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Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
in
Northwest China Northwest China () is a statistical region of China This is a list of traditional top-level regions of China. Republic of China (1912–1949) Nationalist Era regions NRA military regions People's Republic of China in the mai ...

Northwest China
. Its capital and largest city is
Lanzhou Lanzhou (, ; ; Postal romanisation Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by postal authorities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For many cities, the postal romanization was the most comm ...

Lanzhou
, in the southeast part of the province. The seventh-largest administrative district by area at , Gansu lies between the
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
and
Loess Loess (, ; from german: Löss ) is a clastic Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fair ...
plateaus and borders
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
(
Govi-Altai Province Govi-Altai ( mn, Говь-Алтай, ''Gobi-Altai'') is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area ...
),
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
and
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, ...

Ningxia
to the north,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
and
Qinghai Qinghai (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Northwest China, the northwest of the China, People's Republic of China. It is one of ...

Qinghai
to the west,
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...

Sichuan
to the south and
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
to the east. The
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
passes through the southern part of the province. Part of Gansu's territory is located in the
Gobi Desert The Gobi Desert () is a large desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali">Sand dunes in the Rub' al ...

Gobi Desert
. The
Qilian mountains The Qilian Mountains (, also romanized as Tsilien; Mongghul: Chileb), together with the Altyn-Tagh (Altun Shan) also known as Nan Shan (, literally "Southern Mountains"), as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlu ...
are located in the south of the Province. Gansu has a population of 26 million, ranking 22nd in China. Its population is mostly
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
, along with
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
, Dongxiang and
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
minorities. The most common language is Mandarin. Gansu is among the poorest administrative divisions in China, ranking 31st, last place, in GDP per capita as of 2019. The
State of Qin Qin () was an ancient Chinese state Ancient Chinese states () were typified by variously sized city-states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 18 February 25910 September 210) ...
originated in what is now southeastern Gansu and went on to form the first known Empire in what is now
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. The
Northern Silk RoadImage:Tarimrivermap.png, 300px, Taklimakan Desert The Northern Silk Road is an Ancient history, ancient trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the Taklimakan Desert to reach the ancient monarchy, k ...
ran through the
Hexi Corridor The Hexi Corridor (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; zh, s= ...

Hexi Corridor
, which passes through Gansu, resulting in it being an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire. The city of Jiayuguan, the second most populated city in Gansu, is known for its section of the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typic ...

Great Wall
and the Jiayuguan Pass fortress complex.


Name

Gansu is a compound of the names of Gānzhou (now the main urban district and
seat SEAT S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish car manufacturer, which sells its vehicles under the SEAT and Cupra brands. It was founded on 9 May 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria Instituto Nacional d ...
of
Zhangye Zhangye, formerly romanised as Changyeh or known as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful di ...

Zhangye
) and Sùzhou (an old name and the modern seat of
Jiuquan Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu provinces of China, Province in the People's Republic of China. It is more than wide from east to west, occupying , although its built-up area is ...

Jiuquan
), formerly the two most important Chinese settlements in the
Hexi Corridor The Hexi Corridor (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; zh, s= ...

Hexi Corridor
. Gansu is abbreviated as "" () or "" (), and was also known as Longxi () or Longyou () prior to early
Western Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
, in reference to the Long Mountain (the modern day Liupan Mountain's southern section) between eastern Gansu and western
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
.


History

Gansu's name is a compound name first used during the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
. It is a combination of the names of two
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
() in the
Sui
Sui
and
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
: Gan (around
Zhangye Zhangye, formerly romanised as Changyeh or known as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful di ...

Zhangye
) and Su (around
Jiuquan Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu provinces of China, Province in the People's Republic of China. It is more than wide from east to west, occupying , although its built-up area is ...

Jiuquan
). Its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.


Ancient Gansu

In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
cultures. The
Dadiwan culture The Dadiwan culture (c. 7900–7200 BP) was a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human hist ...
, from where archaeologically significant
artifactArtifact, or artefact, may refer to: Science and technology *Artifact (error) In natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that ...
s have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000BC to about 3000BC. The
Majiayao culture The Majiayao culture was a group of neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 1 ...
and part of the
Qijia culture The Qijia culture (2200 BC – 1600 BC) was an early Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. ...
took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively. The
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depe ...
originally lived in the very western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the
Xiongnu The Xiongnu (, ) were a tribal confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal ...

