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Gale is an American educational
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as s, s, and s. ...
company based in
Farmington Hills, Michigan Farmington Hills is a city in Oakland County, Michigan, Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. Its population was 79,740 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It is a northern suburb of Metro Detroit and is the second most-populated ...
, west of
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Th ...

Detroit
. It has been a division of
Cengage Cengage Group is an American educational Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and pr ...
since 2007. The company, formerly known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
,
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...
, and
school libraries A school library (or a school library media center) is a library within a school where students, staff, and often, parents of a Public school (government funded), public or private school have access to a variety of resources. The goal of the sc ...
, and businesses. The company is known for its full-text magazine and newspaper databases, Gale OneFile (formerly known as Infotrac), and other online databases subscribed by libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works, especially in the areas of
religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...

religion
,
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
, and
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
. Founded in Detroit, Michigan, in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner Jr., the company was acquired by the
International Thomson Organization International Thomson Organization (ITO) was a holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce goods or ...
(later the
Thomson Corporation The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies. It was established in 1989 following a merger between International Thomson Organisation Ltd (ITOL) and Thomson Newspapers. In 2008, it purchased Reuters Group to form ...
) in 1985 before its 2007 sale to Cengage.


History

In 1998, Gale Research merged with Information Access Company and Primary Source Media, two companies also owned by Thomson, to form the Gale Group. Thomson has acquired Information Access Company (publisher of
InfoTrac InfoTrac is a family of full-text databases of content from academic journals and general magazines, of which the majority are targeted to the English language, English-speaking North American market. As is typical of online proprietary databases, ...
) in 1995 and Primary Source Media (formerly named Research Publications) in 1979. In 1999, Thomson Gale acquired Macmillan Library Reference (including
Scribner's Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Henry James Henry James ( – ) was an American author. He is regarded as a key tra ...
Reference, Thorndike Press, Schirmer, Twayne Publishers, and G. K. Hall) from Pearson (which had acquired it from
Simon & Schuster Simon & Schuster () is an American publishing company and a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It was founded in New York City on January 2, 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was the third largest publisher in ...

Simon & Schuster
in 1998;
Macmillan USA Macmillan Inc. is a now mostly defunct American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known ...
was purchased by Simon & Schuster in 1994). In 2000 it acquired the
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
-based
K. G. Saur Verlag K. G. Saur Verlag is a German publisher that specializes in reference information for libraries. The publishing house, founded by Karl Saur, is owned by Walter de Gruyter and is based in Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Ming ...
, but then sold it to
Walter de Gruyter Walter de Gruyter GmbH, known as De Gruyter (), is a German scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature. History The roots of the company go back to 1749 when Frederick the Great granted the Königliche Realschule in Ber ...
in 2006. On October 25, 2006, Thomson Corporation announced that it intended to wholly
divest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money availab ...
the Thomson Learning division, because, in the words of Thomson CEO Richard Harrington, "it does not fit with our long-term strategic vision". Thomson has said that it expected this sale to generate approximately $5 billion. Thomson Learning was bought by a private equity consortium consisting of
Apax Partners Apax Partners LLP is a British private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a type of ...
and
OMERS Capital Partners OMERS is a Canadian public pension fund, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. OMERS is a defined benefit, jointly sponsored, multi-employer public pension plan created in 1962 by provincial to administer retirement benefits and manage pe ...
for $7.75 billion and the name was changed from Thomson Learning to
Cengage Learning Cengage Group is an American educational Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and pr ...
on July 24, 2007. Patrick C. Sommers was president of Gale from October 22, 2007, until he retired in 2010.


Products

Gale produces hundreds of products, such as Gale Academic OneFile, Biography and Genealogy Master Index, General OneFile, General Reference Center, Sabin Americana (based on Sabin's '' Bibliotheca Americana''), and World History Collection. Gale print imprints include the reference brands Primary Source Media, Scholarly Resources Inc., Schirmer Reference, St. James Press, The TAFT Group and Twayne Publishers, among others. Five Star Publishing is Gale's fiction imprint, with hundreds of books in print in the Western, Romance, Mystery and Science Fiction & Fantasy genres. Gale also sells into the
K–12 K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), from kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of t ...
market with several imprints, including U·X·L,
Greenhaven Press The Rosen Publishing Group is an American publisher for educational books for readers from ages pre-Kindergarten through grade 12. It was founded in 1950 under the name "Richards Rosen Press" and is located in New York City. The company changed it ...
, KidHaven Press, Lucent Books, and others. Gale also owns large print publishers Christian Large Print and Wheeler Publishing.


See also

*''
Contemporary Authors ''Contemporary Authors'' is an annually updated reference work published by Gale (publisher), Gale Cengage. It provides biographical details on over 120,000 writers in all genres whose works have been published in the English language. ''Contempor ...
'' published by Gale *''
Dictionary of Literary Biography The ''Dictionary of Literary BiographyWhen studying literature, biography and its relationship to literature is often a subject of literary criticism, and is treated in several different forms. Two scholarly approaches use biography or biographica ...
'' published by Gale *''
Dictionary of the Middle Ages 150px, ''Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1'' (2004) The ''Dictionary of the Middle Ages'' is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989. It was first conceive ...
'' published by Scribner's *''
Dictionary of Scientific Biography The ''Dictionary of Scientific Biography'' is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980 by publisher Charles Scribner's Sons Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in ...
'' published by Scribner's *''
Encyclopaedia Judaica The ''Encyclopaedia Judaica'' is a 22-volume English-language encyclopedia An encyclopedia (American English), encyclopædia (archaic spelling), or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries ...
'' published by Gale *'' Encyclopedia of Associations'' published by Gale *
HighBeam Research HighBeam Research was a paid search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardwa ...
owned by Gale (inactive) *''
New Catholic Encyclopedia The ''New Catholic Encyclopedia'' (NCE) is a multi-volume reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this rela ...
'' published by Gale *
Questia Online Library Questia was an online commercial digital repository of books and articles that had an academic An academy ( Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning, rese ...
owned by Gale (inactive)


References


External links


Gale website
;Gale-owned sites and services
Gale Directory Library
– dozens of print directories on a digital platform
Books & Authors
– indexed database of fiction and nonfiction book titles {{Authority control 1954 establishments in Michigan American companies established in 1954 Book publishing companies based in Michigan Cengage Companies based in Oakland County, Michigan Bibliographic database providers Commercial digital libraries Online publishing companies of the United States Publishing companies established in 1954 1985 mergers and acquisitions American digital libraries