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George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' and ''
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
'' franchises and founding
Lucasfilm Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television and a subsidiary of , which is a business segment of . The studio is best known for creating and producing the ' and ' franchises, as well as its leadership in developing special effects, sou ...
,
Lucasfilm Games Lucasfilm Games is an American video game brand licensing, licensor that is part of Lucasfilm. It was founded in May 1982 by George Lucas as a video game development group alongside his film company; as part of a larger 1990 reorganization of th ...
, and
Industrial Light & Magic Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American Film, motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas. It is a division of the film production company Lucasfilm, which Lucas founded, and was created when Lucas bega ...
. He served as chairman of Lucasfilm before selling it to
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
in 2012. Lucas is one of history's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards. His films are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American
box office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertopImage:Kitchen 050918 154652.jpg, A stainless steel countertop A countertop, also count ...

box office
, adjusted for ticket-price inflation. Lucas is considered one of the most significant figures of the 20th-century
New Hollywood The New Hollywood, also referred to as the American New Wave or sometimes called the Hollywood Renaissance, refers to a movement in American film history from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prom ...
movement, and a pioneer of the modern
blockbuster Blockbuster may refer to: Corporations * Blockbuster LLC, a defunct video and game rental chain TV and entertainment * Blockbuster (entertainment), any very successful movie, theatrical play, etc. * Blockbusters (American game show), ''Blockbuste ...
. After graduating from the
University of Southern California , mottoeng = "Let whoever earns the palm bear it" , religious_affiliation = Nonsectarian - Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious de ...

University of Southern California
in 1967, Lucas co-founded
American Zoetrope American Zoetrope (also known as Zoetrope Studios from 1979 until 1990) is a privately run American film production company, centered in San Francisco, California and founded by Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas. Opened on December 12, 1969, ...
with filmmaker
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, Film producer, producer, and screenwriter. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. List of awards and nominations rece ...

Francis Ford Coppola
. Lucas wrote and directed ''
THX 1138 ''THX 1138'' is a 1971 American social science fiction Social science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, usually (but not necessarily) soft science fiction, concerned less with technology in science fiction, technology/space opera and mo ...

THX 1138
'' (1971), based on his student short '' Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB'', which was a critical success but a financial failure. His next work as a writer-director was the film ''
American Graffiti ''American Graffiti'' is a 1973 American coming-of-age Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through adolescence. The specific age at which this transition takes place varies bet ...
'' (1973), inspired by his youth in the early 1960s
Modesto, California Modesto () is the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration withi ...
, and produced through the newly founded Lucasfilm. The film was critically and commercially successful and received five
Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., ...

Academy Award
nominations, including
Best DirectorBest Director is the name of an award which is presented by various film, television and theatre organizations, festivals, and people's awards. It may refer to: Film awards * AACTA Award for Best Direction * Academy Award for Best Director * BAFTA ...
and
Best PictureThis is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards. Best Actor/Best Actress *See Best Actor#Film awards, Best Actress#Fi ...
. Lucas's next film, the
epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
space opera Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction that emphasizes science fictional space warfare, with use of melodramatic, risk-taking space adventures and chivalric romance. Set mainly or entirely in outer space, it features technological and soci ...
''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
'' (1977), had a troubled production but was a surprise hit, becoming the highest-grossing film at the time, winning six Academy Awards and sparking a cultural phenomenon. Lucas produced and co-wrote the sequels ''
The Empire Strikes Back ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (also known as ''Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back'') is a 1980 American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to ...
'' (1980) and ''
Return of the Jedi ''Return of the Jedi'' (also known as ''Star Wars: Episode VI – Return of the Jedi'' is a 1983 American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nati ...
'' (1983). With director
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood era and is currently the most List of highest-grossing film directors, commercially successful ...

Steven Spielberg
, he created, produced, and co-wrote the ''
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
'' films ''
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
'' (1981), '' The Temple of Doom'' (1984), '' The Last Crusade'' (1989) and ''
The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
'' (2008). Lucas is also known for his collaboration with composer
John Williams John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...
, who was recommended to him by Spielberg, and with whom he has worked for all the films in both of these franchises. He also produced and wrote a variety of films and television series through Lucasfilm between the 1970s and the 2010s. In 1997, Lucas re-released the ''Star Wars'' Trilogy as part of a
special edition The terms special edition, limited edition, and variants such as deluxe edition, or collector's edition, are used as a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentiall ...
featuring several alterations; home media versions with further changes were released in 2004 and 2011. He returned to directing with a
''Star Wars'' prequel trilogy
''Star Wars'' prequel trilogy
comprising '' Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace'' (1999), '' Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones'' (2002) and '' Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith'' (2005). He last collaborated on the CGI-animated television series '' Star Wars: The Clone Wars'' (2008–2014, 2020), the war film ''
Red Tails ''Red Tails'' is a 2012 American war film War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of ...
'' (2012), and the CGI film '' Strange Magic'' (2015).


Early life

Lucas was born and raised in
Modesto, California Modesto () is the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration withi ...
, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas (née Bomberger) and George Walton Lucas Sr., and is of German,
Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial ...

Swiss
-German, English, Scottish, and distant Dutch and French descent. His family attended
Disneyland The Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for ...

Disneyland
during its opening week in July 1955, and Lucas would remain enthusiastic about the park. He was interested in comics and science fiction, including television programs such as the ''
Flash Gordon Flash Gordon is the protagonist of a space opera Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imaginat ...