Xiongnu
around 177 BCE. The
State of Qin Qin () was an ancient Chinese state Ancient Chinese states () were typified by variously sized city-states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang (, ; 18 February 25910 September 210) ...
, known in China as the
founding state
founding state
of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu, specifically the
Tianshui Tianshui is the second-largest cities in Gansu, city in Gansu list of Chinese provinces, Province, China. The city is located in the southeast of the province, along the upper reaches of the Wei River and at the boundary of the Loess Plateau and t ...

Tianshui
area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, in part, from the area. Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from
Fangmatan Fangmatan () is an archeology, archeological site located near Tianshui in People's Republic of China, China's Gansu province. The site was located within the Qin (state), Qin state, and includes several burials dating from the Warring States perio ...
near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County.


Imperial era

In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the
Hexi Corridor The Hexi Corridor (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; zh, s= ...

Hexi Corridor
runs along the "neck" of the province. The
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
extended the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typic ...
across this corridor, building the strategic
Yumenguan
Yumenguan
(Jade Gate Pass, near
Dunhuang Dunhuang () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the Peo ...
) and
Yangguan Yangguan, or Yangguan Pass (), is a mountain pass that was fortified by Emperor Wu of Han, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, Western Han Dynasty around 120 BC and used as an outpost in the colonial dominions adjacent to ancient China. It is located ap ...

Yangguan
fort towns along it. Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the
Qilian Mountains The Qilian Mountains (, also romanized as Tsilien; Mongghul: Chileb), together with the Altyn-Tagh (Altun Shan) also known as Nan Shan (, literally "Southern Mountains"), as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlu ...
, at the northwestern end of the province, the
Yuezhi The Yuezhi (, ) were an ancient people first described in Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depe ...
,
Wusun The Wusun (; Eastern Han Chinese *''ʔɑ-suən'' < Old Chinese (140 BCE < 436 BCE): *''Ɂâ-sûn'') were an ancient semi-Eurasian nomads, nomadic Eurasian Steppe, steppe people mentioned in China, Chinese records from the 2nd century B ...
, and other
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
ic tribes dwelt (
Shiji The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...

Shiji
123), occasionally figuring in regional imperial Chinese
geopolitics Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
. By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the
Tibetan Empire The Tibetan Empire (, ; ) was an empire centered on the Tibetan Plateau, formed as a result of imperial expansion under the Yarlung dynasty heralded by its 33rd king, Songsten Gampo in the 7th century. The empire further expanded under the 38th ...

Tibetan Empire
and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period. After the fall of the
Uyghur Khaganate The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate, self defined as Toquz-Oghuz country; otk, 𐱃𐰆𐰴𐰕:𐰆𐰍𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣, Toquz Oγuz budun, Tang-era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often a ...

Uyghur Khaganate
, a Buddhist
Yugur The Yugurs, Yughurs, Yugu (; Western Yugur Western Yugur (Western Yugur: (Yugur speech) or (Yugur word)) is the Turkic languages, Turkic language spoken by the Yugur people. It is contrasted with Eastern Yugur language, Eastern Yugur, the Mo ...
(Uyghur) state called the
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom The Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom (), also referred to as the Hexi Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, was established in 894 around Zhangye, Ganzhou in modern Zhangye. The kingdom lasted from 894 to 1036; during that time, many of Ganzhou's residents converted t ...
was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036AD. Along the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
grotto A grotto is a natural or artificial cave A cave or cavern is a natural void in the Earth#Surface, ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground. ...

grotto
es such as those at
Mogao Caves The Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, form a system of 500 temples southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu pr ...

Mogao Caves
('Caves of the Thousand Buddhas') and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and historically revealing
mural A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent substrate, usually a vertical one, that is to say a wall. Historically, they are especially associated with the fresco Fresco (plural ''fresc ...

mural
s. An early form of paper inscribed with
Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...
and dating to about 8BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han
garrison Garrison (from the French ''garnison'', itself from the verb ''garnir'', "to equip") is the collective term for any body of troop A troop is a military sub-subunit, originally a small formation of cavalry, subordinate to a Squadron (cav ...

garrison
near the Yumen pass in August 2006. The Xixia or
Western Xia The Western Xia or the Xi Xia (), officially the Great Xia (), also known as the Tangut Empire, and known as ''Mi-nyak''Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. to Tanguts and Tibetans, was a Tangut people, Tangut-ruled empire and a Dynasties in C ...

