which would be "Pom freet" or "Pom") or regionally as in German, are a common style of fried potatoes; they are traditionally offered with either
ketchup Ketchup or catsup is a type of table condiment Image:Salt, sugar and pepper shakers.jpg, Salt, black pepper, pepper, and sugar are commonly placed on Western restaurant tables. A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to fo ...

ketchup
or
mayonnaise Mayonnaise, informally mayo, is a thick, creamy sauce In , a sauce is a , , or semi- food, served on or used in preparing other s. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to a dish ...
, or, as (lit. fries red/white), with both. Also common are
dumpling Dumpling is a broad class of dishes that consist of pieces of dough (made from a variety of starch sources) wrapped around a filling, or of dough with no filling. The dough can be based on bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a ...

dumpling
s (including ''Klöße'' as the term in the north or ''Knödel'' as the term in the south) and in southern Germany potato noodles, including ''
Schupfnudel Schupfnudel (German; plural ''Schupfnudeln''), also called Fingernudel (''finger noodle''), is a type of dumpling or thick noodle in southern Germany, German and Austrian cuisine. It is similar to the Central European kopytka. They take various f ...
n'', which are similar to Italian ''
gnocchi Gnocchi ( , , ; singular ''gnocco'') are a varied family of dumpling in Italian cuisine Italian cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine David 1988, Introduction, pp.101–103 consisting of the ingredients, recipes and List of cooking techni ...

gnocchi
''.
Salad A salad is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Network ...

Salad
s, also modern variations, as well as vegetarian dishes are becoming more and more popular in Germany.


Spices and condiments

With the exception of mustard for sausages, German dishes are rarely hot and spicy; the most popular herbs and spices are traditionally
parsley Parsley, or garden parsley (''Petroselinum ''Petroselinum'' (parsley) is a genus of two species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land p ...

parsley
,
thyme Thyme () is the herb (dried aerial parts) of some members of the genus ''Thymus The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism ...

thyme
,
laurel Laurel may refer to: Plants * Lauraceae, the laurel family * Laurel (plant), including a list of trees and plants known as laurel People * Laurel (given name), people with the given name * Laurel (surname), people with the surname * Laurel (mus ...
,
chive Chives, scientific name ''Allium schoenoprasum'', is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRE ...
s,
black pepper Black pepper (''Piper nigrum'') is a flowering A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offs ...

black pepper
(used in small amounts),
juniper berries A juniper berry is the female conifer cone, seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a Galbulus, cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which gives it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handf ...
,
nutmeg Nutmeg is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

nutmeg
, and
caraway Caraway, also known as meridian fennel and Persian cumin (''Carum carvi''), is a biennial plant Biennial means (an event) lasting for two years or occurring every two years. The related term biennium is used in reference to a period of two yea ...
.
Cardamom Cardamom (), sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Reco ...

Cardamom
,
anise seed Anise (, ; '), also called aniseed or rarely anix, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. The flavor and aroma of its seeds have similarities with some other spices, such as ...

anise seed
, and
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first do ...

cinnamon
are often used in sweet cakes or beverages associated with Christmas time, and sometimes in the preparation of sausages, but are otherwise rare in German meals. Other herbs and spices, such as
basil Basil (, also ; ''Ocimum basilicum''), also called great basil, is a culinary herb of the Family (biology), family Lamiaceae (mints). Basil is native to tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia. It is a Hardiness (plants), ten ...

basil
, sage,
oregano Oregano (, ; ''Origanum vulgare'') is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek m ...

oregano
, and hot
chili pepper The chili pepper (also chile, chile pepper, chilli pepper, or chilli), from Nahuatl Nahuatl (; ),The Classical Nahuatl word (noun stem ''nāhua'', + absolutive ''-tl'' ) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has se ...

chili pepper
s, have become popular since the early 1980s. Fresh
dill Dill (''Anethum graveolens'') is an annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlem ...

dill
is very common in a green
salad A salad is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Network ...

salad
or fish fillet.
Mustard Mustard may refer to: Food and plants * Mustard (condiment), a paste or sauce made from mustard seeds used as a condiment * Mustard plant, one of several plants, having seeds that are used for the condiment ** Mustard seed, seeds of the mustard pl ...
(''Senf'') is a very common accompaniment to sausages and can vary in strength, the most common version being ''Mittelscharf'' (medium hot), which is somewhere between traditional English and French mustards in strength.
Düsseldorf Düsseldorf ( , , ; often in English sources; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Press, 199 ...