Flash Gordon
'' serials. Long before Lucas began making films, he yearned to be a racecar driver, and he spent most of his high school years racing on the underground circuit at fairgrounds and hanging out at garages. On June 12, 1962, a few days before his high school graduation, Lucas was driving his souped-up
Autobianchi Bianchina The Autobianchi Bianchina is a minicar produced by the Italian automaker Autobianchi, based on the Fiat 500 The Fiat 500 ( it, Cinquecento, ) is a Rear-engine design, rear-engined, four-seat, small city car that was manufactured and marketed by ...

Autobianchi Bianchina
when another driver broadsided him, flipping his car several times before it crashed into a tree; Lucas's seatbelt had snapped, ejecting him and thereby saving his life. However, his lungs were bruised from severe hemorrhaging and he required emergency medical treatment. This incident caused him to lose interest in racing as a career, but also inspired him to pursue his other interests.Pollock, Dale, ''Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas'', Harmony Books, New York, 1983, Lucas's father owned a stationery store, and had wanted George to work for him when he turned 18. Lucas had been planning to go to art school, and declared upon leaving home that he would be a millionaire by the age of 30. He attended
Modesto Junior College Modesto Junior College (MJC) is a Public university, public community college in Modesto, California. It is part of Yosemite Community College District along with Columbia College (California), Columbia College. MJC, and Columbia College, belo ...
, where he studied
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
, sociology, and literature, amongst other subjects. He also began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time, Lucas and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema: screenings of
underground Underground most commonly refers to: * Subterranea (geography), the regions beneath the surface of the Earth Underground may also refer to: Places * The Underground (Boston), a music club in the Allston neighborhood of Boston * The Underground (S ...
,
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, , or unorthodox with respect to , , or .John Picchione, The New Avant-garde in Italy: Theoretical Debate and Poetic Practices' (Tor ...
16 mm filmmakers like
Jordan Belson Jordan Belson (June 6, 1926 – September 6, 2011) was an American artist and abstract cinematic filmmaker who created nonobjective, often spiritually oriented, abstract film Abstract may refer to: * Abstract (album), ''Abstract'' (album), 1962 alb ...
,
Stan Brakhage James Stanley Brakhage ( ; January 14, 1933 – March 9, 2003), better known as Stan Brakhage, was an American filmmaker. He is considered to be one of the most important figures in 20th-century experimental film. Over the course of five d ...
, and
Bruce Conner Bruce Conner (November 18, 1933 – July 7, 2008) was an United States, American artist who worked with Assemblage (art), assemblage, experimental film, film, drawing, sculpture, painting, collage, and photography. Biography Bruce Conner was born ...
. Lucas and Plummer also saw classic European films of the time, including
Jean-Luc Godard Jean-Luc Godard ( , ; ; born 3 December 1930) is a French-Swiss film director, screenwriter, and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film movement, and is arguably the most influential French filmmaker ...

Jean-Luc Godard
's '' Breathless'',
François Truffaut François Roland Truffaut ( , ; ; 6 February 1932 – 21 October 1984) was a French film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and Film criticism, film critic. He is widely regarded as one of the founders of the French New Wave. In a career ...
's ''
Jules et Jim ''Jules and Jim'' (french: Jules et Jim ) is a 1962 French New Wave romantic drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed ...
'', and
Federico Fellini Federico Fellini, (; 20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter known for his distinctive style, which blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness. He is recognized as one of the greatest and most ...

Federico Fellini
's '' ''. "That's when George really started exploring," Plummer said. Through his interest in
autocrossAutocross (also called "Solo", "Auto-x" or "Autoslalom") is a timed competition in which drivers navigate one at a time through a defined course on either a sealed or an unsealed surface. It is a form of motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or mot ...

autocross
racing, Lucas met renowned
cinematographer A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the person responsible for the photographing or recording of a , television production, music video or other live action piece. The cinematographer is the chief of ...

cinematographer
Haskell Wexler Haskell Wexler, ASC ASC may refer to: Organizations Australia * Australian Sports Commission * ASC Pty Ltd (former Australian Submarine Corporation), a naval shipbuilder * ASC Shipbuilding established by ASC Pty Ltd but now a subsidiary of BAE S ...
, another race enthusiast. Wexler, later to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas's talent. "George had a very good eye, and he thought visually," he recalled. At Plummer's recommendation, Lucas then transferred to the
University of Southern California , mottoeng = "Let whoever earns the palm bear it" , religious_affiliation = Nonsectarian - Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious de ...

University of Southern California
(USC) School of Cinematic Arts. USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to
motion picture film Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is ...
. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a dorm room with
Randal Kleiser John Randal Kleiser (born July 20, 1946) is an American film and television director, producer, screenwriter and actor, best known for directing the 1978 musical romantic-comedy film ''Grease (film), Grease''. Biography Kleiser was born in Lebano ...
. Along with classmates such as
Walter Murch Walter Scott Murch (born July 12, 1943) is an American film editor, director, writer and sound designer. With a career stretching back to 1969, including work on ''THX 1138'', ''Apocalypse Now'', ''The Godfather, The Godfather I'', ''The Godfathe ...

Walter Murch
,
Hal Barwood Hal Barwood is an American Screenwriting, screenwriter, film producer, film director, game designer, game producer, and novelist. Early life Born in Hanover, New Hampshire, his father ran a local movie theater in the town, this being one of his ...
, and
John Milius John Frederick Milius (; born April 11, 1944) is an American screenwriter, film director, and producer. He was a writer for the first two ''Dirty Harry ''Dirty Harry'' is a 1971 American neo-noir Neo-noir is a revival of the genre of film noi ...
, they became a clique of film students known as
The Dirty Dozen ''The Dirty Dozen'' is a 1967 war film starring Lee Marvin and featuring an ensemble supporting cast including Ernest Borgnine, Charles Bronson, Jim Brown, John Cassavetes, George Kennedy, Robert Ryan, Telly Savalas, Robert Webber and Donald Suth ...
. He also became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future ''
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
'' collaborator,
Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg (; born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He began his career in the New Hollywood era and is currently the most List of highest-grossing film directors, commercially successful ...

