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Georgia is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
Southeastern The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...
region of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, bordered to the north by
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
and
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
; to the northeast by
South Carolina South Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the coastal Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia ...

South Carolina
; to the southeast by the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; to the south by
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
; and to the west by
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birmin ...

Alabama
. Georgia is the 24th-largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its 2020 population was 10,711,908, according to the
U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of th ...
.
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
, a " beta(+)" global city, is both the state's
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and its largest city. The
Atlanta metropolitan area Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent functio ...
, with a population of more than 6 million people in 2020, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 57% of Georgia's entire population. Founded in 1732 as the
Province of Georgia The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America from 1607 to 1783. These c ...
and becoming a
royal colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
in 1752, Georgia was the last and southernmost of the original
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
to be established. Named after King
George II of Great Britain , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the ...
, the Colony of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to
Spanish Florida Spanish Florida ( es, La Florida) was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age ...
and west to
French Louisiana This map shows the Louisiana Purchase area, which corresponds with much of colonial French Louisiana, but the colony extended further into the Illinois Country.The term French Louisiana refers to two distinct regions: * first, to Louisiana (New F ...
at the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
. On January 2, 1788, Georgia became the fourth state to
ratify Ratification is a principal Principal may refer to: Title or rank * Principal (academia) The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational insti ...

ratify
the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first ...
. From 1802 to 1804, western Georgia was split to form the
Mississippi Territory The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the United States, Union as the History of ...
, which later was admitted as the U.S. states of
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birmin ...

Alabama
and
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
. Georgia declared its
secession Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, ...
from the Union on January 19, 1861, and was one of the original seven
Confederate States The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an unrecognized breakaway state in existence from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865, that fought against the United States of Ame ...

Confederate States
. Following the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. In the post-
Reconstruction Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for "reconstruction"), a late 20th century Soviet Union ...
era, Georgia's economy was transformed as a group of prominent politicians, businessmen, and journalists, led by Henry W. Grady, espoused the "
New South New South, New South Democracy or New South Creed is a slogan in the history of the Southern United States, American South after the American Civil War. Reformers used it to call for a modernization of society and attitudes, to integrate more fu ...
" philosophy of sectional reconciliation,
industrialization Factories, refineries, mines, and agribusiness are all elements of industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian societ ...
, and
white supremacy White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to those of other Race (human classification), races and thus should dominate them. The belief favors the maintenance and defense of any Power (social and poli ...
. During the 20th century, several Georgians, most notably
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
, were prominent leaders during the
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the was preceded by a decades-long campaign by and their like-minded allies to end legalized , and in the United States. The movement has its origins in the during the late 19th century, although ...
. Since 1945, Georgia has seen substantial population growth as part of the broader
Sun Belt The Sun Belt is a region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S ...
phenomenon. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing. Georgia is defined by a diversity of landscapes, flora, and fauna. The state's northernmost regions include the
Blue Ridge Mountains The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province A physiographic province is a geographic region with a characteristic geomorphology, and often specific subsurface rock type or structural elements. The continents are subdivided into variou ...
, part of the larger
Appalachian Mountain The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can al ...

Appalachian Mountain
system. The
Piedmont Piedmont ( ; it, Piemonte, ; Piedmontese language, Piedmontese, Lombard language, Lombard, Occitan language, Occitan and frp, Piemont, , , french: Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the regions of Italy, 20 regions of the country. ...
plateau extends from the
foothills Foothills or piedmont are geographically Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

foothills
of the Blue Ridge south to the
Fall Line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent where rivers cross it, with resulting rapids or waterfalls. The uplands are relatively hard Basement (geology), crystalline basement r ...
, an
escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The L ...

escarpment
to the
Coastal Plain A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent where rivers cross it, with resulting rapids or waterf ...

Coastal Plain
defining the state's southern region. Georgia's highest point is
Brasstown Bald Brasstown Bald is the highest point in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It is located in the northeastern part of the state in the Blue Ridge Mountains on the border between Towns County, Georgia, Towns and Union County, Georgia, U ...
at 4,784 feet (1,458 m) above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. With the exception of some high-altitude areas in the Blue Ridge, the entirety of the state has a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
. Of the states entirely east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in
land area This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surr ...
.


History

Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the
mound building The various cultures collectively termed "Mound Builders" were prehistoric, indigenous inhabitants of North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It c ...
cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by
James Oglethorpe James Edward Oglethorpe (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia in what was then British America. As a social reformer, he hoped to re ...

James Oglethorpe
on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the
Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in AmericaThe Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America, or simply the Georgia Trustees, was organized by James Edward Oglethorpe James Edward Oglethorpe (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British soldier, Member of Parliam ...
under a charter issued by (and named for) King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the
Oglethorpe Plan Portrait of Oglethorpe at Wormsloe Historic Site The Oglethorpe Plan is an urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused ...
, which envisioned an agrarian society of and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish in 1742, during the
War of Jenkins' Ear The War of Jenkins' Ear (known as in Spain) was a conflict between Britain and Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , ...
. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
. Georgia became a
crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...

crown colony
, with a governor appointed by the king. The
Province of Georgia The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies The Southern Colonies within British America British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in America from 1607 to 1783. These c ...
was one of the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
that revolted against
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
rule in the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
by signing the 1776
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, and was the 4th state to ratify the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first ...

United States Constitution
on January 2, 1788. After the Creek War (1813–1814), General
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of ...

Andrew Jackson
forced the Muscogee (Creek) tribes to surrender land to the state of Georgia, including in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (1814), surrendering 21 million acres in what is now southern Georgia and central Alabama, and the
Treaty of Indian Springs (1825) The Treaty of Indian Springs, also known as the Second Treaty of Indian Springs and the Treaty with the Creeks, is a treaty concluded between the Muscogee The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Mvskoke Creek, Mvskokvlke, or ...
. In 1829, gold was discovered in the
North Georgia mountains 200px, Map of the region The Georgia Mountains Region or North Georgia mountains or Northeast Georgia is an area that starts in the northeast corner of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქარ ...
leading to the
Georgia Gold Rush The Georgia Gold Rush was the second significant gold rush in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in ...
and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861. The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the
Cherokee Nation The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee language, Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, ''Tsalagihi Ayeli'' or ᏣᎳᎩᏰᎵ "Tsalagiyehli"), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee List of federally recognized trib ...
. In 1830,
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of ...

Andrew Jackson
signed the
Indian Removal Act The Indian Removal Act was signed into law on May 28, 1830, by United States President Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman who served as the seventh preside ...
, sending many eastern Native American nations to in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in '' Worcester v. Georgia'' (1832) that U.S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor,
Martin Van Buren Martin Van Buren ( ; born Maarten van Buren (); December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 8th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of t ...

Martin Van Buren
, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...

