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GEOS (later renamed GeoWorks Ensemble, NewDeal Office, and Breadbox Ensemble) is a computer
operating environment In computer software, an operating environment or integrated applications environment is the Deployment environment, environment in which users run application software. The environment consists of a user interface provided by an applications man ...
,
graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
(GUI), and suite of
application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Examples of an application Application may refer ...
. Originally released as PC/GEOS, it runs on
DOS DOS (, ) is a platform-independent acronym for disk operating system which later became a common shorthand for disk-based operating systems on IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM Personal Computer, IB ...

DOS
-based,
IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first computer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible IBM PC c ...
computers. Versions for some handheld platforms were also released and licensed to some companies. PC/GEOS was first created by Berkeley Softworks, which later became GeoWorks Corporation. Version 4.0 was developed in 2001 by Breadbox Computer Company,
limited liability company A limited liability company (LLC) is the US-specific form of a private limited company A private limited company is any type of business entity in Privately held company, "private" ownership used in many jurisdictions, in contrast to a Pu ...
(LLC), and was renamed Breadbox Ensemble. In 2015, Frank Fischer, the CEO of Breadbox, died and efforts on the
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
stopped until later in 2017 when it was
bought ''Bought'' is a 1931 American Pre-Code Hollywood, Pre-Code drama film produced and released by Warner Bros. and directed by Archie Mayo. The movie stars Constance Bennett and features Ben Lyon, Richard Bennett (actor), Richard Bennett and Dorot ...
by blueway.Softworks. PC/GEOS should not be confused with the 8-bit GEOS product from the same company, which runs on the
Commodore 64 The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit In computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation ...

Commodore 64
and
Apple II The Apple II (stylized as apple ] '') is an 8-bit home computer">8-bit.html" ;"title="'') is an 8-bit">'') is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. It was designed primari ...

Apple II
.


PC/GEOS


GeoWorks Ensemble

In 1990, GeoWorks released PC/GEOS for
IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first computer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible IBM PC c ...
systems. Commonly referred to as ''GeoWorks Ensemble'', it was incompatible with the earlier GEOS (8-bit operating system), 8-bit versions of GEOS for
Commodore Commodore may refer to: Ranks * Commodore (rank) Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to brigadier and air commodore that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. It is either regarded as ...
and
Apple II The Apple II (stylized as apple ] '') is an 8-bit home computer">8-bit.html" ;"title="'') is an 8-bit">'') is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. It was designed primari ...

Apple II
computers, but provided numerous enhancements, including scalable fonts and multitasking on
IBM PC XT The IBM Personal Computer XT (model 5160, often shortened to PC/XT) is the second computer in the IBM Personal Computer The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first computer released in the IBM PC model l ...
- and
AT
AT
-class PC clones. GeoWorks saw a market opportunity to provide a graphical user interface for the 16 million older model PCs that were unable to run Microsoft Windows 2.x. GEOS was packaged with a suite of productivity applications. Each had a name prefixed by "Geo": GeoWrite, GeoDraw; GeoManager; GeoPlanner; GeoDex, and GeoComm. It was also bundled with many PCs at the time, but like other GUI environments for the PC platform, such as
Graphics Environment Manager GEM (for Graphics Environment Manager) is an operating environment In computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contr ...
(GEM), it ultimately proved less successful in the marketplace than Windows. Former CEO of GeoWorks claims that GEOS faded away "because Microsoft threatened to withdraw supply of
MS-DOS MS-DOS ( ; acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System, also known as Microsoft DOS) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Example ...
to hardware manufacturers who bundled Geoworks with their machines". In December 1992,
NEC is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign sta ...
and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
bundled an
original equipment manufacturer An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is generally perceived as a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer. However, the term is also used in several other ways, which causes ambiguity Amb ...
(OEM) version of GeoWorks named the CD Manager with their respective CD-ROM players that sold as retail box add-on peripherals for consumers. The NEC Bundle retailed for around $500.00 with a 1x external
CD-ROM A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital ...

