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Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, known as Gabriel Hanotaux (19 November 1853 – 11 April 1944) was a French
statesman A statesman or stateswoman typically is a politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or ...
and
historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the stu ...
.


Biography

He was born at
Beaurevoir Beaurevoir is a Communes of France, commune in the Departments of France, department of Aisne in Hauts-de-France in northern France. Population See also * Communes of the Aisne department References

Communes of Aisne Aisne commune ...
in the ''
département In the administrative divisions of France The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory. These territories are located in many parts of the world. There ar ...
'' of
Aisne Aisne ( , also , ) is a French department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and ...

Aisne
. He studied history at the École des Chartes, and became '' maître de conférence'' in the École des Hautes Études. His political career was that of a civil servant rather than a party politician. In 1879 he entered the ministry of foreign affairs as a secretary, and rose gradually through the diplomatic service. In 1886, he was elected deputy for Aisne, but, defeated in 1889, he returned to his diplomatic career, and on 31 May 1894 accepted the offer of Charles Dupuy to be minister of foreign affairs. With one interruption (from 28 October 1895 to 29 April 1896, during the ministry of Leon Bourgeois) he held this portfolio until 14 June 1898. During his ministry he developed the ''rapprochement'' of France with Russia—visiting Saint Petersburg with the president, Félix Faure—and sought to delimit the French colonies in Africa through agreements with the British. The Fashoda Incident of July 1898 was the most notable result of this policy. This seems to have intensified Hanotaux's distrust of England, which is apparent in his literary works (though most of these were written after he had left the Quai d'Orsay). Hanotaux was elected a member of the Académie française on 1 April 1897. He served as a delegate for France with the League of Nations and participated in the 1st (15 November – 18 December 1920), 2nd (5 September – 5 October 1921), 3rd (4–30 September 1922) and 4th Assemblies (3–29 September 1923). In the early 1920s, there were proposals for the League of Nations to accept Esperanto as a working language. Ten delegates accepted the proposals with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux. The French employed their veto as a member of the League Council on all such votes, starting with the vote on December 18, 1920. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language of diplomacy and saw Esperanto as a threat. Gabriel Hanotaux died in Paris in 1944 and was interred in the Cimetière de Passy, Passy Cemetery. His home in Orchaise now serves as a botanical garden, the Parc botanique du Prieuré d'Orchaise.


Works

* ''Les Villes retrouvées'' (1881) * ''Origines de l'institution des intendants des provinces, d'après les documents inédits'' (1884) * ''Henri Martin, sa vie, ses œuvres, son temps, 1810-1883'', Librairie Léopold Cerf, Paris, 1885, VII-340 p.,
Consultable en ligne
et téléchargeable sur Internet Archive. * ''Études historiques sur le XVIe et le XVIIe en France'' (1886) * ''Recueil des instructions données aux ambassadeurs et ministres de France : depuis les traités de Westphalie jusqu'à la Révolution française'' (1888-1913) * ''Essai sur les libertés de l'Église gallicane depuis les origines jusqu'au règne de Louis XIV'' (1888) * ''Note sur la famille maternelle de Jean de La Fontaine (les Pidoux du Poitou et de l'Île-de-France)'' (1889) * ''Paris en 1614'' (1890) * ''Histoire du cardinal de Richelieu'' (1893-1903) * ''Les Hommes de 1889'' (1893) * ''L'Affaire de Madagascar'' (1896) * ''Tableau de la France en 1614, la France et la royauté avant Richelieu'' (1898) * ''La Seine et les quais, promenades d'un bibliophile'' (1901) * ''Du Choix d'une carrière'' (1902) * ''L'Énergie française'' (1902) * ''Histoire de la France contemporaine, 1871-1900'' (1903-1908
Vol. I : Le gouvernement de M. Thiers
Vol. II : La Présidence du Maréchal de Mac Mahon - L'échec de la MonarchieVol. III : La Présidence du Maréchal de Mac Mahon - La constitution de 1875
e
Vol. IV : La République Parlementaire
disponibles sur Internet Archive * ''La Paix latine'' (1903) * '' La jeunesse de Honoré de Balzac, Balzac. Honoré de Balzac, Balzac imprimeur 1825-1828, with Georges Vicaire Paris, A. Ferroud, 1903, 1re édition. Librairie des Amateurs, A. Ferroud, F. Ferroud, 1921. La partie « Balzac imprimeur » recense et décrit tous les livres imprimés par Balzac dans son imprimerie. * ''Le Partage de l'Afrique : Fachoda'' (1909) * ''La Démocratie et le Travail'' (Flammarion, Bibliothèque de philosophie scientifique, 1910) * ''La Fleur des histoires françaises'' (1911) * ''Jeanne d'Arc'' (1911) * (1912) * ''Études diplomatiques. La Politique de l'équilibre, 1907-1911'' (1912) * ''Histoire de la nation française'' (1913) * ''La France vivante. En Amérique du Nord'' (1913) * ''Études diplomatiques. 2e série. La guerre des Balkans et l'Europe, 1912-1913'' (1914) * ''Les Villes martyres. Les falaises de l'Aisne'' (1915) * ''Pendant la grande guerre, I (août-décembre 1914) : études diplomatiques et historiques'' (1916) * ''L'Énigme de Charleroi'' (1917), l'Édition Française Illustrée, Paris * ''L'Aisne pendant la Grande guerre'' (1919) * ''Circuits des champs de bataille de France, histoire et itinéraires de la Grande guerre'' (1919) * ''De l'histoire et des historiens'' (1919) * ''Le Traité de Versailles du 28 juin 1919. L'Allemagne et l'Europe'' (1919) * ''Joffre'' (avec le lieutenant-colonel Fabry) (1921) * ''La Bataille de la Marne'' (1922) * ''Georges Vicaire. 1853-1921'' (1922) * ''Histoire illustrée de la guerre de 1914'', with illustrations by Auguste-Louis Lepère
Texte intégral
(1924) * ''Bibliophiles'' (1924) * ''Le Général Mangin'' (1925) * ''La Renaissance provençale. La Provence niçoise'' (1928) * ''Préface'' des ''Mémoires'' of , Plon, Paris (1928) * ''Histoire des colonies françaises et de l'expansion de la France dans le monde'' (1929-1934), with Alfred Albert Martineau, Alfred Martineau (Volume II ''Algérie''
available online
* ''Le Maréchal Foch ou l'homme de guerre'' (1929) * ''Regards sur l'Égypte et la Palestine'' (1929) * ''En Belgique par les pays dévastés'' (1931) * ''Histoire de la nation égyptienne'' (1931-1940) * ''L'Art religieux ancien dans le comté de Nice et en Provence'' (1932) * ''À propos de l'histoire'' (with Paul Valéry) (1933) * ''Mon temps'' (1935-1947) * ''Pour l'Empire colonial français'' (1935) * ''Raymond Poincaré'' (1935) Four volumes of his memoir, ''Mon Temps'' were published between 1933 and 1947. He edited the ''Instructions des ambassadeurs de France à Rome, depuis les traités de Westphalie'' (1888).


Notes


References

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External links

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{{DEFAULTSORT:Hanotaux, Gabriel 1853 births 1944 deaths People from Aisne Politicians from Hauts-de-France French republicans French Foreign Ministers French Ministers of Overseas France Members of the 4th Chamber of Deputies of the French Third Republic Ambassadors of France to the Holy See 19th-century French historians 20th-century French historians French male writers 19th-century male writers École Nationale des Chartes alumni Members of the Académie Française Grand Officiers of the Légion d'honneur Burials at Passy Cemetery