Western Xia
dynasty controlled much of Gansu as well as
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, ...

Ningxia
. The province was also the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862–77. Among the
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
forces were Muslim generals, including
Ma Zhan'ao Ma Zhan’ao (1830–1886) (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script ...
and
Ma Anliang Ma Anliang (, French romanization: Ma-ngan-leang, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims. The revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai. There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896.


Republican China

As a result of frequent earthquakes, droughts and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was significantly slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the
Richter scale The Richter scale – also called the Richter magnitude scale and Richter's magnitude scale – is a measure of the strength of earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Ear ...
killed around 180,000 people mostly in the present-day area of
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, ...

Ningxia
in 1920, and another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932. The
Muslim Conflict in Gansu (1927–1930) Muslim Conflict in Gansu was when a coalition of Muslim Generals broke out in revolt against the Guominjun in 1927. Prominent among the rebels was Ma Tingxiang, the son of the General Ma Anliang, who received aid in the form of arms from Zhang Zuol ...
was a conflict against the
Guominjun The Guominjun (), a.k.a. Nationalist Army, KMC, also called the Northwest Army (西北軍) or People's Army, refers to the military faction founded by Feng Yuxiang, Hu Jingyi and Sun Yue during China's Warlord Era The Warlord Era was a pe ...
. While the Muslim General
Ma Hongbin Ma Hongbin (Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; zh, s=本经, ...

Ma Hongbin
was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General
Ma Buqing Ma Buqing (1901–1977) (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; ...

Ma Buqing
was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was previously his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
came under
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
(Nationalist) control after their soldiers entered via Gansu. Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight. Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang. Gansu was a passageway for Soviet war supplies for the Republic of China during the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
. Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua (Ürümqi). The Gonxingdun Aerodrome was one of several air bases where the
Chinese Air Force The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF; ), also known as the Chinese Air Force (中国空军) or the People's Liberation Air Force (人民空军), is an aerial service branch of the People's Liberation Army The People's Liberati ...
operated in defense of Gansu. Gansu provided wartime China with most of the locally- sourced petrol from the
Yumen Laojunmiao oil wells
Yumen Laojunmiao oil wells
beginning in the summer of 1939, producing 250,000 tons of
crude oil Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mech ...

crude oil
in those war years. Lanzhou and
Lhasa Lhasa (; Lhasa dialect: ; bo, text=ལྷ་ས, translation=Place of Gods) is the urban center of the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level Lhasa (prefecture-level city), Lhasa City and the administrative capital of Tibet. The inner urban ...

Lhasa
were designated to be recipients of a new railway. The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China (1950–1958) was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu.


Geography

Gansu has an area of , and the vast majority of its land is more than above sea level. It lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
(
Govi-Altai Province Govi-Altai ( mn, Говь-Алтай, ''Gobi-Altai'') is one of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, Mongolian: , Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: ') is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area ...
) to the northwest,
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
and
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, ...

Ningxia
to the north,
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
to the east,
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...

Sichuan
to the south, and
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
to the west. The
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
passes through the southern part of the province. The province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at . Part of the
Gobi Desert The Gobi Desert () is a large desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali">Sand dunes in the Rub' al ...

Gobi Desert
is located in Gansu, as well as small parts of the Badain Jaran Desert and the Tengger Desert. The
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
gets most of its water from Gansu, flowing straight through Lanzhou. The area around Wuwei is part of Shiyang River Basin. The landscape in Gansu is very mountainous in the south and flat in the north. The mountains in the south are part of the
Qilian Mountains The Qilian Mountains (, also romanized as Tsilien; Mongghul: Chileb), together with the Altyn-Tagh (Altun Shan) also known as Nan Shan (, literally "Southern Mountains"), as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlu ...
, while the far western Altyn-Tagh contains the province's highest point, at . A natural land passage known as
Hexi Corridor The Hexi Corridor (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; zh, s= ...