Düsseldorf
, similar to French's Deli Mustard with a taste that is very different from Dijon, and the surrounding area are known for its particularly spicy mustard, which is used both as a table condiment and in local dishes such as ''Senfrostbraten'' (pot roast with mustard). In the southern parts of the country, a sweet variety of mustard is made which is almost exclusively served with the Bavarian speciality '' Weißwurst''. German mustard is usually considerably less acidic than American varieties.
Horseradish Horseradish (''Armoracia rusticana'', syn. ''Cochlearia armoracia'') is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes Mustard plant, mustard, wasabi, broccoli, cabbage, and radish). It is a root vegetable, cultivated and us ...

Horseradish
is commonly used as a condiment either on its own served as a paste, enriched with cream (''Sahnemeerrettich''), or combined with mustard. In some regions of Germany, it is used with meats and sausages where mustard would otherwise be used. Its use in Germany has been documented to the 16th century, when it was used as medicine, and as a food, whereby its leaves were consumed as a vegetable.
Garlic Garlic (''Allium sativum'') is a species of bulbous flowering plant in the genus ''Allium''. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, Allium fistulosum, Welsh onion and Allium chinense, Chinese onion. It is native to Central ...

Garlic
has never played a large role in traditional German cuisine, but has risen in popularity in recent decades due to the influence of
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the people of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps ...
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
,
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, and
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
cuisines.
Ramson ''Allium ursinum'', known as wild garlic, wild cowleek, ramsons, buckrams, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic, bear leek or bear's garlic, is a bulbous Perennial plant, perennial flowering plant in the amaryllis family Amaryllidaceae. It is native ...

Ramson
, a rediscovered herb from earlier centuries, has become quite popular again since the 1990s.


Desserts

A wide variety of
cake Cake is a form of sweet food made from flour, sugar, and other ingredients, that is usually baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. Th ...

cake
s,
tart A tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry Pastry is a dough of flour Kinako Flour is a powder A powder is a dry, bulk solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liqu ...
s and
pastries Pastry is a dough of flour Flour is a powder A powder is a dry, bulk solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed togeth ...
are served throughout the country, most commonly made with fresh fruit. Apples, plums, strawberries, and cherries are used regularly in cakes.
Cheesecake Cheesecake is a sweet dessert Dessert () is a course (food), course that concludes a meal. The course consists of sweet foods, such as confections, and possibly a beverage such as dessert wine and liqueur. In some parts of the world, such a ...

Cheesecake
is also very popular, often made with
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. ''
Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte Black Forest gâteau or Black Forest cake (American English) is a chocolate sponge cake with a rich cherry filling based on the German dessert ''Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte'' (), literally "Black Forest Cherry-torte". Typically, Black Forest gate ...

Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte
'' (Black Forest cake, made with cherries) is probably the most well-known example of a wide variety of typically German
torte A torte (from German language, German ''Torte'' ( (in turn from Latin language, Latin via Italian language, Italian ''torta'') is a rich, usually multilayered, cake that is filled with whipped cream, buttercreams, mousses, jams, or fruits. Or ...

torte
s filled with whipped or butter cream. German
doughnut A doughnut or donut (IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale, a style of beer * International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Lat ...

doughnut
s (which have no hole) are usually balls of yeast dough with jam or other fillings, and are known as '''', ''Pfannkuchen'' (in Berlin and Eastern Germany), '' Kreppel'' or '' Krapfen'', depending on the region. ''Eierkuchen'' or ''Pfannkuchen'' are large (usually around 20–24 cm in diameter), and relatively thin (~5mm) pancakes, comparable to the French ''
crêpe A crêpe or crepe ( or , , Quebec French: ) is a type of very thin pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to ...