Mississippi
. This forced relocation, known as the
Trail of Tears #REDIRECT Trail of Tears The Trail of Tears was part of a series of forced displacements of approximately 100,000 Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans between 1830 and 1850 by the Federal government of the United States, Unit ...
, led to the death of more than four thousand Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia joined the
Confederacy Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederacy
(with secessionists having a slight majority of delegates) and became a major
theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art The performing arts are arts such as music, dance, and drama which are performed for an audience. It is different from visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as pain ...
of the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independen ...
. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, and
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
to
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...
was destroyed during General
William Tecumseh Sherman William Tecumseh Sherman ( ; February 8, 1820February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a General officer, general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), achieving recogni ...

William Tecumseh Sherman
's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service, roughly one of every five who served. In 1870, following the
Reconstruction Era The Reconstruction era was a period in American history The history of the United States started with the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC. Native American cultures in the United States, Numerous indigenous ...
, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the . With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a
poll tax A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual (typically every adult), without reference to income or resources. Head taxes were important sources of revenue for many governments fr ...
in 1877, which
disenfranchisedDisfranchisement, also called disenfranchisement, or voter disqualification is the revocation of suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes use ...
many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a
white primaryWhite primaries were primary elections held in the Southern United States in which only white voters were permitted to participate. Statewide white primaries were established by the state Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party units or by ...
; with the only competitive contests within the Democratic Party, it was another way to exclude blacks from politics. They constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American dropped thereafter to 28%, primarily due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration.Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia
, accessed March 15, 2008
According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States (1877–1950), Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South. The overwhelming number of victims were black and male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate Electorate may refer to: * The people who are eligible to vote in an Election#Electorate, election, especially their number e.g. the term ''size of (the) electorate'' * The dom ...
. An Atlanta-born
Baptist minister Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete Immersion baptism, i ...
who was part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community,
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
, emerged as a national leader in the
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the was preceded by a decades-long campaign by and their like-minded allies to end legalized , and in the United States. The movement has its origins in the during the late 19th century, although ...
. King joined with others to form the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that ...
(SCLC) in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. The civil rights riots of the
1956 Sugar Bowl The 1956 Sugar Bowl featured the 7th ranked Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets The Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets is the name used for all of the intercollegiate athletic teams that represent the Georgia Institute of Technology The Georgia Institute o ...
would also take place in
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
after a clash between Georgia Tech's president Blake R Van Leer and Governor Marvin Griffin. On February 5, 1958, during a training mission flown by a Boeing B-47 Stratojet, B-47, a Mark 15 nuclear bomb, also known as the Tybee Bomb, was lost off the coast of Tybee Island, Georgia, Tybee Island near Savannah. The bomb was thought by the Department of Energy to lie buried in silt at the bottom of Wassaw Sound. By the 1960s, the proportion of African Americans in Georgia had declined to 28% of the state's population, after waves of migration to the North and some in-migration by whites. With their voting power diminished, it took some years for African Americans to win a state-wide office. Julian Bond, a noted civil rights leader, was elected to the state House in 1965, and served multiple terms there and in the state senate. Atlanta Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. testified before Congress in support of the Civil Rights Act, and Governor Carl Sanders worked with the John F. Kennedy, Kennedy administration to ensure the state's compliance. Ralph McGill, editor and syndicated columnist at the ''Atlanta Constitution'', earned admiration by writing in support of the Civil Rights Movement. In 1970, newly elected Governor Jimmy Carter declared in his inaugural address that the era of racial segregation had ended. In 1972, Georgians elected Andrew Young to Congress as the first African American Congressman since the Reconstruction era of the United States, Reconstruction era. In 1980, construction was completed on an expansion of what is now named Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL). The busiest and most efficient airport in the world, it accommodates more than a hundred million passengers annually. Employing more than 60,000 people, the airport became a major engine for economic growth. With the advantages of cheap real estate, low taxes, right-to-work laws and a regulatory environment limiting government interference, the Atlanta metropolitan area became a national center of finance, insurance, technology, manufacturing, real estate, logistics, and transportation companies, as well as the film, convention, and trade show businesses. As a testament to the city's growing international profile, in 1990 the International Olympic Committee selected
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
as the site of the 1996 Summer Olympics. Taking advantage of Atlanta's status as a transportation hub, in 1991 United Parcel Service, UPS established its headquarters in the suburb of Sandy Springs. In 1992, construction finished on Bank of America Plaza (Atlanta), Bank of America Plaza, the tallest building in the U.S. outside of New York or Chicago.


Geography


Boundaries

Beginning from the Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with South Carolina runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin at the confluence of the Tugaloo River, Tugaloo and Seneca River (South Carolina), Seneca Rivers. It then continues up the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Chattooga River, its most significant tributary. These bounds were decided in the 1797 Treaty of Beaufort, and tested in the U.S. Supreme Court in the two ''Georgia v. South Carolina'' cases in 1923 and 1989. The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County, Georgia, Rabun County, at 35th parallel north, latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges slightly south (due to inaccuracies in the original survey, conducted in 1818). This northern border was originally the Georgia and North Carolina border all the way to the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
, until
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
was divided from
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
, and the Yazoo companies induced the legislature of Georgia to pass an act, approved by the governor in 1795, to sell the greater part of Georgia's territory presently comprising
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birmin ...

Alabama
and
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
. The state's western border runs in a straight line south-southeastward from a point southwest of Chattanooga, Tennessee, Chattanooga, to meet the Chattahoochee River near West Point, Georgia, West Point. It continues downriver to the point where it joins the Flint River (Georgia), Flint River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola River); the southern border goes almost due east and very slightly south, in a straight line to the St. Marys River (Florida/Georgia), St. Mary's River, which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean. The water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by lakes created by dams, including the ACF River Basin, Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole. An 1818 survey erroneously placed Georgia's border with Tennessee south of the intended location of the 35th parallel north. State legislators Tennessee–Georgia water dispute, still dispute this placement, as correction of this inaccuracy would allow Georgia access to water from the Tennessee River.


Geology and terrain

Georgia consists of five principal physiographic regions of the United States, physiographic regions: The Cumberland Plateau, Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians,
Blue Ridge Mountains The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province A physiographic province is a geographic region with a characteristic geomorphology, and often specific subsurface rock type or structural elements. The continents are subdivided into variou ...
,
Piedmont Piedmont ( ; it, Piemonte, ; Piedmontese language, Piedmontese, Lombard language, Lombard, Occitan language, Occitan and frp, Piemont, , , french: Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the regions of Italy, 20 regions of the country. ...
, and the Atlantic coastal plain. Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance, the region, which lies in the northwest corner of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale, and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ocher, and small amounts of coal.


Ecology


Flora

The state of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants. Georgia's native trees include Juniperus virginiana, red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks, hollies, Taxodium, cypress, Liquidambar styraciflua, sweetgum, scaly-bark and white hickory, hickories, and sabal palmetto. East Georgia is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and conifer species as other broadleaf evergreen flora make up the majority of the southern and coastal regions. Gelsemium sempervirens, Yellow jasmine and Kalmia latifolia, mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state.