CD-ROM
, ''Small Computer System Interface'' (
SCSI Small Computer System Interface (SCSI, ) is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, protocols, electrical, optical and logical interface ...
) interface controller, Labtec CD-150 amplified stereo speakers and 10 software titles. A scaled-down version of GeoWorks was used by
America Online AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand marketed by Verizon Media. The service traces its ...
for their DOS-based AOL client software from the time of introduction on IBM compatible PCs until the late 1990s when America Online dropped development for graphical DOS in favor of Microsoft Windows. During that time, the popular single 3.5"
self-booting disk A self-booting disk is a floppy disk for home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior and exterior as ...
that AOL was distributing could be hacked to
boot A boot, plural boots, is a type of specific footwear Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which typically serves the purpose of protective clothing, protection against adversities of the environment such as ground textures and temper ...
the GeoWorks environment. IBM released the PC/GEOS-based EduQuest SchoolView network management tool for K-12 schools in 1994. Negotiations to make PC/GEOS an integral part of PC DOS 7.0 failed. GeoWorks attempted to get third-party developers but was unable to get much support due to expense of the developer kit, which cost $1,000 for the manuals only, and the difficult programming environment, which required a second PC networked via serial port to run the debugger. Even though PC/GEOS is referred to as an "operating system", it still requires DOS in load. GEOS and its applications were written in a mix of 8086
assembly language In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gene ...
(Espire) and C (GEOS Object C: GOC), both with non-standard language extensions to support the
object-oriented Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mai ...
design. Under DR DOS 6.0, if TASKMAX was loaded before PC/GEOS, PC/GEOS registered as graphical menu system for TASKMAX. This still worked under the pre-emptive multitasker (
EMM386 EMM386 is the expanded memory In DOS memory management, expanded memory is a system of bank switching that provided additional memory to DOS programs beyond the limit of conventional memory (640 KiB). ''Expanded memory'' is an umbrella term ...
/MULTI + TASKMGR) provided by
Novell DOS 7 DR-DOS (written as DR DOS, without a hyphen, in versions up to and including 6.0) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Exam ...
,
OpenDOS 7.01 DR-DOS (written as DR DOS, without a hyphen, in versions up to and including 6.0) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Exam ...
and
DR-DOS 7.02 DR-DOS (written as DR DOS, without a hyphen, in versions up to and including 6.0) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Exam ...
(and higher), allowing for multiple GEOS and DOS applications to run concurrently. (NB. NWDOSTIP.TXT is a comprehensive work on
Novell DOS 7 DR-DOS (written as DR DOS, without a hyphen, in versions up to and including 6.0) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Exam ...
and
OpenDOS 7.01 DR-DOS (written as DR DOS, without a hyphen, in versions up to and including 6.0) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Exam ...
, including the description of many undocumented features and internals. It is part of the author's yet larger MPDOSTIP.ZIP collection maintained up to 2001 and distributed on many sites at the time. The provided link points to a HTML-converted older version of the NWDOSTIP.TXT file.)
After release of Ensemble 2.01, GeoWorks ended support for the desktop version to focus on handhelds and smart devices. Geoworks Ensemble won the 1991
Software Publishers Association The Software and Information Industry Association (SIIA) is a trade association dedicated to the entertainment, consumer and business software industries. Established in 1984 as the Software Publishers Association (SPA), the SIIA took its new na ...
Excellence in Software Award for Best Consumer Program.


NewDeal Office

A newer version of PC/GEOS was marketed in the late 1990s as ''NewDeal Office'' from NewDeal Inc. in hopes of creating a market among owners of
i386 The Intel 386, originally released as 80386 and later renamed i386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985. The first versions had 275,000 transistorsi486 The Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Le ...
and
Pentium Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel. The Pentium (original), original Pentium was released in 1993. After that, the Pentium II and Pentium III were released. In their form , ...
PCs that could not run
Windows 95 Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) lik ...
or
Windows 98 Windows 98 is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, And ...
effectively. NewDeal released 3 new versions of NewDeal Office (NewDeal Office 2.5, NewDeal Office 3/98 and NewDeal Office 2000) until it went bankrupt in 2000. NDO or NDO 2000 came with a webbrowser named Skipper or Skipper 2000, respectively.


Breadbox Ensemble

After "NewDeal Inc." went out of business, Breadbox purchased the rights in the software from GeoWorks in 2001. Their newest PC/GEOS, 4.x, is now a full productivity and internet suite, including web browser (named WebMagick) as well as email. Other essential programs such as word processing, spreadsheet, flat file database and graphics applications are integrated into this package. On 14 November 2015, Frank S. Fischer, the CEO and owner of Breadbox Ensemble LLC, died of a heart attack, some while after announcing plans to bring GEOS to Android.