crêpe
s''. They are served covered with sugar, jam or syrup. Salty variants with cheese, ground meat or bacon exist as well as variants with apple slices baked in (called ''Apfelpfannkuchen'', literally for ''apple pancakes''), but they are usually considered to be main dishes rather than desserts. In some regions, ''Eierkuchen'' are filled and then wrapped; in others, they are cut into small pieces and arranged in a heap (called ''
Kaiserschmarrn ''Kaiserschmarrn'' or ''Kaiserschmarren'' (Emperor's Mess) is a lightly sweetened pancake that takes its name from the Austrian emperor (Kaiser) Franz Joseph I of Austria, Franz Joseph I, who was very fond of this kind of fluffy shredded pancake ...

Kaiserschmarrn
'', often including raisins baked in). The word ''Pfannkuchen'' means pancake in most parts of Germany. A popular dessert in northern Germany is '''', red fruit pudding, which is made with black and red currants, raspberries and sometimes strawberries or cherries cooked in juice with corn starch as a thickener. It is traditionally served with cream, but also is served with
vanilla Vanilla is a spice derived from orchids of the genus ''Vanilla (genus), Vanilla'', primarily obtained from pods of the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (''Vanilla planifolia, V. planifolia''). The word ''vanilla'', derived from , th ...

vanilla
sauce, milk or whipped cream. ''Rhabarbergrütze'' (rhubarb pudding) and ''Grüne Grütze'' (gooseberry fruit pudding) are variations of the ''Rote Grütze''. A similar dish, ''Obstkaltschale'', may also be found all around Germany.
Ice cream Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from milk or cream and is flavoured with a sweetener A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweetness, sweet taste like that of sug ...

Ice cream
and
sorbet Sorbet (), also called "Italian ice" or "water ice", is a frozen dessert Frozen dessert is a dessert made by freezing liquids, semi-solids, and sometimes even solids. They may be based on flavored water (shave ice, ice pops, sorbet, snow cones ...

sorbet
s are also very popular. Italian-run ice cream parlours were the first large wave of foreign-run eateries in Germany, which began around the mid 1850s, becoming widespread in the 1920s. '' Spaghettieis'', which resembles spaghetti, tomato sauce, and ground cheese on a plate, is a popular ice cream dessert.


Holidays

On the Christmas Days following Christmas Eve, roasted goose is a staple of Christmas Day meals. It is sometimes replaced with European carp, particularly in Southern areas. The carp is cut into pieces, coated in breadcrumbs and fried in fat. Common side dishes are potato salad, cucumber salad or potatoes. File:Schoko-Osterhase IMGP1551 smial wp.jpg, Chocolate
Easter Bunny The Easter Bunny (also called the Easter Rabbit or Easter Hare) is a folkloric figure and symbol of Easter Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by ...
File:Juravolksfest Neumarkt 2013 - 021.JPG, Oktoberfest Gingerbread Christmas-goose-(Weihnachtsgans) 1.jpg, Roasted Christmas goose File:Cookies - Till Westermayer.jpg, Christmas cookies File:Rotkaeppchen Sekt Riesling Trocken.jpg, New Year Sekt
Apart from Christmas, nearly all other Christian holidays and seasons have special dishes associated with them, varying regionally and by denomination. The Easter season, for instance, is typically associated with painted
Easter egg#REDIRECT Easter egg Easter eggs, also called Paschal eggs, and Egg of Easter are eggs that are sometimes Egg decorating, decorated. They are usually used as gifts on the occasion of Easter. As such, Easter eggs are common during the season of E ...

Easter egg
s, ''Osterbrot'' and a meal of freshwater fish on
Good Friday Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Great and Holy Friday (also Holy ...
. Likewise,
Saint Sylvester's Day Saint Sylvester's Day, also known as Silvester or the Feast of Saint Sylvester, is the day of the feast of Pope Sylvester I, a saint who served as pope (bishop of Rome) from 314 to 335. Medieval legend made him responsible for the conversion of ...
is often celebrated with a meal of
carp Carp are various species of oily fish, oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. While carp is consumed in many parts of the world, they are generally considered an invasive species in ...

carp
. The , which lasts from
Ash Wednesday Ash Wednesday is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' an ...