Hexi Corridor
, stretching some from Lanzhou to the Yumen Pass, Jade Gate, is situated within the province. It is bound from north by the Gobi Desert and Qilian Mountains from the south. Gansu generally has a semi-arid to arid continental climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''BSk'' or ''BWk'') with warm to hot summers and cold to very cold winters, although diurnal temperature ranges are often so large that maxima remain above even in winter. However, due to extreme altitude, some areas of Gansu exhibit a subarctic climate (''Dwc'') – with winter temperatures sometimes dropping to . Most of the limited precipitation is delivered in the summer months: winters are so dry that snow cover is confined to very high altitudes and the snow line can be as high as in the southwest. File:Mondsichelsee.JPG, Crescent Lake (Dunhuang), Crescent Lake,
Dunhuang Dunhuang () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the Peo ...
File:Suzhou, Jiuquan, Gansu, China - panoramio (6).jpg,
Qilian Mountains The Qilian Mountains (, also romanized as Tsilien; Mongghul: Chileb), together with the Altyn-Tagh (Altun Shan) also known as Nan Shan (, literally "Southern Mountains"), as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlu ...
southeast of
Jiuquan Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu provinces of China, Province in the People's Republic of China. It is more than wide from east to west, occupying , although its built-up area is ...

Jiuquan
File:鸟瞰去陇南的公路 - panoramio.jpg, Terrace farms near
Tianshui Tianshui is the second-largest cities in Gansu, city in Gansu list of Chinese provinces, Province, China. The city is located in the southeast of the province, along the upper reaches of the Wei River and at the boundary of the Loess Plateau and t ...

Tianshui
File:岷县秦许乡.jpg, Grasslands in Min County File:玛曲,黄河湿地 - panoramio.jpg, Wetland by the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
, Maqu County


Administrative divisions

Gansu is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities and two Autonomous prefectures of the People's Republic of China, autonomous prefectures: The fourteen Prefectures of the People's Republic of China, Prefecture of Gansu are subdivided into 82 county-level divisions (17 District of China, districts, 4 county-level cities, 58 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and 3 Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, autonomous counties).


Urban areas


Politics

Secretaries of the Communist Party of China, CPC Gansu Committee: The Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee is the highest-ranking office within Gansu Province. #Zhang Desheng (): 1949–1954 #Zhang Zhongliang (): 1954–1961 #Wang Feng (politician), Wang Feng (): 1961–1966 #Hu Jizong (): 1966–1967 #Xian Henghan (): 1970–1977 #Song Ping (): 1977–1981 #Feng Jixin (): 1981–1983 #Li Ziqi (politician), Li Ziqi (): 1983–1990 #Gu Jinchi (): 1990–1993 #Yan Haiwang (): 1993–1998 #Sun Ying (): 1998–2001 #Song Zhaosu (): 2001–2003 #Su Rong (): 2003–2007 #Lu Hao (born 1947), Lu Hao (): April 2007 − December 2011 #Wang Sanyun (): December 2011 − March 2017 #Lin Duo (): March 2017 − March 2021 #Yin Hong (): March 2021 − present Governors of Gansu: The Governorship of Gansu is the second highest-ranking official within Gansu, behind the Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee. The governor is responsible for all issues related to economics, personnel, political initiatives, the Environmental policy, environment and the Foreign policy, foreign affairs of the province. The Governor is appointed by the Gansu Provincial People's Congress, which is the province's legislative body. #Wang Shitai (): 1949–1950 #Deng Baoshan (): 1950–1967 #Xian Henghan (): 1967–1977 #Song Ping (): 1977–1979 #Feng Jixin (): 1979–1981 #Li Dengying (): 1981–1983 #Chen Guangyi (): 1983–1986 #Jia Zhijie (): 1986–1993 #Yan Haiwang (): 1993 #Zhang Wule (): 1993–1996 #Sun Ying (): 1996–1998 #Song Zhaosu (): 1998–2001 #Lu Hao (born 1947), Lu Hao (): 2001–2006 #Xu Shousheng (): January 2007 – July 2010 #Liu Weiping (): July 2010 – April 2016 #Lin Duo (): April 2016 – April 2017 #Tang Renjian (): April 2017−December 2020


Economy

Despite recent growth in Gansu and the booming economy in the rest of China, Gansu is still considered to be one of the poorest provinces in China. For several years, it has List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita, ranked as one of the provinces with lowest GDP per capita. Its nominal GDP for 2017 was about 767.7 billion yuan (US$113.70 billion) and per capita of 29,326 RMB (US$4,343). The province also has a large difference in wealth between regions and urban versus rural areas. The poorest areas are Dingxi, Longnan, Gannan and Linxia. According to analysts, the local economy failed to gather momentum while other provinces did manage to increase their economic growth.