Versions

* 1990: OS/90 beta version * 1990: geoDOS beta version * 1990: GeoWorks 1.0 * 1991: GeoWorks 1.2 * 1992: GeoWorks 1.2 Pro (with
Borland Borland Software Corporation was a computer technology company founded in 1983 by Niels Jensen, Ole Henriksen, Mogens Glad and Philippe Kahn. Its main business was the development and sale of software development and software deployment products. ...
Quattro Pro Quattro Pro is a spreadsheet program developed by Borland and now sold by Corel, most often as part of Corel's WordPerfect Office suite. Characteristics Historically, Quattro Pro used keyboard commands close to those of Lotus 1-2-3. While it ...
for DOS with PC/GEOS "Look and Feel") * 1992: GeoWorks DTP * 1992: GeoWorks CD Manager * 1993: GeoWorks Ensemble 2.0 (new kernel PC/GEOS 2.0) * 1993: Geopublish 2.0 * 1994: Geoworks Ensemble 2.01 * 1996: NewDeal Office 2.2 * 1996: NewDeal Office 2.5 * 1996: NewDeal Publish 2.5
shareware Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially shared by the owner for trial use at little or no cost with usually limited functionality or incomplete documentation but which can be upgraded upon payment. Shareware is often offered ...
version * 1997: NewDeal Office 97 * 1998: NewDeal Office 98 * 1999: NewDeal Office release 3 (new kernel PC/GEOS 3.0) * 1999: NewDeal Office release 3 evaluation * 1999: NewDeal Office 3.2 * 2000: NewDeal Office 3.2d (German patch) * 2000: NewDeal Office 2000 (new kernel PC/GEOS 4.0) * 2000: NewDeal Office 2000 for (for a Surf´n´Office PC from Ted Turner IV ( MyTurn, Inc.) with help from
CNN The Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television Pay television, also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription The ...

CNN
) * 2001: BreadBox Ensemble beta version 4.0.1.1 * 2001: BreadBox Ensemble beta version 4.0.1.x * 2002: Breadbox Ensemble beta version 4.0.2.0 * 2005–March: Breadbox Ensemble version 4.1.0.0 * 2005–November: Breadbox Ensemble version 4.1.2.0 * 2009–August: Breadbox Ensemble version 4.1.3.0


PEN/GEOS

PEN/GEOS 1.0 was the new name for PC/GEOS 2.0 when GeoWorks released it on 9 April 1992. PEN/GEOS 1.0 was a pioneering
personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widesprea ...
(PDA) technology. GEOS was also used in the low-end GeoBook
laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are ...

laptop
from
Brother Industries is a Japanese multinational corporation, multinational electronics and electrical equipment company headquartered in Nagoya, Japan. Its products include Printer (computing), printers, multifunction printers, desktop computers, sewing machin ...
and in several
Nokia Communicator The Nokia Communicator is a brand name for a series of business-optimized smartphones marketed by Nokia, Nokia Corporation, all of which appear as normal (if large) phones on the outside, and open in Flip (form), clamshell format to access a QWERTY ...

Nokia Communicator
models (GEOS 3.0 in models 9000, 9110). PEN/GEOS 2.0 was released in 1992, and version 3.0 was released in 1995.


''Zoomer'' devices; Tandy Z-PDA, AST GRiDPad 2390, Casio Z-7000 & XL 7000

PEN/GEOS 1.0 was used as the operating system for the
Tandy Corporation Tandy Corporation was an American family-owned leather Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using t ...
Z-PDA, which was introduced shortly after the first Apple Newton MessagePad.
Palm Computing Palm, Inc. was an American company that specialized in manufacturing personal digital assistants (PDAs) and various other electronics. They were the designer of the PalmPilot, the first PDA successfully marketed worldwide, as well as the Treo 60 ...
had been incorporated to create software for this device and shipped its first handwriting recognition software, PalmPrint,
personal information manager A personal information manager (often referred to as a PIM tool or, more simply, a PIM) is a type of application software that functions as a personal organizer. The acronym PIM is now, more commonly, used in reference to personal information manag ...
, Palm Organizer, and synchronization software, PalmConnect, on the Z-PDA. Palm Organizer included the PalmSchedule date book, PalmAddress address book, PalmNotes notebook, a dictionary, calculator, clock, forms calculator, 26 language translation dictionary, on-line help, holiday, and travel information. The device was also sold under license as the AST GRiDPad 2390 and as the Casio Z-7000 which was the best selling version. In the US, Casio sold it under the name XL-7000 without the multi-lingual interface, but added an AOL client and some USA specific help files. These devices were all named ''Zoomer'' and were the first PDAs with a connection to the online services
CompuServe CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was an American online service provider, the first major commercial one in the United States – described in 1994 as "the oldest of the Big Three information services ...
and
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal A web portal is a specially designed website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page ...

AOL
. This was made possible through the pre-installed dial-up software CompuServeAOL.


HP OmniGo 100 & 120

In 1993, GeoWorks released PEN/GEOS 2.0, again based on PC/GEOS 2.0. In 1995, this version of GEOS appeared (running on top of DOS) on the
HP OmniGo 100 The HP 200LX Palmtop PC (F1060A, F1061A, F1216A), also known as project ''Felix'', is a personal digital assistant introduced by Hewlett-Packard in August 1994. It was often called a Palmtop PC, and it was notable that it was, with some mi ...
. It featured
Graffiti Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular ''graffito'' is rarely used except in archeology) is a type of art genre that means writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graf ...
handwriting recognition. The OmniGo is a flip-around clamshell handheld computer powered by a
Vadem VG230 The NEC V20 was a microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred ...
integrated PC-on-a-chip. The VG230 chip includes an
Intel 80186 The Intel 80186, also known as the iAPX 186, or just 186, is a microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit ...
-instruction set compatible
NEC V30 The NEC V20 was a microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred ...
core. It was soon followed by the
HP OmniGo 120 The HP 200LX Palmtop PC (F1060A, F1061A, F1216A), also known as project ''Felix'', is a personal digital assistant introduced by Hewlett-Packard in August 1994. It was often called a Palmtop PC, and it was notable that it was, with some mi ...
, which added a high-contrast screen.