Ash Wednesday
to
Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, typically composed of many page (paper), pages (made of ...

Easter Sunday
, is observed in many areas, especially Catholic ones. The preceding carnival season is known for ''Pfannkuchen'' (lit. pancakes) or ''Krapfen''. The is often associated with sweet and spicy foods like '''' and ''
Lebkuchen (), or , are a honey-sweetened German cuisine, German cake molded cookie or bar cookie that has become part of Germany's Christmas traditions. It is similar to gingerbread. Etymology The etymology of ''Leb-'' in the term ''Lebkuchen'' is ...
''.


Bread

Bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

Bread
(''Brot'') is a significant part of German cuisine, with the largest bread diversity in the world. Around 3000 types of breads and 1,200 different types of pastries and rolls are produced in about 17,000 bakeries and another 10,000 in-shop bakeries. Bread is served usually for breakfast (often replaced by bread rolls) and in the evening as (open) sandwiches, but rarely as a side dish for the main meal (popular, for example, with ''
Eintopf A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been Cooking, cooked in Soup, liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat, especially tougher meats su ...
'' or soup). The importance of bread in German cuisine is also illustrated by words such as ''Abendbrot'' (meaning supper, literally evening bread) and '''' (snack, literally bread time). In fact, one of the major complaints of the German
expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
s in many parts of the world is their inability to find acceptable local breads. Regarding
bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

bread
, German cuisine is more varied than that of either Eastern or Western Europe. Bread types range from white
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
bread (''Weißbrot'') to grey (''Graubrot'') to black (''Schwarzbrot''), actually dark brown
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationshi ...

rye
bread. Some breads contain both wheat and rye flour (hence '' Mischbrot'', mixed bread), and often also wholemeal and whole seeds such as
linseed Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may ...

linseed
,
sunflower seed The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as ...
, or
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''C ...

pumpkin
seed (''Vollkornbrot''). Darker, rye-dominated breads, such as ''Vollkornbrot'' or ''Schwarzbrot'', are typical of German cuisine. ''
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Pumpernickel
'', sweet-tasting bread created by long-time-steaming instead of regular baking, is internationally well known, although not representative of German black bread as a whole. Most German breads are made with
sourdough Sourdough is a bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having ...

sourdough
. Whole grain is also preferred for high fiber. Germans use almost all available types of grain for their breads: wheat, rye, barley,
spelt Spelt (''Triticum spelta''), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the ...

spelt
, oats, millet, corn and rice. Some breads are even made with
potato starch flour The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of at ...
. Germany's most popular breads are rye-wheat (''Roggenmischbrot''), toast bread (''Toastbrot''), whole-grain (''Vollkornbrot''), wheat-rye (''Weizenmischbrot''), white bread (''Weißbrot''), multigrain, usually wheat-rye-oats with sesame or linseed (''Mehrkornbrot''), rye (''Roggenbrot''), sunflower seeds in dark
rye bread Rye bread is a type of bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made food ...

rye bread
(''Sonnenblumenkernbrot''), pumpkin seeds in dark rye bread (''Kürbiskernbrot'') and roasted onions in light wheat-rye bread (''Zwiebelbrot'').


Bread rolls

Bread roll A roll is a small, usually round or oblong individual loaf of bread served as a meal accompaniment (eaten plain or with butter). A roll can be served and eaten whole or cut transversely and dressed with filling between the two halves. Rolls a ...
s, known in Germany as ''Brötchen'', which is a diminutive of ''Brot'', with regional linguistic varieties being ''Semmel'' (in South Germany), ''Schrippe'' (especially in Berlin), ''Rundstück'' (in the North and Hamburg) or ''Wecken'', ''Weck'', ''Weckle'', ''Weckli'' and ''Weckla'' (in Baden-Württemberg, Switzerland, parts of Southern Hesse and northern Bavaria), are common in German cuisine. A typical serving is a roll cut in half, and spread with butter or margarine. Cheese, honey, jam, Nutella, cold cuts such as ham, fish, or preserves are then placed between the two halves, or on each half separately, known as a ''belegtes Brötchen''. Rolls are also used for snacks, or as a hotdog-style roll for ''
Bratwurst Bratwurst (; plural Bratwürste) is a type of German sausage typically made from pork, and less commonly from beef or veal. The name is derived from the Old High German ''Brätwurst'', from ''brät-'', finely chopped meat, and ''Wurst'', sausage, ...

