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Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an
artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and i ...
and
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. This may be to carry out, resist or undo a . It is a type of and may involve , or both. Definitions of the term are s ...
that originated in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
in the early 20th century and also developed in Russia. It emphasized dynamism, speed, technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. Its key figures were the Italians
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist Futurists are people whose specialty or interest is futurology Futures studies, futures resear ...

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
,
Umberto Boccioni Umberto Boccioni (, ; 19 October 1882 – 17 August 1916) was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. Despite his short life, his approach to ...

Umberto Boccioni
, Carlo Carrà,
Fortunato Depero Fortunato Depero (March 30, 1892 – November 29, 1960) was an Italian Futurism (art), futurist painter, writer, sculptor and graphic designer. Biography Although born in Fondo or in the neighboring village of Malosco, according to other sour ...

Fortunato Depero
,
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
,
Giacomo Balla Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 Decembe ...
, and
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
. It glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's ''
Manifesto of Futurism The ''Manifesto of Futurism'' ( Italian: ''Manifesto del Futurismo'') is a manifesto written by the Italians, Italian poetry, poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and published in 1909. Marinetti expresses an artistic philosophy called Futurism that wa ...

Manifesto of Futurism
'', Boccioni's sculpture ''
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space ''Unique Forms of Continuity in Space'' ( it, Forme uniche della continuità nello spazio) is a 1913 bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such ...
'', Balla's painting '' Abstract Speed + Sound'', and Russolo's '' The Art of Noises''. Although it was largely an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, where some
Russian Futurists Russian Futurism (art), Futurism is the broad term for a movement of Russian poets and artists who adopted the principles of Filippo Marinetti's "Futurist Manifesto, Manifesto of Futurism," which espoused the rejection of the past, and a celebrat ...
would later go on to found groups of their own; other countries either had a few Futurists or had movements inspired by Futurism. The Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture, and even
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The va ...
. To some extent Futurism influenced the art movements
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...

Art Deco
,
Constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
,
Surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the aftermath of in which artists depicted unnerving, illogical scenes and developed techniques to allow the to express itself. Its aim was, according to leader , to "resolve the previously contradi ...

Surrealism
, and
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Cabaret Voltaire (c. 1916). New York Dada began c. 1915, and after 1920 ...

Dada
, and to a greater degree
Precisionism 250px, Charles Demuth, ''Aucassin and Nicolette,'' oil on canvas, 1921 Precisionism was the first indigenous modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes ...
,
Rayonism 300px, Mikhail Larionov, ''Red Rayonism'', 1913 Rayonism (or Rayism or Rayonnism) was a style of abstract art Abstract art uses visual language#REDIRECT Visual language Water, rabbit, deer pictographs on a replica of an Aztec Stone of the ...
, and
Vorticism Vorticism was a London-based modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philoso ...
.


Italian Futurism

Futurism is an avant-garde movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist Futurists are people whose specialty or interest is futurology Futures studies, futures resear ...

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
. Marinetti launched the movement in his ''
Manifesto of Futurism The ''Manifesto of Futurism'' ( Italian: ''Manifesto del Futurismo'') is a manifesto written by the Italians, Italian poetry, poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and published in 1909. Marinetti expresses an artistic philosophy called Futurism that wa ...

Manifesto of Futurism
'',Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, ''I manifesti del futurismo'', February 20, 2009
/ref> which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in ''La gazzetta dell'Emilia'', an article then reproduced in the French daily newspaper ''
Le Figaro ''Le Figaro'' () is a French daily morning newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that ...

Le Figaro
'' on Saturday 20 February 1909.Futurist Manifesto, reproduced in ''Futurist Aristocracy'', New York, April 1923
/ref> He was soon joined by the painters
Umberto Boccioni Umberto Boccioni (, ; 19 October 1882 – 17 August 1916) was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. Despite his short life, his approach to ...