Agriculture

Due to poor natural conditions such as aridness, Gansu is one of the Chinese provinces with smallest per capita area of arable land. Agricultural production includes cotton, linseed oil, maize, melons (such as the honeydew melon, known locally as the Bailan melon, millet, and wheat. Gansu is known as a source for wild medicinal herbs which are used in Chinese medicine. However, pollution by heavy metals, such as cadmium poisoning, cadmium in irrigation water, has resulted in the poisoning of many acres of agricultural land. The extent and nature of the heavy metal pollution is considered a state secret.


Industry

The industrial sector in Gansu was developed after completion of the Longhai railway in 1953 and blueprinted in the first Five-year plans of China, five-year plan of China. Until 2014, the industrial sector contributed the most to Gansu's economy. The most important industries are petrochemicals, non-ferrous metallurgy, machinery and electronics. The province is also an important base for wind and solar power. As a result of environmental protection policies, the industry sector is not growing. The manufacturing sector has been shrinking for several years and has low investment numbers. According to some sources, the province is also a center of China's nuclear industry. As stipulated in the country's 12th Five Year Plan, the local government of Gansu hopes to grow the province's GDP by 10% annually by focusing investments on five pillar industries: renewable energy, coal, chemicals, nonferrous metals, pharmaceuticals and services.


Mining

A large part of Gansu's economy is based on mining and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. The province has significant deposits of antimony, chromium, coal, cobalt, copper, fluorite, gypsum, iridium, iron, lead, limestone, Mercury (element), mercury, mirabilite, nickel, crude oil, platinum, troilite, tungsten, and zinc among others. The oil fields at Yumen and Changqing are considered significant. Gansu has China's largest nickel deposits accounting for over 90% of China's total nickel reserves.


Services

Since 2014, the service sector is the largest economic sector of Gansu. Tourism is a sector that is becoming of increased importance.


Economic and technological development zones

The following economic and technological zones are situated in Gansu: *Lanzhou National Economic and Technological Development Zone was established in 1993, located in the center of Lanzhou Anning District. The zone has a planned area of . 17 colleges, 11 scientific research institutions, 21 large and medium-size companies and other 1735 enterprises have been set up in the zone. Main industries include textile mills, rubber, fertilizer plants, oil refinery, petrochemical, machinery, and metallurgical industry. *Lanzhou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, Lanzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, one of the first 27 national hi-tech industrial development zones, was established in 1998 covering more than . It is expected to expand another . The zone mainly focuses on Biotechnology, chemical industry, building decoration materials and information technology.


Demographics

Gansu province is home to a little less than 25 million people. 73% of the population was rural, but much relocation in recent years has reduced this. Gansu is 92%
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
and also has
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
,
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
, Dongxiang people, Dongxiang, Tu (ethnic group), Tu, Yugur, Bonans, Bonan, Mongols, Mongolian, Salar people, Salar, and kazakhs, Kazakh minorities. Gansu province's community of Chinese
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
Muslims was bolstered by Hui Muslims resettled from
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
province during the Dungan Revolt. Gansu is also a historical home, along with
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
, of the Dungan language, dialect of the Dungan people, Dungans, who migrated to Central Asia. The southwestern corner of Gansu is home to a large Tibetan people, ethnic Tibetan population. Modern Gansu is dominated by Lanzhou city and Linxia Hui prefectures, their growth hides the stark fact that much of the rest is rapidly losing population.


Languages

Most of the inhabitants of Gansu speak dialects of Northern Mandarin Chinese. On the border areas of Gansu one might encounter Tu language, Tu, Amdo, Amdo Tibetan, Mongolian language, Mongolian, and the Kazakh language. Most of the minorities also speak Chinese.


Culture

A unique variety of Chinese folk music popularly identified with the local peoples of Gansu include the ''Shan'ge, "Hua'er" (flowery melodies)'', and is popular among the Han and nine ethnic groups of Gansu. The cuisine of Gansu is based on the staple crops grown there: wheat, barley, millet, beans, and sweet potatoes. Within China, Gansu is known for its lamian (pulled noodles), and Chinese Islamic cuisine, Muslim restaurants which feature authentic Gansu cuisine.