Fauna

White-tailed deer are found in nearly all counties of Georgia. The northern mockingbird and brown thrasher are among the 160 bird species that live in the state. Reptiles include the eastern diamondback, Agkistrodon contortrix, copperhead, and Agkistrodon piscivorus, cottonmouth snakes as well as alligators; amphibians include salamanders, frogs and toads. There are about 79 species of reptile and 63 amphibians known to live in Georgia. The Argentine black and white tegu is currently an invasive species in Georgia. It poses a problem to local wildlife by chasing down and killing many native species and dominating habitats. The most popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass (fish), bass, and catfish, all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for restocking. Popular saltwater game fish include red drum, spotted seatrout, flounder, and tarpon. Porpoises, whales, shrimp, oysters, and Callinectes sapidus, blue crabs are found inshore and offshore of the Georgia coast.


Climate

The majority of the state is primarily a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
. Hot and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations. The entire state, including the
North Georgia mountains 200px, Map of the region The Georgia Mountains Region or North Georgia mountains or Northeast Georgia is an area that starts in the northeast corner of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქარ ...
, receives moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches (1143 mm) in central Georgia to approximately 75 inches (1905 mm) around the northeast part of the state. The degree to which the weather of a certain region of Georgia is subtropical depends on the latitude, its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico, and the elevation. The latter factor is felt chiefly in the mountainous areas of the northern part of the state, which are farther away from the ocean and can be 4500 feet (1350 m) above sea level. The USDA plant hardiness zones for Georgia range from zone 6b (no colder than ) in the
Blue Ridge Mountains The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province A physiographic province is a geographic region with a characteristic geomorphology, and often specific subsurface rock type or structural elements. The continents are subdivided into variou ...
to zone 8b (no colder than ) along the Atlantic coast and Florida border. The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C) in Louisville, Georgia, Louisville on July 24, 1952, while the lowest is −17 °F (−27.2 °C) in northern Floyd County, Georgia, Floyd County on January 27, 1940. Georgia is one of the leading states in frequency of tornadoes, though they are rarely stronger than Enhanced Fujita scale, EF1. Although tornadoes striking the city are very rare, an EF2 tornado hit downtown Atlanta on March 14, 2008, causing moderate to severe damage to various buildings. With a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean, Georgia is also vulnerable to hurricanes, although direct hurricane strikes were rare during the 20th century. Georgia often is affected by hurricanes that strike the Florida Panhandle, weaken over land, and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the interior, a recent example being Hurricane Michael, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the coast on their way north without ever making landfall. Hurricane Matthew, Hurricane Matthew of 2016 and Hurricane Dorian, Hurricane Dorian of 2019 did just that. Due to anthropogenic climate change, the climate of Georgia is warming. This is already causing major disruption, for example, from sea level rise (Georgia is more vulnerable to it than many other states because its land is sinking) and further warming will increase it.


Demographics

The United States Census Bureau reported Georgia's official population to be 10,711,908 as of the 2020 United States census. This was an increase of 1,024,255, or 10.57% over the 2010 United States census, 2010 figure of 9,687,653 residents. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people. , the number of Illegal immigration to the United States, illegal immigrants living in Georgia more than doubled to 480,000 from January 2000 to January 2009, according to a federal report. That gave Georgia the greatest percentage increase among the 10 states with the biggest illegal immigrant populations during those years. Georgia has banned Sanctuary city, sanctuary cities. There were 743,000 veterans in 2009. , 58.8% of Georgia's population younger than 1 were minorities (meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white) compared to other states like California with 75.1%, New York with 55.6%, and Texas with 69.8%. The largest European ancestry groups are: * English American, English 8.1% * Irish American, Irish 8.1% * German American, German 7.2% In the 1980 census 1,584,303 Georgians claimed English American, English ancestry out of a total state population of 3,994,817, making them 40% of the state, and the largest ethnic group at the time. Today, many of these same people claiming they are of "American" ancestry are actually of English descent, and some are of Scottish-Irish American, Scots-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long, in many cases since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as having "American" ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominantly English ancestry. , 7.7% of Georgia's population was reported as under 5years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also, , females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%. Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of African Americans who, before the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914 to 1970 reduced the African American population. Georgia had the second-fastest-growing Asian population growth in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year period. In addition, according to census estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American (after
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
and Louisiana) and third in numeric Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people (65 or older), at 12.8 percent (). The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American, English American and Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and music. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice-growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which many African traditions of food, religion and culture were retained. In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an integral part of Low Country cooking.


Languages

, 87.35% (7,666,663) of Georgia residents age5 and older spoke English language, English at home as a primary language, while 7.42% (651,583) spoke Spanish language, Spanish, 0.51% (44,702) Korean language, Korean, 0.44% (38,244) Vietnamese language, Vietnamese, 0.42% (36,679) French language, French, 0.38% (33,009) Chinese language, Chinese (which includes Standard Chinese, Mandarin), and German language, German, which was spoken as a main language by 0.29% (23,351) of the population over the age of 5. In total, 12.65% (1,109,888) of Georgia's population age5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.


Major cities

Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
, located in north-central Georgia at the Eastern Continental Divide, has been Georgia's List of capitals in the United States, capital city since 1868. It is the most populous city in Georgia, with a 2020 U.S. Census population of just over 498,000. The
Atlanta metropolitan area Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent functio ...
is the cultural and economic center of the Southeastern United States, Southeast; its official population in 2020 was over 6 million, or 57% of Georgia's total. Atlanta is the nation's table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas, ninth largest metropolitan area. The state has seventeen cities with populations over 50,000, based on official 2020 U.S. Census data. Along with the rest of the Southeast, Georgia's population continues to grow rapidly, with primary gains concentrated in urban areas. The U.S. Census Bureau lists List of metropolitan areas in Georgia (U.S. state), fourteen metropolitan areas in the state. The population of the Atlanta metropolitan area added 1.23 million people (24 percent) between 2000 and 2010, and Atlanta rose in rank from the eleventh-largest metropolitan area in the United States to the ninth-largest.


Religion

The composition of religious affiliation in Georgia is 70% Protestant, 9% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 1% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and 0.5% Hindu. Atheists, deists, agnostics, and other unaffiliated people make up 13% of the population. The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,759,317; the United Methodist Church with 619,394; and the Roman Catholic Church with 596,384. Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant had 566,782 members, the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) has 175,184 members, and the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. has 172,982 members. The Presbyterian Church (USA) is the largest Presbyterian body in the state, with 300 congregations and 100,000 members. The other large body, Presbyterian Church in America, had at its founding date 14 congregations and 2,800 members; in 2010 it counted 139 congregations and 32,000 members. The Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Church is noteworthy in Georgia's urban areas, and includes the Archdiocese of Atlanta and the Diocese of Savannah. Georgia is home to the largest Hindu temple in the United States, the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Atlanta, located in the suburb city of Lilburn, Georgia, Lilburn. Georgia is home to several historic synagogues including The Temple (Atlanta), Congregation Beth Jacob (Atlanta), and Congregation Mickve Israel, Congregation Mickve Israel (Savannah). Chabad and the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute are also active in the state.