Bratwurst
, Brätel, Fleischkäse'' or ''Schwenker''/''Schwenkbraten''. ''Franzbrötchen'', which originated in the area of Hamburg, is a small, sweet pastry roll baked with butter and cinnamon.


Beverages


Alcoholic drinks

Beer is very common throughout all parts of Germany, with many local and regional breweries producing a wide variety of beers. The pale lager pilsner, a style developed in the mid-19th century, is predominant in most parts of the country today, whereas wheat beer (''Weißbier''/''Weizen'') and other types of lager are common, especially in Bavaria. A number of regions have local specialties, many of which, like ''Weißbier'', are more traditionally brewed Ale#German ales, ales. Among these are ''Altbier'', a dark beer available around Düsseldorf and the lower Rhine, ''Kölsch (beer), Kölsch'', a similar style, but light in color, in the Cologne area, and the low-alcohol ''Berliner Weisse, Berliner Weiße'', a sour beer made in Berlin that is often mixed with raspberry or woodruff syrup. Since the reunification of 1990, ''Schwarzbier'', which was common in East Germany, but could hardly be found in West Germany, has become increasingly popular in Germany as a whole. Beer may also be mixed with other beverages such as pils or lager and carbonated lemonade: ''Radler'' (lit: cyclist), ''Alsterwasser'' (lit: water from the river Alster). Since a beer tax law was changed in 1993, many breweries served this trend of mixing beer with other drinks by selling bottles of pre-mixed beverages. Examples are ''Bibob'' (by Köstritzer), ''Veltins V+'', ''Mixery'' (by Karlsberg), Dimix (by Diebels) and ''Cab'' (by Krombacher). Cider is also popular in Germany. It is called ''Most'' or ''Ebbelwoi''. In Hessen, people drink it in a Bembel. Wine is also popular throughout the country. German wine comes predominantly from the areas along the upper and middle
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
and its tributaries. Riesling and Silvaner are among the best-known varieties of white wine, while Pinot noir, Spätburgunder and Dornfelder are important German red wines. The sweet German wines sold in English-speaking countries seem mostly to cater to the foreign market, as they are rare in Germany. ''Korn (liquor), Korn'', a German spirit made from malt (wheat, rye or barley), is consumed predominantly in the middle and northern parts of Germany. ''Obstler'', on the other hand, distilled from apples and pears (''Obstler''), plums, cherries (''Kirschwasser''), or mirabelle plums, is preferred in the southern parts. The term ''Schnaps'' refers to both kinds of hard liquors. All cold drinks in bars and restaurants are sold in glasses with a calibration mark (''Eichstrich'') that is frequently checked by the ''Eichamt'' (~ Bureau of Weights and Measures) to ensure the guest is getting as much as is offered in the menu.


Non-alcoholic drinks

Coffee is also very common, not only for breakfast, but also accompanying a piece of cake (''Kaffee und Kuchen'') in the afternoon, usually on Sundays or special occasions and birthdays. It is generally drip brew, filter coffee, which is weaker than espresso. Coffeehouse, Coffeeshops are also very common in Germany. Tea is more common in the northwest. East Frisians traditionally have their tea with cream and rock candy (''Kluntje''). Germany has the tenth highest per capita coffee consumption worldwide. Popular soft drinks include ''Schorle'', juice or wine mixed with sparkling mineral water, with ''Apfelschorle'' being popular all over Germany, and ''Spezi'', made with cola and an orange-flavored drink such as Fanta. Germans are unique among their neighbors in preferring bottled water, bottled, carbonated mineral water, either plain (''Sprudel'') or flavored (usually lemon) to noncarbonated ones. Drinking water of excellent quality is available everywhere and at any time in Germany. Water provided by the water supply, public water utilities can be had without hesitation directly from the tap. Usually, no chlorine is added. Drinking water is controlled by state authority to ensure it is potable. Regulations are even stricter than those for bottled water (see :de: Trinkwasserverordnung, Trinkwasserverordnung).