Steven Spielberg
. Lucas was deeply influenced by the Filmic Expression course taught at the school by filmmaker Lester Novros which concentrated on the non-narrative elements of Film Form like color, light, movement, space, and time. Another inspiration was the Serbian montagist (and dean of the USC Film Department) Slavko Vorkapić, a film theoretician who made stunning montage sequences for Hollywood studio features at
MGM Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
,
RKO RKO Pictures was an American film production and distribution company. In its original incarnation, as RKO Radio Pictures, Inc. (a subsidiary of Radio-Keith-Orpheum, aka: RKO) it was one of the Big FiveBig Five may refer to: Animals * th ...
, and
Paramount Paramount may refer to: Entertainment and music companies * Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation (common metonym: Par) is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution c ...

Paramount
. Vorkapich taught the autonomous nature of the cinematic art form, emphasizing the kinetic energy inherent in motion pictures.


Film career


1965–1969: Early career

Lucas saw many inspiring films in class, particularly the visual films coming out of the
National Film Board of Canada The National Film Board of Canada (NFB; french: Office national du film du Canada (ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary films ...
like
Arthur Lipsett Arthur Lipsett (May 13, 1936 – May 1, 1986) was a Cinema of Canada, Canadian avant-garde director of short collage films. Life and career Born in Montreal into a Jewish family, Lipsett saw his mother, an immigrant from Kiev, commit suicide when ...
's '' 21-87'', the French-Canadian
cameraman A camera operator, or depending on the context cameraman or camerawoman, is a professional operator of a film camera or video camera as part of a film crew A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose ...

cameraman
Jean-Claude Labrecque Jean-Claude Labrecque, (June 19, 1938 – May 31, 2019) was a Film director, director and cinematographer who learned the basics of filmmaking at the National Film Board of Canada. Career Jean-Claude Labrecque was born in Quebec City, Quebec, an ...
's
cinéma vérité Cinéma vérité (; ; 'truthful cinema') is a style of documentary filmmaking, invented by Edgar Morin and Jean Rouch, inspired by Dziga Vertov's theory about Kino-Pravda. It combines improvisation with the use of the camera to unveil truth or ...
'' 60 Cycles'', the work of
Norman McLaren Norman McLaren, (11 April 1914 – 27 January 1987) was a Scottish Canadian animator An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. ...
, and the documentaries of
Claude Jutra Claude Jutra (; March 11, 1930 – November 5, 1986) was a Canadian actor, film director, and screenwriter.
. Lucas fell madly in love with
pure cinema Non-narrative film is an aesthetic of Film, cinematic film that does not narrate, or relate "an event, whether real or imaginary". It is usually a form of art film or experimental film, not made for mass entertainment. Narrative film is the domina ...
and quickly became prolific at making 16 mm nonstory noncharacter visual tone poems and cinéma vérité with such titles as '' Look at Life'', ''
Herbie Herbie, the Love Bug is a fictional sentient anthropomorphic 1963 Volkswagen Beetle, a character that is featured in several Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, w ...
'', '' 1:42.08'', '' The Emperor'', '' Anyone Lived in a Pretty (how) Town'', ''
Filmmaker Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the pr ...
'', and '' 6-18-67''. He was passionate and interested in camerawork and editing, defining himself as a filmmaker as opposed to being a director, and he loved making abstract visual films that created emotions purely through cinema. After graduating with a bachelor of
fine arts In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about e ...
in film in 1967, he tried joining the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosph ...

United States Air Force
as an officer, but he was immediately turned down because of his numerous speeding tickets. He was later by the Army for military service in
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...
, but he was exempted from service after medical tests showed he had
diabetes Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorder A metabolic disorder is a disorder that negatively alters the body's processing and distribution of macronutrients such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrate ...

diabetes
, the disease that killed his paternal grandfather. In 1967, Lucas re-enrolled as a USC graduate student in film production. He began working under
Verna Fields Verna Fields (née Hellman; March 21, 1918 – November 30, 1982) was an American film editor, film and television Sound editor (filmmaking), sound editor, educator, and entertainment industry executive. In the first phase of her career, from 195 ...
for the
United States Information Agency The United States Information Agency (USIA), which operated from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to "public diplomacy In international relations, public diplomacy or people's diplomacy, broadly speaking, is any of the vari ...

United States Information Agency
, where he met his future wife Marcia Griffin. Working as a teaching instructor for a class of
U.S. Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = " Anchors Aweigh" ...
students who were being taught documentary cinematography, Lucas directed the short film '' Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB'', which won first prize at the 1967–68 National Student
film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or ...

film festival
. Lucas was awarded a student scholarship by
Warner Bros. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * ...
to observe and work on the making of a film of his choosing. The film he chose was ''
Finian's Rainbow ''Finian's Rainbow'' is a musical Musical is the adjective of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common eleme ...
'' (1968) which was being directed by
Francis Ford Coppola Francis Ford Coppola (; ; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, Film producer, producer, and screenwriter. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. List of awards and nominations rece ...

Francis Ford Coppola
, who was revered among film school students of the time as a cinema graduate who had "made it" in Hollywood. In 1969, Lucas was one of the camera operators on the classic
Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical ...