Brother LW-Writing System

Brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexu ...
LW-screen typewriters use PEN/GEOS and are the only version of the operating system that ships with vendor-provided drivers for scanner and it included a GEOS scanning application. In Germany, the Brother LW750ic system is equipped with PEN/GEOS.


Brother GeoBook

In 1997, Brother, in collaboration with IBM, brought the GeoBook series of notebooks to market. GeoBook models NB-60, NB-80C, and PN-9100GR used a modified version of PEN/GEOS using the Yago user interface. The GeoBook series was marketed mainly in education and was part of the ''IBM Eduquest School View'' strategy.


Nokia Communicator 9000(i) and 9110(i)

In 1996, the
Nokia 9000 Communicator The Nokia 9000 Communicator was the first product in Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia , referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish s, , and company, founded in 1865. Nokia's main headquarters are in , , in the greater , ...
smartphone was introduced. This phone uses PEN/GEOS 3.0 and established the smartphone market. Nokia followed with Communicator models 9000i, 9110, and 9110i.


GEOS-SC

GEOS-SC was a 32-bit
reduced instruction set computer In computer engineering, a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) is a computer designed to simplify the individual instructions given to the computer in order to realise a task. Unlike the instructions given to a complex instruction set comp ...
(RISC) CPU
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
, OS, and GUI for the Japanese cellphone market. It was released in 1997. Originally built as GeoWorks' planned future OS and codenamed 'Liberty', GEOS-SC became the basis for cellphones designed by
Mitsubishi Electric , established on 15 January 1921, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mul ...
Company (MELCO) of Japan.


GEOS-SE

Alongside this, GEOS-SE which was an OS designed and developed by Eden Ltd., a UK-based company acquired in 1997 by Geoworks. It became the basis of several other devices, most notably the Seiko Epson Locatio which was a multifunction device incorporating browser, PIM software, phone, GPS and Camera. It was launched in Japan in 1998.


FreeGEOS

Since 2016, the
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
of PC/GEOS has been made available as FreeGEOS and can be
compiled In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (the ''source'' language) into another language (the ''target'' language). The name "compiler" is primarily ...

compiled
and edited freely.


References


Further reading

* GEOWORKS. (1990). "Product Packaging (a printed card box with corrugated card liner) Part number: 16-2001-0101 Bar Code: 0 14233 20010 6". GeoWorks, Berkeley, CA 94704. * Oerttel, Burkhard. ''Das große Buch zu GeoWorks Pro, Ensemble & DTP'', Data Becker GmbH, 1992, . * Oerttel, Burkhard. ''Das große Buch zu GeoWorks 2.0'', Data Becker GmbH, 1994, . * Wegen, Andreas. ''GeoWorks DTP, Pro, Ensemble'', te-wi Verlag bzw. TLC The Learning Companie, Series: Grundlagen und Praxis - Betriebssysteme, 1992, . * Wegen, Andreas. ''GeoWorks 2.0 - Bedienung, Applikationen, Beispiele, Tips, Interna, Referenz'', te-wi Verlag, 1993, . * Seibert, Axel. ''GeoWorks - Ensemble Erfolgreich starten - sicher nutzen'', Markt & Technik Verlag München, Series: Workshop - PC, 1991, . * Roßkamp, Alfred. ''GeoWorks Ensemble - Einführung in die Benutzerschnittstelle'', Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (dtv), Series: Beck EDV-Berater im dtv (Basiswissen - GeoWorks), 1993, . * Bartel, Rainer. ''GeoWorks 1.2 & Pro - Der Einstieg in 20 Schritten'', Sybex Verlag Düsseldorf, Series: Quick Start, 1992, . * Schölles, Reiner. ''GeoWorks 2.0 - Schnellanleitung'', Data Becker GmbH, 1994, .


External links

* Usenet ** **
Breadbox Computer Company
former developer and publisher of GEOS
GEOS FAQ

GEOS-InfoBase
* * blueway.Softworks {{DEFAULTSORT:Geos (16-Bit Operating System) DOS software Formerly proprietary software Graphical user interfaces Mobile operating systems Operating system APIs Software using the Apache license Assembly language software Window-based operating systems X86 operating systems 1990 software cs:GEOS