Regional cuisine

German regional cuisine can be divided into many varieties such as Bavarian cuisine (southern Germany) or Thuringian (central Germany) and Lower Saxon cuisine.


Baden-Württemberg

The south-west German state divides into Baden and Swabia, whose cuisine is slightly different. Due to Baden's physiogeographical situation in the Upper Rhine Plain, with Germany's warmest climate and fruitful volcanic soils, it had good prerequisites to develop a high quality gastronomy. Nationwide, this region features the highest density of star-rated restaurants. Especially the city of Baiersbronn is well known for its fine-dining restaurants. Swabian cuisine tends to be heavier than Badish cuisine. Famous dishes of Baden-Württemberg are ,
Spätzle Spätzle () is a type of small noodle or dumpling made with fresh eggs, typically serving as a side for meat dishes with gravy. Commonly associated with Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg: ''Or, three lions passant sable'', t ...

Spätzle
and the Black Forest Cake.


Bavaria

The Bavarian dukes, especially the Wittelsbach family, developed Bavarian cuisine and refined it to be presentable to the royal court. This cuisine has belonged to wealthy households, especially in cities, since the 19th century. The (old) Bavarian cuisine is closely connected to Czech cuisine and Austrian cuisine (especially from Tyrol (state), Tyrol and Salzburg), mainly through the Wittelsbach and Habsburg families. Already in the beginning, Bavarians were closely connected to their neighbours in Austria through linguistic, cultural and political similarities, which also reflected on the cuisine. A characteristic Bavarian cuisine was further developed by both groups, with a distinct similarity to Franconian and
Swabia Swabia ; german: Schwaben , colloquially ''Schwabenland'' or ''Ländle''; archaic English also Suabia or Svebia is a cultural, historic History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stud ...

Swabia
n cuisine. A Bavarian speciality is the , a savoury snack, which would originally be eaten between breakfast and lunch. Bavaria is a part of Southeastern Germany, including the city of Munich and spreading to Germany's borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. The region is located at higher elevations, and is known for yielding beet and potato crops and also for the production of fine beers.


Franconia

Franconia, a major region consisting roughly of the northern half of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
, has its own distinct cuisine, so distinct in fact that there is said to be a "White Sausage Equator" (''Weißwurstäquator'') that separates Franconia from the rest of Bavaria. This is a reference to the fact that those north of the Weißwurstequator do not generally eat the popular Weißwurst common in southern
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
. A characteristic of Franconian food would include gravies (Soßen), food derived from potatoes, various meats, and, of course, bread. Franconia is well known throughout Germany for its heavy foods covered in gravy. A good example of Franconian food would be Schäufele and Klöße, which is a pork shoulder served with traditional potato dumplings (Klöße or Knödel) covered in a gravy.


Hamburg

Due to its centuries-old history as a harbour town, the traditional cuisine of
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
is very diversified and sapid as the supply of ingredients was safe. Until the 20th century, it was predominantly characterized by the extensive choice of different kinds of fish from the river
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
and the quick access to both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, both being roughly 100 kilometers away from the city center. The neighboring regions supplied the city state with fresh vegetables, fruit came mainly from a region called Altes Land just southwest of Hamburg and until industrialization, the neighbourhood of Wilhelmsburg, Hamburg, Wilhelmsburg was considered the ‘milk isle’ of Hamburg. International trade made spices and exotic food items from Asia and South America available since the 16th century, and these were soon incorporated into civic kitchens. From this basis, the cuisine of Hamburg developed its current characteristics thanks to the supraregional harmonization of the Northern German and Scandinavian cuisine. Due to its high economic importance, Hamburg features many internationally recognized gourmet restaurants: 11 of them were awarded a Michelin star in 2010.