Rolling Stones
concert film ''
Gimme Shelter "Gimme Shelter" is the opening track to the 1969 album '' Let It Bleed'' by the Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English Rock music, rock band formed in London in 1962. Diverging from the popular pop rock of the early-1960s, the ...
''.


1969–1977: ''THX 1138'', ''American Graffiti'', and ''Star Wars''

In 1969, Lucas co-founded the studio
American Zoetrope American Zoetrope (also known as Zoetrope Studios from 1979 until 1990) is a privately run American film production company, centered in San Francisco, California and founded by Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas. Opened on December 12, 1969, ...
with Coppola, hoping to create a liberating environment for filmmakers to direct outside the perceived oppressive control of the Hollywood
studio system A studio system is a method of filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art form ...
. Coppola thought Lucas's ''Electronic Labyrinth'' could be adapted into his first full-length feature film, which was produced by American Zoetrope as ''
THX 1138 ''THX 1138'' is a 1971 American social science fiction Social science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, usually (but not necessarily) soft science fiction, concerned less with technology in science fiction, technology/space opera and mo ...

THX 1138
'', but was not a success. Lucas then created his own company, Lucasfilm, Ltd., and directed the successful ''
American Graffiti ''American Graffiti'' is a 1973 American coming-of-age Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through adolescence. The specific age at which this transition takes place varies bet ...
'' (1973). Lucas then set his sights on adapting
Flash Gordon Flash Gordon is the protagonist of a space opera Space opera is a subgenre of science fiction that emphasizes science fictional space warfare, with use of melodramatic, risk-taking space adventures and chivalric romance. Set mainly or entir ...
, an adventure serial from his childhood that he fondly remembered. When he was unable to obtain the rights, he set out to write an original space adventure that would eventually become ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...
''. Despite his success with his previous film, all but one studio turned ''Star Wars'' down. It was only because Alan Ladd, Jr., at
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a maj ...
liked ''American Graffiti'' that he forced through a production and distribution deal for the film, which ended up restoring Fox to financial stability after a number of flops. ''Star Wars'' was significantly influenced by
samurai films , also commonly spelled "''chambara''", meaning "sword fighting" movies,Hill (2002). denotes the Cinema of Japan, Japanese film genre called samurai cinema in English and is roughly equivalent to western (genre), Western and swashbuckler films. ''C ...
of
Akira Kurosawa was a Japanese film director, screenwriter, and producer who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years. He is regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Kurosawa entered the Japanese fil ...
,
Spaghetti Western The Spaghetti Western is a broad subgenre of Western (genre), Western films produced in Europe. It emerged in the mid-1960s in the wake of Sergio Leone's film-making style and international box-office success. The term was used by American critics ...
s, as well as classic
sword and sorcery Sword and sorcery (S&S) is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a ...
fantasy stories. ''Star Wars'' quickly became the highest-grossing film of all-time, displaced five years later by Spielberg's ''
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial ''E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial'' (or simply ''E.T.'') is a 1982 American science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre A film genre is a Genre, stylistic or thematic category for Film, motion pictures based on similariti ...
''. After the success of ''American Graffiti'' and prior to the beginning of filming on ''Star Wars'', Lucas was encouraged to renegotiate for a higher fee for writing and directing ''Star Wars'' than the $150,000 agreed. He declined to do so, instead negotiating for advantage in some of the as-yet-unspecified parts of his contract with Fox, in particular, ownership of licensing and merchandising rights (for
novelization A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in w ...
s, clothing, toys, etc.) and contractual arrangements for sequels. Lucasfilm has earned hundreds of millions of dollars from licensed games, toys, and collectibles created for the franchise. The original ''Star Wars'' film went through a tumultuous production, and during editing, Lucas suffered chest pains initially feared to be a heart attack, but actually a fit of hypertension and exhaustion. The effort that Lucas exerted during
post-production Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, audio production, and photography. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments. Traditional (analog ...
for the film, and its subsequent sequels, caused strains on his relationship with his wife Marcia Lucas, and was a contributing factor to their divorce at the end of the trilogy. The success of the first ''Star Wars'' film also resulted in more attention focused on Lucas, both positive and negative, attracting wealth and fame but also many people who wanted Lucas's financial backing or just to threaten him.


1977–1993: Hiatus from directing, ''Indiana Jones''