Religion

According to a 2012 survey around 12% of the population of Gansu belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhism in China, Buddhists with 8.2%, followed by Islam in China, Muslims with 3.4%, Protestantism in China, Protestants with 0.4% and Catholicism in China, Catholic with 0.1% (in total, as of 2012 Christians comprise 0.5% of the population, decreasing from 1.02% in 2004) Around 88% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects. Muslim restaurants are common, and feature typical Chinese dishes, but without any pork products, and instead an emphasis on lamb and mutton. Gansu has many works of Buddhism, Buddhist art, including the Maijishan Grottoes. Dunhuang was a major centre of Buddhism in the Middle Ages.


Tourism


Jiayuguan Pass of the Great Wall

Jiayuguan Pass, in Jiayuguan city, is the largest and most intact pass, or entrance, of the
Great Wall The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typic ...

Great Wall
. Jiayuguan Pass was built in the early
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, somewhere around the year 1372. It was built near an oasis that was then on the extreme western edge of China. Jiayuguan Pass was the first pass on the west end of the great wall so it earned the name "The First And Greatest Pass Under Heaven". An extra brick is said to rest on a ledge over one of the gates. One legend holds that the official in charge asked the designer to calculate how many bricks would be used. The designer gave him the number and when the project was finished, only one brick was left. It was put on the top of the pass as a symbol of commemoration. Another account holds that the building project was assigned to a military manager and an architect. The architect presented the manager with a requisition for the total number of bricks that he would need. When the manager found out that the architect had not asked for any extra bricks, he demanded that the architect make some provision for unforeseen circumstances. The architect, taking this as an insult to his planning ability, added a single extra brick to the request. When the gate was finished, the single extra brick was, in fact, extra and was left on the ledge over the gate.


Mogao Grottoes

The Mogao Grottoes near
Dunhuang Dunhuang () is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the Peo ...
have a collection of Buddhism, Buddhist art. Originally there were a thousand grottoes, but now only 492 cave temples remain. Each temple has a large statue of a Buddha (general), buddha or bodhisattva and paintings of religious scenes. In 336 AD, a monk named Le Zun (Lo-tsun) came near Echoing Sand Mountain, when he had a Vision (spirituality), vision. He started to carve the first grotto. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Five Dynasties period they ran out of room on the cliff and could not build any more grottoes.


Silk Road and Dunhuang City

The historic
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
starts in Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) and goes to Constantinople (Istanbul). On the way merchants would go to Dunhuang in Gansu. In Dunhuang they would get fresh camels, food and guards for the journey around the dangerous Taklamakan Desert. Before departing Dunhuang they would pray to the Mogao Grottoes for a safe journey, if they came back alive they would thank the gods at the grottoes. Across the desert they would form a train of camels to protect themselves from thieving bandits. The next stop, Kashgar, Kashi (Kashgar), was a welcome sight to the merchants. At Kashi most would trade and go back and the ones who stayed would eat fruit and trade their Bactrian camels for Dromedary, single humped ones. After Kashi they would keep going until they reached their next destination. Located about southwest of the city, the Crescent Lake (Dunhuang), Crescent Lake or Yueyaquan is an oasis and popular spot for tourists seeking respite from the heat of the desert. Activities includes camel and 4x4 rides.


Silk Route Museum

The Silk Route Museum is located in
Jiuquan Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu provinces of China, Province in the People's Republic of China. It is more than wide from east to west, occupying , although its built-up area is ...

Jiuquan
along the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
, a trading route connecting Rome to China, used by Marco Polo. It is also built over the tomb of the Western Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms), Western Liang King.Silk Route Museum China Tourist Information
Tourist Link.


Bingling Temple

Bingling Temple, or Bingling Grottoes, is a
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
cave complex in a canyon along the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
. Begun in 420 AD during the Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin dynasty, the site contains dozens of caves and caverns filled with outstanding examples of carvings, sculpture, and frescoes. The great Maitreya Buddha is more than 27 meters tall and is similar in style to the great Buddhas that once lined the cliffs of Buddhas of Bamiyan, Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Access to the site is by boat from Yongjing County, Yongjing in the summer or fall. There is no other access point.


Labrang Monastery

Labrang Tashikyil Monastery is located in Xiahe, Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, located in the southern part of Gansu, and part of the traditional Tibetan province of Amdo. It is one of the six major monasteries of the Gelukpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, and the most important one in Amdo. Built in 1710, it is headed by the Jamyang-zhaypa. It has 6 ''dratsang'' (colleges), and houses over sixty thousand religious texts and other works of literature as well as other cultural artifacts.