Government


State government

As with all other U.S. states and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the Separation of powers, separation of legislative, executive, and judicial power. Executive authority in the state rests with the Governor (United States), governor, currently Brian Kemp (Republican Party (United States), Republican). Both the List of Governors of Georgia, Governor of Georgia and Lieutenant Governor of Georgia, lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. States, most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the governor. Legislative authority resides in the Georgia General Assembly, General Assembly, composed of the Georgia State Senate, Senate and Georgia House of Representatives, House of Representatives. The Lieutenant Governor President of the Senate, presides over the Senate, while members of the House of Representatives select their own Speaker. The Georgia (U.S. state) Constitution, Georgia Constitution mandates a maximum of 56 senators, elected from single-member districts, and a minimum of 180 representatives, apportioned among representative districts (which sometimes results in more than one representative per district); there are currently 56 senators and 180 representatives. The term of office for senators and representatives is two years. The laws enacted by the General Assembly are codified in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated. State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court of Georgia (U.S. state), Supreme Court and Georgia Court of Appeals, Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority. In addition, there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction, including Superior Courts, State Courts, Juvenile Courts, Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller courts are elected to four-year terms by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction.


Local government

Georgia consists of 159 County (United States), counties, second only to Texas, with 254. Georgia had 161 counties until the end of 1931, when Milton County, Georgia, Milton and Campbell County, Georgia, Campbell were merged into the existing Fulton County, Georgia, Fulton. Some counties have been named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history, and many bear names with Native American origin. Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the county. Several counties have a sole Commissioner form of government, with legislative and executive authority vested in a single person. Georgia is the only state with current Sole Commissioner counties. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with "Home rule in the United States, home rule" authority. The county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county, as a municipality would. Georgia recognizes all local units of government as cities, so every incorporated town is legally a city. Georgia does not provide for township (United States), townships or Independent city (United States), independent cities, though there have been bills proposed in the Legislature to provide for townships; it does allow consolidated city-county governments by local referendum. All of Georgia's second-tier cities except
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...
have now formed consolidated city-county governments by referendum: Columbus, Georgia, Columbus (in 1970), Athens, Georgia, Athens (1990), Augusta, Georgia, Augusta (1995), and Macon, Georgia, Macon (2012). (Augusta and Athens have excluded one or more small, incorporated towns within their consolidated boundaries; Columbus and Macon eventually absorbed all smaller incorporated entities within their consolidated boundaries.) The small town of Cusseta, Georgia, Cusseta adopted a consolidated city-county government after it merged with unincorporated Chattahoochee County, Georgia, Chattahoochee County in 2003. Three years later, in 2006, the town of Georgetown, Quitman County, Georgia, Georgetown consolidated with the rest of Quitman County, Georgia, Quitman County. There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) and Georgia Regional Transportation Authority do provide some services, and the ARC must approve all major land development projects in the
Atlanta metropolitan area Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent functio ...
.


Elections

Georgia had voted Republican Party (United States), Republican in six consecutive presidential elections from United States presidential election in Georgia, 1996, 1996 to United States presidential election in Georgia, 2016, 2016, a streak that was broken when the state went for Democratic Party (United States), Democratic candidate Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign, Joe Biden in United States presidential election in Georgia, 2020, 2020. Until 1964, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single-party dominance, by the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, of any state in the Union. This record was established largely due to the Disfranchisement after Reconstruction era, disenfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites by the state in its constitution and laws in the early 20th century. Some elements, such as requiring payment of poll taxes and passing literacy tests, prevented blacks from registering to vote; their exclusion from the political system lasted into the 1960s and reduced the Republican Party to a non-competitive status in the early 20th century. White Democrats regained power after Reconstruction due in part to the efforts of some using intimidation and violence, but this method came into disrepute. In 1900, shortly before Georgia adopted a disfranchising constitutional amendment in 1908, blacks comprised 47% of the state's population. The whites dealt with this problem of potential political power by the 1908 amendment, which in practice disenfranchised blacks and poor whites, nearly half of the state population. It required that any male at least 21 years of age wanting to register to vote must also: (a) be of good character and able to pass a test on citizenship, (b) be able to read and write provisions of the U.S. and Georgia constitutions, or (c) own at least 40 acres of land or $500 in property. Any Georgian who had fought in any war from the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
through the Spanish–American War was exempted from these additional qualifications. More importantly, any Georgian descended from a veteran of any of these wars also was exempted. Because by 1908 many white Georgia males were grandsons of veterans and/or owned the required property, the exemption and the property requirement basically allowed only well-to-do whites to vote. The qualifications of good character, citizenship knowledge, and literacy (all determined subjectively by white registrars), and property ownership were used to disqualify most blacks and poor whites, preventing them from registering to vote. The voter rolls dropped dramatically. In the early 20th century, Progressivism, Progressives promoted electoral reform and reducing the power of ward bosses to clean up politics. Their additional rules, such as the eight-box law, continued to effectively close out people who were illiterate. White one-party rule was solidified. For more than 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians nominated and elected only white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly. Most of the Democrats elected throughout these years were Southern Democrats, who were fiscally and socially conservative by national standards. This voting pattern continued after the segregationist period. Legal segregation was ended by passage of federal legislation in the 1960s. According to the 1960 census, the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American was 28%; hundreds of thousands of blacks had left the state in the Great Migration to the North and Midwest. New white residents arrived through migration and immigration. Following support from the national Democratic Party for the civil rights movement and especially civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965, most African-American voters, as well as other minority voters, have largely supported the Democratic Party in Georgia. In the decades since the late 20th century, the conservative white-majority voters have increasingly supported Republicans for national and state offices. In 2002, incumbent moderate Democratic Governor Roy Barnes was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a state legislator and former Democrat. While Democrats retained control of the State House, they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election. Republicans then controlled all three partisan elements of the state government. Even before 2002, the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son Jimmy Carter carried the state; in 1992, the former Arkansas governor Bill Clinton narrowly won the state. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban (especially the Atlanta suburbs) and rural portions of the state. Many of these areas were represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well into the 21st century. One of the most conservative of these was U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald, former head of the John Birch Society, who died when the Soviet Union shot down KAL 007 near Sakhalin Island. Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous, as well as in the cities among liberal urban populations (especially Atlanta and Athens), and the central and southwestern portion of the state. The ascendancy of the Republican Party in Georgia and in the South in general resulted in Georgia United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives member Newt Gingrich being elected as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Speaker of the House following the election of a Republican majority in the House in 1994. Gingrich served as Speaker until 1999, when he resigned in the aftermath of the loss of House seats held by members of the GOP. Gingrich mounted an unsuccessful bid for president in the 2012 election, but withdrew after winning only the South Carolina and Georgia primaries. In 2008, Democrat Jim Martin (Georgia politician), Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss. Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary 50 percent of votes due to a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the remainder of votes. In the runoff election held on December 2, 2008, Chambliss became the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the U.S. Senate. In the 2018 elections, the List of Governors of Georgia, governor remained a Republican (by 54,723 votes against a democratic African Americans, black female, Stacey Abrams), Republicans lost eight seats in the Georgia House of Representatives (winning 106), while Democrats gained ten (winning 74), Republicans lost two seats in the Georgia State Senate, Georgia Senate (winning 35 seats), while Democrats gained two seats (winning 21), and five Democrat United States House of Representatives, U.S. Representatives were elected with Republicans winning nine seats (one winning with just 419 votes over the Democratic challenger, and one seat being lost). In the three presidential elections up to and including 2016, the Republican candidate has won Georgia by approximately five to eight points over the Democratic nominee, at least once for each election being narrower than margins recorded in some states that have flipped within that timeframe, such as United States presidential elections in Michigan, Michigan, United States presidential elections in Ohio, Ohio and United States presidential elections in Wisconsin, Wisconsin. This trend led to the state electing Democrat Joe Biden for president in 2020, and it coming to be regarded as a swing state.