Following the release of the first ''Star Wars'' film, Lucas worked extensively as a writer and producer, including on the many ''Star Wars'' spinoffs made for film, television, and other media. Lucas acted as executive producer for the next two ''Star Wars'' films, commissioning
Irvin Kershner Irvin Kershner (born Isadore Kershner; April 29, 1923November 27, 2010) was an American director Director may refer to: Literature * Director (magazine), ''Director'' (magazine), a British magazine * The Director (novel), ''The Director'' (nove ...
to direct ''
The Empire Strikes Back ''The Empire Strikes Back'' (also known as ''Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back'') is a 1980 American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to ...
'', and
Richard Marquand Richard Alfred Marquand (22 September 1937 – 4 September 1987) was a Welsh film and television director active in both US and UK film productions, best known for directing 1983's '' Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi''. He also directed ...
to direct ''
Return of the Jedi ''Return of the Jedi'' (also known as ''Star Wars: Episode VI – Return of the Jedi'' is a 1983 American epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nati ...
'', while receiving a story credit on the former and sharing a screenwriting credit with
Lawrence Kasdan Lawrence Edward Kasdan (born January 14, 1949) is an American director, screenwriter, and producer. He is the co-writer of the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic space opera media franchise created by George Lucas, which began ...
on the latter. He also acted as story writer and executive producer on all four of the ''Indiana Jones'' films, which his colleague and good friend Steven Spielberg directed. Other successful projects where Lucas credited as executive producer and sometimes story writer in this period include Kurosawa's ''
Kagemusha is a 1980 jidaigeki film directed by Akira Kurosawa was a Japanese film director, screenwriter, and producer who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years. He is regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the ...
'' (1980), '' Twice Upon A Time'' (1983), '' Ewoks: Caravan of Courage'' (1984), ''Ewoks: Battle for Endor'' (1985), ''Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters'' (1985), Jim Henson's ''Labyrinth (1986 film), Labyrinth'' (1986), Don Bluth's ''The Land Before Time (film), The Land Before Time'' (1988), and the ''Indiana Jones'' television spinoff ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'' (1992–96). There were unsuccessful projects, however, including ''More American Graffiti'' (1979), Willard Huyck's ''Howard the Duck (film), Howard the Duck'' (1986), which was the biggest flop of Lucas's career, Ron Howard's ''Willow (film), Willow'' (1988), Coppola's ''Tucker: The Man and His Dream'' (1988), and Mel Smith's ''Radioland Murders'' (1994). The animation studio Pixar was founded in 1979 as the Graphics Group, one third of the Computer Division of
Lucasfilm Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television and a subsidiary of , which is a business segment of . The studio is best known for creating and producing the ' and ' franchises, as well as its leadership in developing special effects, sou ...
. Pixar's early computer graphics research resulted in groundbreaking effects in films such as ''Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan'' and ''Young Sherlock Holmes'', and the group was purchased in 1986 by Steve Jobs shortly after he left Apple Inc., Apple Computer. Jobs paid Lucas US$5 million and put US$5 million as capital into the company. The sale reflected Lucas's desire to stop the cash flow losses from his 7-year research projects associated with new entertainment technology tools, as well as his company's new focus on creating entertainment products rather than tools. As of June 1983, Lucas was worth US$60 million, but he met cash-flow difficulties following his divorce that year, concurrent with the sudden dropoff in revenues from ''Star Wars'' licenses following the theatrical run of ''Return of the Jedi''. At this point, Lucas had no desire to return to ''Star Wars'', and had unofficially canceled the sequel trilogy. Also in 1983, Lucas and Tomlinson Holman founded the audio company THX Ltd.Truta, Filip Truta (May 5, 2011)
"Apple Hires Sound Systems Inventor Tomlinson Holman"
Softpedia.
The company was formerly owned by Lucasfilm and contains equipment for stereo, digital, and theatrical sound for films, and music. Skywalker Sound and
Industrial Light & Magic Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American Film, motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas. It is a division of the film production company Lucasfilm, which Lucas founded, and was created when Lucas bega ...
, are the sound and visual effects subdivisions of Lucasfilm, while Lucasfilm Games, later renamed LucasArts, produces products for the gaming industry.


1993–2012: Return to directing, ''Star Wars'' and ''Indiana Jones''

Having lost much of his fortune in a divorce settlement in 1987, Lucas was reluctant to return to ''Star Wars''. However, prequel trilogy, the prequels, which were still only a series of basic ideas partially pulled from his original drafts of "The Star Wars", continued to tantalize him with technical possibilities that would make it worthwhile to revisit his older material. When ''Star Wars'' became popular once again, in the wake of Dark Horse Comics, Dark Horse's comic book line and Timothy Zahn's Thrawn trilogy, trilogy of spin-off novels, Lucas realized that there was still a large audience. His children were older, and with the explosion of Computer-generated imagery, CGI technology he began to consider directing once again. By 1993, it was announced, in ''Variety (magazine), Variety'' among other sources, that Lucas would be making the prequels. He began penning more to the story, indicating that the series would be a tragic one, examining Anakin Skywalker's fall to the dark side. Lucas also began to change the status of the prequels relative to the originals; at first, they were supposed to be a "filling-in" of history tangential to the originals, but now he saw that they could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "Saga". In 1994, Lucas began work on the screenplay of the first prequel, tentatively titled ''Episode I: The Beginning''. In 1997, to celebrate the 20th anniversary of ''Star Wars,'' Lucas returned to the original trilogy and made numerous modifications using newly available digital technology, releasing them in theaters as the ''Star Wars Special Edition''. For DVD releases in 2004 and Blu-ray releases in 2011, the trilogy received further revisions to make them congruent with the prequel trilogy. Besides the additions to the ''Star Wars'' franchise, Lucas released a ''Director's Cut'' of ''THX 1138'' in 2004, with the film re-cut and containing a number of CGI revisions. The first ''Star Wars'' prequel was finished and released in 1999 as ''Episode I – The Phantom Menace'', which would be the first film Lucas had directed in over two decades. Following the release of the first prequel, Lucas announced that he would also be directing the next two, and began working on ''Episode II''. The first draft of ''Episode II'' was completed just weeks before principal photography, and Lucas hired Jonathan Hales, a writer from ''The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles'', to polish it. It was completed and released in 2002 as ''Attack of the Clones''. The final prequel, ''Episode III – Revenge of the Sith'', began production in 2002 and was released in 2005. Numerous fans and critics considered the prequels inferior to the original trilogy, though they were box office successes. In 2004, Lucas reflected that his transition from independent to corporate filmmaker mirrored the story of ''Star Wars'' character Darth Vader in some ways. Lucas collaborated with Jeff Nathanson as a writer of the 2008 film ''Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull'', directed by Steven Spielberg. Like the ''Star Wars'' prequels, the reception was mixed, with numerous fans and critics once again considering it inferior to its predecessors. From 2008 to 2014, Lucas also served as the creator and executive producer and for a second ''Star Wars'' animated series on Cartoon Network, '' Star Wars: The Clone Wars'' which premiered with a Star Wars: The Clone Wars (film), feature film of the same name before airing its first episode. The supervising director for this series was Dave Filoni, who was chosen by Lucas and closely collaborated with him on its development. Series it bridged the events between ''Attack of the Clones'' and ''Revenge of the Sith''. The animated series also featured the last ''Star Wars'' stories in which Lucas was majorly involved. In 2012, Lucas served as executive producer for ''
Red Tails ''Red Tails'' is a 2012 American war film War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of ...
'', a war film based on the exploits of the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II. He also took over direction of reshoots while director Anthony Hemingway worked on other projects.