Maijishan Grottoes

The Maijishan Grottoes are a series of 194 caves cut in the side of the hill of Majishan in
Tianshui Tianshui is the second-largest cities in Gansu, city in Gansu list of Chinese provinces, Province, China. The city is located in the southeast of the province, along the upper reaches of the Wei River and at the boundary of the Loess Plateau and t ...

Tianshui
. This example of rock cut architecture contains over 7,200 Buddhist art, Buddhist sculptures and over 1,000 square meters of murals. Construction began in the Later Qin era (384–417 CE).


Education

Gansu province is home to the only class A Double First Class University Plan, Double First Class University in China's northwest, Lanzhou University.


Colleges and universities

*Lanzhou University, Lanzhou () *Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou () *Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou () *Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou () *Northwest University of Nationalities, Lanzhou () *Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou () *Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou () *Gansu Political Science and Law Institute, Lanzhou () *Gansu University of Technology *Lanzhou Commercial College *Lanzhou Polytechnic College *Hexi University, Zhangye () *Northwest Minority University *Tianshui Normal College (Tianshui) *Longdong College (Qingyang)


Natural resources


Land

* grassland * mountain slopes suitable for livestock breeding * forests (standing timber reserves of ) * cultivated land ( per capita) * wasteland suitable for forestation * wasteland suitable for farming


Minerals

Three thousand deposits of 145 different minerals. Ninety-four minerals have been found and ascertained, including nickel, cobalt, platinum, selenium, casting clay, finishing serpentine, whose reserves are the largest in China. Gansu has advantages in getting nickel, zinc, cobalt, platinum, iridium, copper, barite, and magnesite, baudisserite.


Energy

Among Gansu's most important sources of energy are its water resources: the Yellow River and other inland river drainage basins. Gansu is placed ninth among China's provinces in annual hydropower potential and water discharge. Gansu produces 17.24 gigawatts of hydropower a year. Twenty-nine hydropower stations have been constructed in Gansu, altogether(?) capable of generating 30 gigawatts. Gansu has an estimated coal reserve of 8.92 billion tons and petroleum reserve of 700 million tons. There is also good potential for wind and solar power development. The Gansu Wind Farm project – already producing 7.965GW in 2015 – is expected to achieve 20GW by 2020, at which time it will likely become the world's biggest collective windfarm. In November 2017 an agreement between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Gansu government was announced, to site and begin operations of a molten salt reactor pilot project in the province by 2020.


Flora and fauna

Gansu has 659 species of wild animals. It has twenty-four rare animals which are under a state protection. Gansu's mammals include some of the world's most charismatic: the giant panda, golden monkeys, lynx, snow leopards, sika deer, musk deer, and the Bactrian camel. Among zoologists who study Mole (animal), moles, the Gansu mole is of great interest. For a reason that can only be speculated, it is taxologically a Scalopini, New World mole living among Talpinae, Old World moles: that is to say, an American mole living in a sea of Euro-Asians. Gansu is home to 441 species of birds; it is a center of endemism and home to many species and subspecies which occur nowhere else in the world. Gansu is China's second-largest producer of medicinal plants and herbs, including some produced nowhere else, such as the hairy asiabell root, fritillary bulb, and Chinese caterpillar fungus.


Environment


Natural disasters

On 16 December 1920, Gansu witnessed the deadliest landslide ever recorded. A series of landslides, triggered by a single earthquake, accounted for most of the 180,000 people killed in the event.


Anti-desertification project

The Asian Development Bank is working with the State Forestry Administration of China on the Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration Project, designed to prevent degradation and desertification in Gansu. It is estimated to cost up to US$150 million.


Space launch center

The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, located in the Gobi desert, is named after the city of
Jiuquan Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu provinces of China, Province in the People's Republic of China. It is more than wide from east to west, occupying , although its built-up area is ...

Jiuquan
, Gansu, the nearest city, although the center itself is in the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.


See also

* Huangyangchuan * List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Gansu * List of prisons in Gansu * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism


References


External links


Gansu Government official website
* {{Authority control Gansu, Provinces of the People's Republic of China Inner Asia Mongolia Western China 1666 establishments in China