Politics

During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in civil rights and governance. As in many other states, its legislature had not reapportioned congressional districts according to population from 1931 to after the 1960 census. Problems of malapportionment in the state legislature, where rural districts had outsize power in relation to urban districts, such as Atlanta's, were corrected after the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in ''Wesberry v. Sanders'' (1964). The court ruled that congressional districts had to be reapportioned to have essentially equal populations. A related case, ''Reynolds v. Sims'' (1964), required state legislatures to end their use of geographical districts or counties in favor of "one man, one vote"; that is, districts based upon approximately equal populations, to be reviewed and changed as necessary after each census. These changes resulted in residents of Atlanta and other urban areas gaining political power in Georgia in proportion to their populations.Lee Epstein, Thomas G. Walk, ''Constitutional Law: Rights, Liberties and Justice 8th Edition''
SAGE, 2012, p. 753
From the mid-1960s, the voting electorate increased after African Americans' rights to vote were enforced under civil rights law. Economic growth through this period was dominated by Atlanta and its region. It was a bedrock of the emerging "
New South New South, New South Democracy or New South Creed is a slogan in the history of the Southern United States, American South after the American Civil War. Reformers used it to call for a modernization of society and attitudes, to integrate more fu ...
". From the late 20th century, Atlanta attracted headquarters and relocated workers of national companies, becoming more diverse, liberal and cosmopolitan than many areas of the state. In the 21st century, many conservative Democrats, including former U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, decided to support Republicans. The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for measures such as restrictions on abortion. In 2004, a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages was approved by 76% of voters. However, after the United States Supreme Court issued its ruling in ''Obergefell v. Hodges'', all Georgia counties came into full compliance, recognizing the rights of same-sex couples to marry in the state. In United States presidential election, presidential elections, Georgia voted solely Democratic in every election from 1900 United States presidential election, 1900 to 1960 United States presidential election, 1960. In 1964 United States presidential election, 1964, it was one of only a handful of states to vote for Republican Barry Goldwater over Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1968 United States presidential election, 1968, it did not vote for either of the two parties, but rather the American Independent Party and its nominee,
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birmin ...

Alabama
Governor George Wallace. In 1972 United States presidential election, 1972, the state returned to Republicans as part of a landslide victory for Richard Nixon. In 1976 United States presidential election, 1976 and 1980 United States presidential election, 1980, it voted for Democrat and former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter. The state returned to Republicans in 1984 United States presidential election, 1984 and 1988 United States presidential election, 1988, before going Democratic once again in 1992 United States presidential election, 1992. For every election between that year and 2020 United States presidential election, 2020, Georgia voted heavily Republican, in line with many of its neighbors in the Deep South. In 2020 United States presidential election, 2020, it voted Democratic for the first time in 28 years, aiding Joe Biden in his defeat of incumbent Republican Donald Trump. Prior to 2020, Republicans in state, federal and congressional races had seen decreasing margins of victory, and many election forecasts had ranked Georgia as a "toss-up" state, or with Biden as a very narrow favorite. Concurrent with the 2020 presidential election were two elections for both of Georgia's United States Senate seats (one of which being a special election due to the resignation of Senator Johnny Isakson, and the other being regularly scheduled). After no candidate in either race received a majority of the vote, both went to January 5, 2021, run-offs, which Democrats Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock won. Ossoff is the state's first Jewish senator, and Warnock is the state's first Black senator. Biden's, Ossoff's, and Warnock's wins were attributed to the rapid Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States, diversification of the suburbs of Atlanta and increased turnout of younger African American voters, particularly around the suburbs of Atlanta and in Savannah, Georgia.


Economy

Georgia's 2018 total gross state product was $602 billion. For years Georgia as a state has had the highest credit rating by Standard & Poor's (AAA) and is one of only 15 states with a AAA rating. If Georgia were a stand-alone country, it would be the 28th largest economy in the world, based on data from 2005. * Total employment 2016 ::3,804,433 * Total employer establishments 2016 ::228,330 There are 17 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies with headquarters in Georgia, including Home Depot, United Parcel Service, UPS, Coca-Cola, TSYS, Delta Air Lines, Aflac, Southern Company, Anthem Inc., and SunTrust Banks. Atlanta boasts the world's busiest airport, as measured both by passenger traffic and by aircraft traffic. Also, the Port of Savannah is the fourth largest seaport and fastest-growing container seaport in North America, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million twenty-foot equivalent unit, TEUs per year. Atlanta has a large effect on the state of Georgia, the Southeastern United States, and beyond. Atlanta has been the site of growth in finance, insurance, technology, manufacturing, real estate, Tertiary sector of the economy, service, logistics, transportation, film industry, film, communications, convention center, convention and trade show businesses and industries, while tourism is important to the economy.
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
is a global city, also called ''world city'' or sometimes ''alpha city'' or ''world center'', as a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. For the five years through November 2017, Georgia has been ranked the top state (number1) in the nation to do business, and has been recognized as number1 for business and labor climate in the nation, number1 in business climate in the nation, number1 in the nation in workforce training and as having a "Best in Class" state economic development agency. In 2016, Georgia had a median annual income per person of between $50,000 and $59,999, which is in inflation-adjusted dollars for 2016. The U.S. median annual income for the entire nation is $57,617. This lies within the range of Georgia's median annual income.


Agriculture

Widespread farms produce peanuts, corn, and soybeans across middle and south Georgia. The state is the number one producer of pecans in the world, thanks to Naomi Chapman Woodroof regarding peanut breeding, with the region around Albany, Georgia, Albany in southwest Georgia being the center of Georgia's pecan production. Gainesville in northeast Georgia touts itself as the Poultry Capital of the World. Georgia is in the top five blueberry producers in the United States.


Mining

Major products in the mineral industry include a variety of clays, stones, sands and the clay palygorskite, known as attapulgite.


Industry

While many textile jobs moved overseas, there is still a textile industry located around the cities of Rome, Georgia, Rome, Columbus, Georgia, Columbus, Augusta, Georgia, Augusta, Macon, Georgia, Macon and along the I-75 corridor between Atlanta and Chattanooga, Tennessee. Historically it started along the fall line in the Piedmont, where factories were powered by waterfalls and rivers. It includes the towns of Cartersville, Georgia, Cartersville, Calhoun, Georgia, Calhoun, Ringgold, Georgia, Ringgold and Dalton, Georgia, Dalton In November 2009, Kia started production in Georgia at the first U.S. Kia Motors plant, Kia Design and Manufacturing Facilities#Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia (KMMG), Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia in West Point, Georgia, West Point. Industrial products include textiles and apparel, transportation equipment, food processing, paper products, chemicals and products, and electric equipment.