2012–present: Semi-retirement

In January 2012, Lucas announced his retirement from producing large Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster films and instead re-focusing his career on smaller, independently budgeted features. In June 2012, it was announced that producer Kathleen Kennedy (film producer), Kathleen Kennedy, a long-term collaborator with Steven Spielberg and a producer of the ''Indiana Jones'' films, had been appointed as co-chair of Lucasfilm Ltd."Kathleen Kennedy to become Co-Chair of Lucasfilm Ltd."
, ''StarWars.com'', June 1, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
Richard Verrier and Ben Fritz
"Kathleen Kennedy to helm Lucasfilm as George Lucas phases out"
''Los Angeles Times'', June 2, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
It was reported that Kennedy would work alongside Lucas, who would remain chief executive and serve as co-chairman for at least one year, after which she would succeed him as the company's sole leader. With the sale of Lucasfilm to Disney, Lucas is currently Disney's second-largest single shareholder after the estate of Steve Jobs. Lucas worked as a creative consultant on the Star Wars sequel trilogy, ''Star Wars'' sequel trilogy's first film, ''The Force Awakens''. As creative consultant on the film, Lucas's involvement included attending early story meetings; according to Lucas, "I mostly say, 'You can't do this. You can do that.' You know, 'The cars don't have wheels. They fly with antigravity.' There's a million little pieces ... I know all that stuff." Lucas's son Jett told ''The Guardian ''that his father was "very torn" about having sold the rights to the franchise, despite having hand-picked Abrams to direct, and that his father was "there to guide" but that "he wants to let it go and become its new generation." Among the materials turned over to the production team were rough story treatments Lucas developed when he considered creating episodes ''VII''–''IX'' himself years earlier; in January 2015, Lucas stated that Disney had discarded his story ideas. ''The Force Awakens'', directed by J. J. Abrams, was released on December 18, 2015. Kathleen Kennedy executive produced the film and its sequels. The new sequel trilogy was jointly produced by Lucasfilm and
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
, which had acquired Lucasfilm in 2012. During an interview with talk show host and journalist Charlie Rose that aired on December 24, 2015, Lucas likened his decision to sell Lucasfilm to Disney to a divorce and outlined the creative differences between him and the producers of ''The Force Awakens''. Lucas described the previous six ''Star Wars'' films as his "children" and defended his vision for them, while criticizing ''The Force Awakens'' for having a "retro feel", saying, "I worked very hard to make them completely different, with different planets, with different spaceships – you know, to make it new." Lucas also drew some criticism and subsequently apologized for his remark likening Disney to "white slavers". In 2015, Lucas wrote the CGI film '' Strange Magic'', his first musical. The film was produced at Skywalker Ranch. Gary Rydstrom directed the movie. At the same time the sequel trilogy was announced a Indiana Jones 5, fifth installment of the ''Indiana Jones'' series also entered pre-development phase with Harrison Ford and Steven Spielberg set to return. Lucas originally did not specify whether the selling of Lucasfilm would affect his involvement with the film. In October 2016, Lucas announced his decision to not be involved in the story of the film but would remain an executive producer. In 2016, ''Rogue One: A Star Wars Story'', the first film of a ''Star Wars'' anthology series was released. It told the story of the rebels who stole the plans for the Death Star featured in the original ''Star Wars'' film, and it was reported that Lucas liked it more than ''The Force Awakens''. ''The Last Jedi'', the second film in the sequel trilogy, was released in 2017; Lucas described the film as "beautifully made". Lucas has had cursory involvement with ''Solo: A Star Wars Story'' (2018), the ''Star Wars'' streaming series ''The Mandalorian'', and the premiere of the Game of Thrones (season 8), eighth season of ''Game of Thrones''. Lucas met with J. J. Abrams before the latter began writing the script to the sequel trilogy's final film, ''The Rise of Skywalker'', which was released in 2019.