Hessen

Typical for Hessen are ''Frankfurter Rippchen'', a spiked pork cutlet, which is often served with sauerkraut and mashed potatoes. Also from Hessen comes the Green sauce, Frankfurt green sauce (''"Grüne Sauce''"). It is a cold sauce based on sour cream with the local herbs borage, chervil, cress, parsley, pimpinelle, sorrel and chives. The start of the season is traditionally Maundy Thursday (''"Gründonnerstag"''; which means ''"green Thursday"'' in German). Green sauce is mostly served with potatoes and boiled eggs. One of the best-known specialties from Hesse is the Frankfurter Kranz, a buttercream cake whose shape is reminiscent of a crown; a reminiscence of Frankfurt as the historical coronation city of the German Emperor, German emperors. Cider (''"Apfelwein"'' in German, or ''"Äppelwoi"'' in the Hessian dialect) is also very popular in and around Frankfurt. In the historic district Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main), Sachsenhausen there is the so-called Cider Quarter (''"Äppelwoiviertel"''), where there are numerous taverns that offer cider, especially in the summer months. In the cider taverns, ''Handkäse, "Handkäs mit Musik"'' is offered as a snack, a sour milk cheese served in a Marination, marinade of onions, vinegar and spices.


Palatinate/Pfalz

The kitchen of the Palatinate, a region in the south of Rhineland-Palatinate, is largely determined by regional dishes. They are sometimes quite hearty, not least because the cooking recipes were sometimes developed in times of need or in the context of heavy physical work. You also like to eat hotter than in many other German regional kitchens. Probably the best-known dish is the Saumagen, Pfälzer Saumagen, a pork stomach stuffed with sausage meat, bacon, potatoes and spices. The dish became famous as the favorite meal of Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who especially enjoyed serving this dish at state receptions. In the Palatinate, the salty-crust Dampfnudel is a traditional main dish, either with sweet side dishes (for example wine sauce, custard or boiled fruit such as plums, pears or the like) or with salty side dishes (for example potato soup, vegetable soups, goulash or pork) is eaten.


Thuringia

Wheat, grapes, sugarbeets, and barley grow well, along with a variety of vegetables, which grow near Erfurt, the state's capital. Cauliflower [], cabbage (savoy, red, white) [], kohlrabi [], and broccoli [] grow by traditional means near Erfurt. Tomatoes, lettuce, broad beans, onions, and cucumbers are grown in the eastern portion of the region near Jena under glass centers on about of land. Thuringia is the second-largest herb-growing region in Germany; the town of Kölleda was once considered the "peppermint town", where herb growers used to congregate to study herb cultivation. One-third of Thuringia is covered in forest, and is considered to be one of the best game-hunting regions in Germany. Anyone holding a valid hunting license and a local hunting permit for the area may hunt for game such as red deer, roe deer, wild boar, rabbit, Duck (food), duck, and mouflon (mountain sheep). Pheasant and capercaillie are protected game species that may not be hunted. The wooded areas also contain a wide variety of edible mushrooms, such as chestnut mushrooms, porcini, and chanterelles, along with wild berries, such as Blueberry, blueberries, cranberry, cranberries, Raspberry, raspberries, and Blackberry, blackberries, which are all traditional accompaniments to game dishes. The most famous foods from Thuringia are Thuringian sausages and :de:Thüringer Klöße, Thuringian dumplings. The state is also known for its sausages; steamed, scaled, and cured varieties are all prepared. Popular varieties include Thüringer ''Mettwurst'' (a spreadable cured sausage), '':de:Eichsfelder Feldgieker, Feldkieker'' (a cured, air-dried sausage dried up to eight months), Thüringer '''' (a steamed pork and liver sausage), Thüringer ''Rotwurst'' (a steamed blood sausage packed in a bladder or other natural casing) and ''Mett'' (minced pork).