Logistics

Georgia was ranked the number 2 state for infrastructure and global access by ''Area Development'' magazine. The Georgia Ports Authority owns and operates four ports in the state: Port of Savannah, Port of Brunswick, Port Bainbridge, and Port Columbus. The Port of Savannah is the third busiest seaport in the United States, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million twenty-foot equivalent unit, TEUs per year. The Port of Savannah's Garden City Terminal is the largest single container terminal in North America. Several major companies including Target Corporation, Target, IKEA, and Heineken operate distribution centers in close proximity to the Port of Savannah. Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport moves over 650,000 tons of cargo annually through three cargo complexes ( of floor space). It has nearby cold storage for perishables; it is the only airport in the Southeast with USDA-approved cold-treatment capabilities. Delta Air Lines also offers an on-airport refrigeration facility for perishable cargo, and a 250-acre Foreign Trade Zone is located at the airport. Georgia is a major railway hub, has the most extensive rail system in the Southeast, and has the service of two Class I railroads, CSX and Norfolk Southern, plus 24 short-line railroads. Georgia is ranked the #3 state in the nation for rail accessibility. Rail shipments include intermodal, bulk, automotive and every other type of shipment. Georgia has an extensive interstate highway system including of interstate highway and of federal and state highways that facilitate the efficient movement of more than $620 billion of cargo by truck each year. Georgia's six interstates connect to 80 percent of the U.S. population within a two-day truck drive. More than $14 billion in funding has been approved for new roadway infrastructure.


Military

Southern Congressmen have attracted major investment by the U.S. military in the state. The several installations include Moody Air Force Base, Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Robins Air Force Base, Fort Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany, Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Coast Guard Air Station Savannah and Coast Guard Station Brunswick. These installations command numerous jobs and business for related contractors.


Energy use and production

Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the highest in the United States, with natural gas being the primary electrical generation fuel, followed by coal. The state also has two nuclear power facilities, Plant Hatch and Plant Vogtle, which contribute almost one fourth of Georgia's electricity generation, and an additional two nuclear power plants are under construction at Plant Vogtle. In 2013, the generation mix was 39% gas, 35% coal, 23% nuclear, 3% hydro and other renewable sources. The leading area of energy consumption is the industrial sector because Georgia "is a leader in the energy-intensive wood and paper products industry". Solar generated energy is becoming more in use with solar energy generators currently installed ranking Georgia 15th in the country in installed solar capacity. In 2013, $189 million was invested in Georgia to install solar for home, business and utility use representing a 795% increase over the previous year.


State taxes

Georgia has a progressive income tax structure with six brackets of state income tax rates that range from 1% to 6%. In 2009, Georgians paid 9% of their income in state and local taxes, compared to the U.S. average of 9.8% of income. This ranks Georgia 25th among the states for total state and local tax burden. The state sales tax in Georgia is 4% with additional percentages added through local options (e.g. special-purpose local-option sales tax or SPLOST), but there is no sales tax on prescription drugs, certain medical devices, or food items for home consumption. The Georgia Legislature, state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 2% SPLOST tax and the 1% sales tax for Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, MARTA serviced counties. Excise, Excise taxes are levied on alcohol, tobacco, and motor fuel. Owners of real property in Georgia pay property tax to their county. All taxes are collected by the Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities.


Film

The Georgia Film, Music and Digital Entertainment Office promotes filming in the state. Since 1972, seven hundred film and television projects have been filmed on location in Georgia. Georgia overtook California in 2016 as the state location with the most feature films produced. In FY2017, film and television production in Georgia had an economic impact of $9.5 billion. Atlanta now is even called the "Hollywood of the South". Television shows like ''Stranger Things'', The Walking Dead (TV series), ''The Walking Dead'', and ''The Vampire Diaries'' are filmed in the state. Movies too, such as Passengers (2016 film), ''Passengers'', ''Forrest Gump'', Contagion (2011 film), ''Contagion'', ''Hidden Figures'', Sully (film), ''Sully'', ''Baby Driver'', ''The Hunger Games: Catching Fire'', ''Captain America: Civil War'', Black Panther (film), ''Black Panther'', ''Birds of Prey (2020 film), Birds of Prey'' and many more, were filmed around Georgia.


Tourism

In the Atlanta area, World of Coke, Georgia Aquarium, Zoo Atlanta and Stone Mountain are important tourist attractions. Stone Mountain is Georgia's "most popular attraction"; receiving more than four million tourists per year. The Georgia Aquarium, in Atlanta, was the largest aquarium in the world in 2010 according to Guinness World Records. Callaway Gardens, in western Georgia, is a family resort. The area is also popular with golfers. The Savannah Historic District (Savannah, Georgia), Savannah Historic District attracts more than eleven million tourists each year. The The Golden Isles of Georgia, Golden Isles is a string of barrier islands off the Atlantic coast of Georgia near Brunswick that includes beaches, golf courses and the Cumberland Island National Seashore. Several sites honor the lives and careers of noted American leaders: the Little White House in Warm Springs, Georgia, Warm Springs, which served as the summer residence of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt while he was being treated for polio; President Jimmy Carter's hometown of Plains, Georgia, Plains and the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum, Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta; the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park in Atlanta, which is the final resting place of
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
and Coretta Scott King; and Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church (Atlanta, Georgia), Ebenezer Baptist Church, where Dr. King preached.


Culture


Fine and performing arts

Georgia's major fine art museums include the High Museum of Art and the Michael C. Carlos Museum, both in
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
; the Georgia Museum of Art on the campus of the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, Athens; Telfair Museum of Art and the SCAD Museum of Art in Savannah; and the Morris Museum of Art in Augusta. The state theatre of Georgia is the Springer Opera House located in Columbus, Georgia, Columbus. The Atlanta Opera brings opera to Georgia stages. The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra is the most widely recognized orchestra and largest arts organization in the southeastern United States. There are a number of performing arts venues in the state, among the largest are the Fox Theatre (Atlanta, Georgia), Fox Theatre, and the Alliance Theatre at the Woodruff Arts Center, both on Peachtree Street in Midtown Atlanta as well as the Cobb Energy Performing Arts Centre, located in Northwest Atlanta.


Literature

Authors have grappled with Georgia's complex history. Popular novels related to this include Margaret Mitchell's ''Gone with the Wind (novel), Gone with the Wind'', Olive Ann Burns' ''Cold Sassy Tree'', and Alice Walker's ''The Color Purple''. A number of noted authors, poets and playwrights have lived in Georgia, such as James Dickey, Flannery O'Connor, Sidney Lanier, Frank Yerby and Lewis Grizzard.Literature: Overview
Retrieved December 5, 2007.