Filmmaking


Collaboration with John Williams

Lucas was also heavily involved and invested in the scoring process for the Star Wars (soundtrack), original ''Star Wars'' soundtrack, which was composed by
John Williams John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...
, on the recommendation of his friend and colleague Steven Spielberg. Whilst initially wanting to use tracks and film music in a similar manner to ''2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 2001: A Space Odyssey'', which served as the inspiration for the film, Williams advised against this and instead proposed a system of recurring themes (or leitmotifs) to enhance the story in the style of classical composers Gustav Holst, William Walton, and Igor Stravinsky; works that Lucas had used as "temp tracks" for Williams to gain inspiration from. The film, and subsequent sequels and prequels, make use of the Main Title Theme, the Force Theme (less commonly referred to as Obi Wan Kenobi's Theme), the Rebel Alliance Theme, and Princess Leia's Theme (all introduced in this film) repeatedly. Subsequent films also added to the catalogue of themes for different characters, factions, and locations. The score was released to critical acclaim and won Williams his third Academy Award for Best Original Score. The score was listed by the American Film Institute in 2005 as the AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores, greatest film score of all time. The professional relationship formed by Lucas and Williams extended through to Williams working on all of Lucas's blockbuster franchise movies: the remaining two films of the Original Trilogy, Star Wars original trilogy; all three films of Star Wars prequel trilogy, prequel trilogy developed over fifteen years later; and the four (Untitled fifth Indiana Jones film, to be five) films of the Indiana Jones franchise, in which Williams reunited with his long-time collaborator Spielberg. In his collaborations with Lucas, Williams received six of his fifty-two Academy Award nominations (''Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi,
Raiders of the Lost Ark ''Raiders of the Lost Ark'' is a 1981 American Action film#Action-adventure, action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Lawrence Kasdan, based on a story by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It stars Harrison Ford, Karen ...
, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom,'' and ''Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade''). After Lucas sold Lucasfilm to Disney, Williams stayed on board with the franchise, and continued to score the remaining three films of the "Skywalker Saga, Skywalker saga" (''Star Wars: The Force Awakens, The Force Awakens, Star Wars: The Last Jedi, The Last Jedi'', and ''Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker, The Rise of Skywalker,'' for which he received a further three Oscar nominations), after which he announced his "retirement" from the series. Lucas was in attendance for a ceremony honouring Williams as the 44th recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award, the first composer to receive the honour, and gave a speech in praise of their relationship and his work. In interviews, and most famously at the Star Wars Celebration, 40th Anniversary Star Wars Celebration convention, Lucas has repeatedly reaffirmed the importance of Williams to the Star Wars saga, affectionately referring to him as the "secret sauce" of his movies.


Philanthropy

Lucas is one of the wealthiest celebrities in the world. Lucas has pledged to give half of his fortune to charity as part of an effort called The Giving Pledge led by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett to persuade America's richest individuals to donate their financial wealth to charities.


George Lucas Educational Foundation

In 1991, The George Lucas Educational Foundation was founded as a nonprofit operating foundation to celebrate and encourage innovation in schools. The Foundation's content is available under the brand Edutopia, in an award-winning web site, social media and via documentary films. Lucas, through his foundation, was one of the leading proponents of the E-rate program in the universal service fund, which was enacted as part of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. On June 24, 2008, Lucas testified before the United States House of Representatives subcommittee on United States House Energy Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Telecommunications and the Internet as the head of his Foundation to advocate for a free wireless broadband educational network.


Proceeds from the sale of Lucasfilm to Disney

In 2012, Lucas sold Lucasfilm to The Walt Disney Company for a reported sum of $4.05 billion. It was widely reported at the time that Lucas intends to give the majority of the proceeds from the sale to charity. A spokesperson for Lucasfilm said, "George Lucas has expressed his intention, in the event the deal closes, to donate the majority of the proceeds to his philanthropic endeavors." Lucas also spoke on the matter: "For 41 years, the majority of my time and money has been put into the company. As I start a new chapter in my life, it is gratifying that I have the opportunity to devote more time and resources to philanthropy."


Lucas Museum of Narrative Art

By June 2013, Lucas was considering establishing a museum, the Lucas Cultural Arts Museum, to be built on Crissy Field near the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, which would display his collection of illustrations and pop art, with an estimated value of more than $1 billion. Lucas offered to pay the estimated $300 million cost of constructing the museum, and would endow it with $400 million when it opened, eventually adding an additional $400 million to its endowment. After being unable to reach an agreement with The Presidio Trust, Lucas turned to Chicago. A potential lakefront site on Museum Campus in Chicago was proposed in May 2014. By June 2014, Chicago had been selected, pending approval of the Chicago Plan Commission, which was granted. The museum project was renamed the Lucas Museum of Narrative Art. On June 24, 2016, Lucas announced that he was abandoning his plans to locate the museum in Chicago, due to a lawsuit by a local preservation group, Friends of the Parks, and would instead build the museum in California. On January 17, 2017, Lucas announced that the museum will be constructed in Exposition Park (Los Angeles), Exposition Park, Los Angeles, California.


Other initiatives

In 2005, Lucas gave US$1 million to help build the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington D.C. to commemorate American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. On September 19, 2006, the University of Southern California announced that Lucas had donated $175–180 million to his alma mater to expand the film school. It is the largest single donation to USC and the largest gift to a film school anywhere. Previous donations led to the already-existing George Lucas Instructional Building and Marcia Lucas Post-Production building.George Lucas Instructional Building
, USC School of Cinematic Arts.

, USC School of Cinematic Arts.
In 2013, Lucas and his wife Mellody Hobson donated $25 million to the Chicago-based not-for-profit After School Matters, of which Hobson is the chair. On April 15, 2016, it was reported that Lucas had donated between $501,000 and $1 million through the Lucas Family Foundation to the Obama Foundation, which is charged with overseeing the construction of the Barack Obama Presidential Center on Chicago's South Side, Chicago, South Side.


Personal life

In 1969, Lucas married film editor Marcia Lou Griffin, who went on to win an
Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., ...