Saxony

In general the cuisine is very hearty and features many peculiarities of central Germany such as a great variety of sauces which accompany the main dish and the fashion to serve ''Klöße'' or Knödel as a
side dish A side dish, sometimes referred to as a side order, side item, or simply a side, is a food item that accompanies the entrée An entrée (, ; ) in modern French table service and that of much of the English-speaking world (apart from the United ...
instead of
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potato
es, pasta or rice. Also much freshwater fish is used in Saxon cuisine, particularly
carp Carp are various species of oily fish, oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. While carp is consumed in many parts of the world, they are generally considered an invasive species in ...

carp
and
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trout
as is the case throughout Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe. The rich history of the region did and still does influence the cuisine. In the blossoming and growing cities of Dresden and Leipzig an extravagant style of cuisine is cherished (one may only think of the crab as an ingredient in the famous Leipziger Allerlei). In other, impoverished regions where the people had to work hard to yield some harvest (e.g., the Erzgebirge), peasant dishes play a major role; famous dishes originating from there include
potato The potato is a starch#Food, starchy tuber of the plant ''Solanum tuberosum'' and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial plant, perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found thro ...

potato
es with Quark (dairy product), Quark, potato soup or potato with
bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

bread
and linseed oil. In the Vogtland region, where the peasants were wealthier, the tradition of Sunday roast remains to this day. Cereal grain cultivation occupies 62% of the cultivated land in Saxony-Anhalt. Wheat, barley, oats, and
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rye
are grown, with the rye being grown near Borde, where it is used to make ''Crisp bread, Burger Knäckebrot'', a flatbread produced there since 1931. Another 10% of the cultivated area is planted in sugar beets for conversion to sugar, popularized after the 19th century, when the region had an economic boom.


International influences

Elements of international cuisine (apart from influences from neighbouring countries) are a relatively recent phenomenon in German cuisine, compared with other West European states. Colonial goods, Colonial goods shops spread only in the 19th and early 20th centuries and brought luxury goods like cocoa, coconuts, rare exotic spices, coffee and (non-herbal) tea to a wider audience. The first wave of foreigners coming to Germany specifically to sell their food specialties were ice cream makers from northern Italy, who started to arrive in noticeable numbers during the late 1920s. With the post-World War II contacts with Allied occupation troops, and especially with the influx of more and more foreign workers that began during the second half of the 1950s, many foreign dishes have been adopted into German cuisine —
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the people of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps ...
dishes, such as spaghetti and pizza, have become staples of the German diet. In 2008, there were around 9,000 pizzerias and 7,000 Italian restaurants in Germany. The pizza is Germany's favourite fast food. Turks in Germany, Turkish immigrants have introduced Turkish cuisine, Turkish foods to Germany, notably ''''. In November 2017, it was estimated that 1,500 döner kebab shops were present in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
. Chinese cuisine, Chinese, Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and Balkan cuisine, Balkan restaurants are also widespread in Germany. Before 1990, the cuisine from East Germany, Eastern Germany (1949-1990) was influenced by those of other nations within the former Eastern Bloc, Communist bloc. East Germans traveled abroad to these countries on holiday, and soldiers coming to East Germany from these countries brought their dishes with them. A typical dish that came to the East German kitchen this way is Russian ''Soljanka''. Indian cuisine, Indian, Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese, Thai cuisine, Thai, and other Asian cuisines are rapidly gaining in popularity since the early 2000s. Until the late 1990s many of the more expensive restaurants served mostly French inspired dishes for decades. Since the end of the 1990s, they have been shifting to a more refined form of German cuisine.


Food industry

Germany is the third largest agricultural producer in the European Union and the third largest agricultural exporter in the world. In 2013, German food exports were worth around EUR 66 billion.Facts and figures on German agricultural exports
Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture
Several food products are internationally known brands. File:Gummi Bears in Action 55.JPG, Gummy bears File:Jägermeister.jpg, Jägermeister liqueur File:Dinkelbrezelchen.jpg, Mini pretzels File:Ritter Sport - english.png, Chocolate File:German Marzipan Lübecker Vielfalt.jpg, Lübecker Marzipan


See also

* List of German cheeses * List of German dishes * List of German soups


Notes


References

*Metzger, Christine (ed.) ''Culinaria Germany''. Cambridge Press, Cambridge: Ullmann, 2008.


Further reading

* * *


External links

*
German Foods Official Website

Taste Atlas: Top 100 Most Popular Foods in Germany
{{Authority control German cuisine,