Television

Well-known television shows set in
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
include, from Tyler Perry Studios, ''House of Payne'' and ''Meet the Browns (TV series), Tyler Perry's Meet the Browns'', ''The Real Housewives of Atlanta'', the CBS sitcom ''Designing Women'', ''Matlock (TV series), Matlock'', the popular AMC (TV channel), AMC series ''The Walking Dead (TV series), The Walking Dead'', FX (TV channel), FX comedy-drama ''Atlanta (TV series), Atlanta'', Lifetime's ''Drop Dead Diva'', ''Rectify (TV series), Rectify'' and numerous List of HGTV television shows set in Atlanta, HGTV original productions. ''The Dukes of Hazzard'', a 1980s TV show, was set in the fictional Hazzard County, Georgia. The first five episodes were shot on location in Conyers, Georgia, Conyers and Covington, Georgia, Covington, Georgia as well as some locations in
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
. Production was then moved to Burbank, California. Also filmed in Georgia is ''The Vampire Diaries'', using Covington as the setting for the fictional Mystic Falls.


Music

A number of notable musicians in various genres of popular music are from Georgia. Among them are Ray Charles (whose many hits include "Georgia on My Mind", now the official state song), and Gladys Knight (known for her Georgia-themed song, "Midnight Train to Georgia"). Rock groups from Georgia include the Atlanta Rhythm Section, The Black Crowes, and The Allman Brothers. The city of Athens, Georgia, Athens sparked an influential rock music scene in the 1980s and 1990s. Among the groups achieving their initial prominence there were R.E.M., Widespread Panic, and the B-52's. Since the 1990s, various hip-hop and R&B musicians have included top-selling artists such as Outkast, Usher (entertainer), Usher, Ludacris, TLC (group), TLC, B.o.B., and Ciara. Atlanta is mentioned in a number of these artists' tracks, such as Usher's "A-Town Down" reference in his 2004 hit "Yeah! (Usher song), Yeah!" (which also features Atlanta artists Lil Jon and Ludacris), Ludacris' "Welcome to Atlanta", Outkast's album "ATLiens", and B.o.B.'s multiple references to Decatur, Georgia, as in his hit song "Strange Clouds (song), Strange Clouds".


Film

Two movies, both set in Atlanta, won Oscars for Academy Award for Best Picture, Best Picture: ''Gone with the Wind (film), Gone with the Wind'' (1939) and ''Driving Miss Daisy (film), Driving Miss Daisy'' (1989). Other films set in Georgia include ''Deliverance'' (1972), ''Parental Guidance (film), Parental Guidance'' (2012), and ''Vacation (2015 film), Vacation''.


Sports

Sports in Georgia include professional teams in nearly all major sports, Olympic Games contenders and medalists, collegiate teams in major and small-school conferences and associations, and active amateur teams and individual sports. The state of Georgia has teams in four major professional leagues—the Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball, the Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League, the Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association, and Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer. The Georgia Bulldogs (Southeastern Conference), Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets (Atlantic Coast Conference), Georgia State Panthers and Georgia Southern Eagles (Sun Belt Conference) are Georgia's NCAA Division I FBS football teams, having won multiple national championships between them. The Georgia Bulldogs and the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets have a historical rivalry in college football known as Clean, Old-Fashioned Hate, and the Georgia State Panthers and the Georgia Southern Eagles have recently developed their Georgia Southern–Georgia State rivalry, own rivalry. The 1996 Olympic Games, 1996 Summer Olympics took place in Atlanta. The stadium that was built to host various Olympic events was converted to Turner Field, home of the Atlanta Braves through 2016. The Masters Tournament, Masters golf tournament, the first of the Professional Golfers Association, PGA tour's four Men's major golf championships, "majors", is held annually the second weekend of April at the Augusta National Golf Club. The Atlanta Motor Speedway hosts the Dixie 500 NASCAR Cup Series stock car race and Road Atlanta the Petit Le Mans endurance sports car race. Atlanta's Georgia Dome hosted Super Bowl XXVIII in 1994 and Super Bowl XXXIV in 2000. The dome has hosted the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, NCAA Final Four Men's Basketball National Championship in 2002, 2007, and 2013. It hosted WWE's WrestleMania XXVII in 2011, an event which set an attendance record of 71,617. The venue was also the site of the annual Chick-fil-A Bowl post-season college football games. Since 2017, they have been held at the Mercedes-Benz Stadium along with the FIRST World Championships. Professional baseball's Ty Cobb was the first player inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. He was from Narrows, Georgia and was nicknamed the "Georgia Peach". The Mercedes-Benz Stadium hosted Super Bowl LIII in 2018 and the CFP National Championship in the same year, the SEC Championship Game in 2017, the MLS All-Star Game in 2018, the MLS Cup in 2018, and the record-setting friendly fixture between Mexico Men's National Football Team and Honduras Men's National Football Team.


Parks and recreational activities

There are 48 state parks, 15 historic sites, and numerous wildlife preserves under supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Other historic sites and parks are supervised by the National Park Service and include the Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville, Georgia, Andersonville; Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area near Atlanta; Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, Fort Oglethorpe; Cumberland Island National Seashore near St. Marys, Georgia, St. Marys; Fort Frederica National Monument on St. Simons, Georgia, St. Simons Island; Fort Pulaski National Monument in
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...
; Jimmy Carter National Historic Site near Plains, Georgia, Plains; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park near Kennesaw, Georgia, Kennesaw; Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park in Atlanta; Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon, Georgia, Macon; Trail of Tears National Historic Trail; and the Okefenokee Swamp in Waycross, Georgia Outdoor recreational activities include hiking along the Appalachian Trail; Civil War Heritage Trails; rock climbing and whitewater kayaking. Other outdoor activities include hunting and fishing.


Education

Georgia county and city public school systems are administered by school boards with members elected at the local level. , all but 19 of 181 boards are elected from single-member districts. Residents and activist groups in Fayette County, Georgia sued the board of commissioners and school board for maintaining an election system based on at-large voting, which tended to increase the power of the majority and effectively prevented minority participation on elected local boards for nearly 200 years. A change to single-member districts has resulted in the African-American minority being able to elect representatives of its choice. Georgia county and city public school systems are administered by school boards with members elected at the local level. , all but 19 of 181 boards are elected from single-member districts. Residents and activist groups in Fayette County, Georgia sued the board of commissioners and school board for maintaining an election system based on at-large voting, which tended to increase the power of the majority and effectively prevented minority participation on elected local boards for nearly 200 years. A change to single-member districts has resulted in the African-American minority being able to elect representatives of its choice. Georgia high schools (grades nine through twelve) are required to administer a standardized test, standardized, multiple choice End of Course Test, or EOCT, in each of eight core subjects: algebra, geometry, U.S. history, economics, biology, physical science, ninth grade literature and Composition (language), composition, and American literature. The official purpose of the tests is to assess "specific content knowledge and skills". Although a minimum test score is not required for the student to receive Carnegie Unit and Student Hour, credit in the course, completion of the test is mandatory. The EOCT score accounts for 15% of a student's grade in the course. The ''Georgia Milestone'' evaluation is taken by public school students in the state. In 2020, because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Georgia State BOE agreed to state superintendent Richard Woods’ proposal to change the weight of the EOCT test to only count for 0.01% of the Student's course grade. This change is currently only in effect for the 2020–21 school year. Georgia has 85 public colleges, universities, and technical colleges in addition to more than 45 private institutes of higher learning. Among Georgia's public universities is the flagship university, flagship research university, the University of Georgia, founded in 1785 as the country's oldest state-chartered university and the birthplace of the American system of public higher education. The University System of Georgia is the presiding body over public post-secondary education in the state. The System includes 29 institutions of higher learning and is governed by the Georgia Board of Regents. Georgia's workforce of more than 6.3 million is constantly refreshed by the growing number of people who move there along with the 90,000 graduates from the universities, colleges and technical colleges across the state, including the highly ranked University of Georgia, Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia State University and Emory University. The HOPE Scholarship, funded by the Georgia Lottery, state lottery, is available to all Georgia residents who have graduated from high school or earned a General Educational Development certificate. The student must maintain a 3.2 or higher grade point average and attend a public college or university in the state. The Georgia Historical Society, an independent educational and research institution, has a research center located in
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...
. The research center's library and archives hold the oldest collection of materials related to Georgia history in the nation.