Academy Award
for her editing work on the original ''Star Wars'' film. They adopted a daughter, Amanda Lucas (fighter), Amanda Lucas, in 1981, and divorced in 1983. Lucas subsequently adopted two more children as a single parent: daughter Katie Lucas, born in 1988, and son Jett Lucas, born in 1993. His three eldest children all appeared in the three ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' prequels, as did Lucas himself. Following his divorce, Lucas was in a relationship with singer Linda Ronstadt in the 1980s. Lucas began dating Mellody Hobson, president of Ariel Investments and chair of DreamWorks Animation, in 2006. Lucas and Hobson announced their engagement in January 2013, and married on June 22, 2013, at Lucas's Skywalker Ranch in Marin County, California. They have one daughter together, born via gestational carrier in August 2013. Lucas was born and raised in a Methodism, Methodist family. The religious and mythical themes in ''Star Wars'' were inspired by Lucas's interest in the writings of mythologist Joseph Campbell, and he would eventually come to identify strongly with the Eastern philosophies, Eastern religious philosophies he studied and incorporated into his films, which were a major inspiration for "the Force". Lucas has come to state that his religion is "Buddhism, Buddhist Methodist". He resides in Marin County. Lucas is a major collector of the American illustrator and painter Norman Rockwell. A collection of 57 Rockwell paintings and drawings owned by Lucas and fellow Rockwell collector and film director Steven Spielberg were displayed at the Smithsonian American Art Museum from July 2, 2010, to January 2, 2011, in an exhibition titled ''Telling Stories''. Lucas has said that he is a fan of Seth MacFarlane's hit TV show ''Family Guy''. MacFarlane has said that Lucasfilm was extremely helpful when the ''Family Guy'' crew wanted to Laugh It Up, Fuzzball: The Family Guy Trilogy, parody their works. Lucas supported Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.


Awards and honors

In 1977, Lucas was awarded the Inkpot Award. The American Film Institute awarded Lucas its Life Achievement Award on June 9, 2005. This was shortly after the release of ''Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith'', about which he joked stating that, since he views the entire ''Star Wars'' series as one film, he could actually receive the award now that he had finally "gone back and finished the movie." Lucas was nominated for four Academy Awards: Academy Award for Best Director, Best Directing and Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, Writing for ''American Graffiti'' and ''Star Wars''. He received the Academy's Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, Irving G. Thalberg Award in 1991. He appeared at the 79th Academy Awards ceremony in 2007 with Steven Spielberg and Francis Ford Coppola to present the Best Director award to their friend Martin Scorsese. During the speech, Spielberg and Coppola talked about the joy of winning an Oscar, making fun of Lucas, who has not won a competitive Oscar. The EMP Museum#Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Lucas in 2006, its second "Film, Television, and Media" contributor, after Spielberg. The Discovery Channel named him one of the 100 "The Greatest American, Greatest Americans" in September 2008. Lucas served as Grand Marshal for the Tournament of Roses Parade and made the ceremonial coin toss at the 2007 Rose Bowl, Rose Bowl, New Year's Day 2007. In 2009, he was one of 13 California Hall of Fame inductees in The California Museum's yearlong exhibit. In July 2013, Lucas was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Barack Obama for his contributions to American cinema. In October 2014, Lucas received Honorary Membership of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. In August 2015, Lucas was inducted as a Disney Legends, Disney Legend, and on December 6, 2015, he was an honoree at the Kennedy Center Honors. In 2021, coinciding with Lucasfilm's 50th anniversary, an action figure of Lucas in Stormtrooper (Star Wars), stormtrooper disguise was released as part of Hasbro's Star Wars: The Black Series, ''Star Wars'': The Black Series.


Filmography


Bibliography

* 1980: Alan Arnold: ''A Journal of the Making of "The Empire Strikes Back."'' . (contributor) * 1983: Dale Pollock: ''Sky Walking: The Life and Films of George Lucas.'' . (contributor) * 1995: George Lucas, Chris Claremont: ''Shadow Moon (novel), Shadow Moon.'' . (story) * 1996: Chris Claremont: ''Shadow Dawn.'' . (story) * 1997: Laurent Bouzereau: ''Star Wars. The Annotated Screenplays.'' (contributor) . * 2000: Terry Brooks: Star Wars: Episode I: The Phantom Menace (
novelization A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in w ...
, contributor), Del Rey Books, * 2000: Chris Claremont: ''Shadow Star (novel), Shadow Star.'' . (story) * 2003: R. A. Salvatore: Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (novelization, contributor), Del Rey, * 2004: Matthew Stover: ''Shatterpoint.'' (novel, prologue), Del Rey, . * 2005: James Luceno: ''Labyrinth of Evil'' (novel, contributor), Del Rey, * 2005: Matthew Stover: '' Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith.'', Del Rey, . (
novelization A novelization (or novelisation) is a derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in w ...
, contributor & line editor) * 2007: J. W. Rinzler: ''The Making of "Star Wars". The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film.'' . (contributor) * 2012: James Luceno: ''Star Wars: Darth Plagueis''. novel (contributor), Del Rey, . * 2020: Paul Duncan: ''The Star Wars Archives. 1999–2005'' (contributor), Taschen,


See also

*''The Making of Star Wars''


References

Footnotes Citations


Sources

* * *


Further reading

* * *


External links

* * * * *
George Lucas biography
at Lucasfilm.com *
George Lucas
at World of Business Ideas {{DEFAULTSORT:Lucas, George George Lucas, 1944 births American art collectors American billionaires American Buddhists American chief executives American Cinema Editors American cinematographers American entertainment industry businesspeople American film editors American film producers American male film actors American male novelists American male screenwriters American Methodists American science fiction writers American people of Swiss-German descent American people of English descent American people of Scottish descent American speculative fiction artists Businesspeople from California Cinema of the San Francisco Bay Area Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Film directors from California Film producers from California Giving Pledgers 21st-century philanthropists Inkpot Award winners Kennedy Center honorees Lucasfilm people Mythopoeic writers People from Marin County, California People from Modesto, California Science fiction artists Science fiction fans Science fiction film directors Science Fiction Hall of Fame inductees Special effects people USC School of Cinematic Arts alumni United States National Medal of Arts recipients Living people AFI Life Achievement Award recipients Screenwriters from California