Media

The
Atlanta metropolitan area Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent functio ...
is the ninth largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other top markets are
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...
(95th largest), Augusta, Georgia, Augusta (115th largest), and Columbus, Georgia, Columbus (127th largest). There are 48 List of television stations in Georgia (U.S. state), television broadcast stations in Georgia including TBS (U.S. TV channel), TBS, TNT (U.S. TV network), TNT, Turner Classic Movies, TCM, Cartoon Network, CNN and Headline News, all founded by notable Georgia resident Ted Turner. The Weather Channel also has its headquarters in Atlanta. By far, the largest daily newspaper in Georgia is the Atlanta Journal-Constitution with a daily readership of 195,592 and a Sunday readership of 397,925. Other large dailies include ''The Augusta Chronicle'', the ''Ledger-Enquirer, Columbus Ledger-Enquirer'', ''The Telegraph (Macon), The Telegraph'' (formerly ''The Macon Telegraph'') and the ''Savannah Morning News''. WSB-AM in Atlanta was the first licensed radio station in the southeastern United States, signing on in 1922. Georgia Public Radio has been in service since 1984 and, with the exception of Atlanta, it broadcasts daily on several FM (and one AM) stations across the state. Georgia Public Radio reaches nearly all of Georgia (with the exception of the Atlanta area, which is served by WABE). WSB-TV in Atlanta is the state's oldest television station, having begun operations in 1948. WSB was only the second such operation founded in the Southern U.S., trailing only WTVR-TV, WTVR in Richmond, Virginia.


Infrastructure


Transportation

Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Georgia Department of Transportation, a part of the executive branch of the Government of Georgia (U.S. state), state government. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are Interstate 20 in Georgia, I-20, Interstate 75 in Georgia, I-75, Interstate 85 in Georgia, I-85, and Interstate 95 in Georgia, I-95. On March 18, 1998, the Georgia House of Representatives passed a resolution naming the portion of Interstate Highway 75, which runs from the Chattahoochee River northward to the Tennessee state line the Larry McDonald Memorial Highway. Larry McDonald, a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, had been on Korean Air Lines Flight 007 when it was shot down by the Soviets on September 1, 1983. Georgia's primary commercial airport is Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), the world's busiest airport. In addition to Hartsfield–Jackson, there are eight other airports serving major commercial traffic in Georgia. Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the state as measured by passengers served, and is the only additional international airport. Other commercial airports (ranked in order of passengers served) are located in Augusta, Georgia, Augusta, Columbus, Georgia, Columbus, Albany, Georgia, Albany, Macon, Georgia, Macon, Brunswick, Georgia, Brunswick, Valdosta, Georgia, Valdosta, and Athens, Georgia, Athens. The Georgia Ports Authority manages two deepwater seaports, at Savannah and Brunswick, and two river ports, at Bainbridge and Columbus. The Port of Savannah is a major U.S. seaport on the Atlantic coast. The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, MARTA) is the principal rapid transit system in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting of of rail track with 38 subway station, train stations. MARTA operates almost exclusively in Fulton County, Georgia, Fulton and DeKalb County, Georgia, DeKalb counties, with bus service to two destinations in Cobb County, Georgia, Cobb county and the Cumberland (Atlanta), Cumberland Transfer Center next to the Cumberland Mall (Georgia), Cumberland Mall, and a single rail station in Clayton County, Georgia, Clayton County at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. MARTA also operates a separate paratransit service for disabled customers. , the average total daily ridership for the system (bus and rail) was 482,500 passengers.


Health care

The state has 151 general hospitals, more than 15,000 doctors and almost 6,000 dentists. The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise.


Notable people

Jimmy Carter, from Plains, Georgia, was President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
was born in
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
in 1929. He was a
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the was preceded by a decades-long campaign by and their like-minded allies to end legalized , and in the United States. The movement has its origins in the during the late 19th century, although ...
leader who protested for equal rights and against racial discrimination. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Blake R Van Leer played an important role in the civil rights movement, Georgia's economy and was president of Georgia Tech. Mordecai Sheftall, the highest ranking Jewish officer in the American Revolution, was born and lived his life in Georgia. Naomi Chapman Woodruff, originally from Idaho, was responsible for developing a peanut breeding program in Georgia which lead to a harvest of nearly five times the typical amount.


State symbols

* Amphibian: American green tree frog * Bird: brown thrasher * Crop: peanut * Fish: largemouth bass * Flower: Rosa laevigata, Cherokee rose * Fruit: peach * Gem: quartz * Insect: honey bee * Mammal: white-tailed deer * Marine mammal: North Atlantic right whale, right whale * Mineral: staurolite * Nicknames: ** "Peach State" ** "Empire State of the South" * Reptile: Gopherus polyphemus, gopher tortoise * Song: "Georgia on My Mind" * Tree: Quercus virginiana, live oak * Vegetable: Vidalia onion :Reference: Georgia Symbols


See also

* Index of Georgia (U.S. state)-related articles * Outline of Georgia (U.S. state)


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Bartley, Numan V. ''The Creation of Modern Georgia'' (1990). Covers 1865–1990 period. . * Coleman, Kenneth. ed. ''A History of Georgia'' (1991). . * London, Bonnie Bullard. (2005) ''Georgia and the American Experience'' Atlanta, Georgia: Clairmont Press . A middle school textbook. * Peirce, Neal R. ''The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States'' (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72. . * Williams, David and Christopher C. Meyers. ''Georgia: A Brief History'' Macon: Mercer University Press, 2012.


External links


Georgia state government website

Georgia State Guide, from the Library of Congress
* {{coord, 32.6415, -83.4426, dim:300000_region:US-GA_type:adm1st, name=State of Georgia, display=title Georgia (U.S. state), 1788 establishments in the United States Former British colonies Southern United States States and territories established in 1788 States of the Confederate States States of the East Coast of the United States States of the United States Gullah country Contiguous United States