Umberto Boccioni
, Carlo Carrà,
Giacomo Balla Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 Decembe ...
,
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
and the composer
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
. Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. "We want no part of it, the past", he wrote, "we the young and strong ''Futurists!''" The Futurists admired
speed In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed (commonly referred to as ''v'') of an object is the magnitude (mathematics), magnitude of the rate of change of its Position (vector), position with time or the magnitude of the change of its posit ...

speed
,
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of any Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business ...

technology
, youth and
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violence
, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over
nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...

nature
, and they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, "however daring, however violent", bore proudly "the smear of madness", dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, and gloried in science. Publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, and the Futurists (usually led or prompted by Marinetti) wrote them on many topics, including painting, architecture, music, literature, photography, religion, women, fashion and cuisine. The founding manifesto did not contain a positive artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent ''Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting'' (published in Italian as a leaflet by '' Poesia'', Milan, 11 April 1910). This committed them to a "universal dynamism", which was to be directly represented in painting. Objects in reality were not separate from one another or from their surroundings: "The sixteen people around you in a rolling motor bus are in turn and at the same time one, ten four three; they are motionless and they change places. ... The motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, and in their turn the houses throw themselves upon the motor bus and are blended with it." The Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of
Divisionism Divisionism (also called chromoluminarism) was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically..Homer, William I. ''Seurat and the Science of Pa ...
, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, which had been adopted from Divisionism by
Giovanni Segantini Giovanni Segantini (15 January 1858 – 28 September 1899) was an Italian painter known for his large pastoral landscapes of the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain ...
and others. Later, Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art.
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
contributed to the formation of Italian Futurism's artistic style. Severini was the first to come into contact with
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists. Cubism offered them a means of analysing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism. They often painted modern urban scenes. Carrà's '' Funeral of the Anarchist Galli'' (1910–11) is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904. The action of a police attack and riot is rendered energetically with diagonals and broken planes. His ''Leaving the Theatre'' (1910–11) uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated and faceless figures trudging home at night under street lights. Boccioni's ''The City Rises'' (1910) represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control. His ''States of Mind'', in three large panels, ''The Farewell'', ''Those who Go'', and ''Those Who Stay'', "made his first great statement of Futurist painting, bringing his interests in , Cubism and the individual's complex experience of the modern world together in what has been described as one of the 'minor masterpieces' of early twentieth century painting."Humphreys, R. ''Futurism'', Tate Gallery, 1999 The work attempts to convey feelings and sensations experienced in time, using new means of expression, including "lines of force", which were intended to convey the directional tendencies of objects through space, "simultaneity", which combined memories, present impressions and anticipation of future events, and "emotional ambience" in which the artist seeks by intuition to link sympathies between the exterior scene and interior emotion. Boccioni's intentions in art were strongly influenced by the ideas of Bergson, including the idea of
intuition Intuition is the ability to acquire without recourse to conscious ing. Different fields use the word "intuition" in very different ways, including but not limited to: direct access to unconscious knowledge; unconscious cognition; inner sensing; ...
, which Bergson defined as a simple, indivisible experience of sympathy through which one is moved into the inner being of an object to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it. The Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted. Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, ''Pittura scultura Futuriste: Dinamismo plastico'' (''Futurist Painting Sculpture: Plastic Dynamism'') (1914). Balla's ''Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash'' (1912) exemplifies the Futurists' insistence that the perceived world is in constant movement. The painting depicts a dog whose legs, tail and leash—and the feet of the woman walking it—have been multiplied to a blur of movement. It illustrates the precepts of the ''Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting'' that, "On account of the persistency of an image upon the retina, moving objects constantly multiply themselves; their form changes like rapid vibrations, in their mad career. Thus a running horse has not four legs, but twenty, and their movements are triangular." His ''Rhythm of the Bow'' (1912) similarly depicts the movements of a violinist's hand and instrument, rendered in rapid strokes within a triangular frame. The adoption of Cubism determined the style of much subsequent Futurist painting, which Boccioni and Severini in particular continued to render in the broken colors and short brush-strokes of divisionism. But Futurist painting differed in both subject matter and treatment from the quiet and static Cubism of
Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and Scenic design, theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of ...

Picasso
,
Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...

Braque
and . As the art critic Robert Hughes observed, "In Futurism, the eye is fixed and the object moves, but it is still the basic vocabulary of Cubism—fragmented and overlapping planes". While there were Futurist portraits: Carrà's ''Woman with Absinthe'' (1911), Severini's ''Self-Portrait'' (1912), and Boccioni's ''Matter'' (1912), it was the urban scene and vehicles in motion that typified Futurist painting; Boccioni's '' The Street Enters the House'' (1911), Severini's ''Dynamic Hieroglyph of the Bal Tabarin'' (1912), and Russolo's ''Automobile at Speed'' (1913) The Futurists held their first exhibition outside of Italy in 1912 at the
Bernheim-Jeune Bernheim-Jeune gallery is one of the oldest art galleries in Paris. Opened on Rue Laffitte Rue Laffitte is a street in the 9th arrondissement of Paris The 9th arrondissement of Paris (''IXe arrondissement'') is one of the 20 Arrondissements of ...
gallery, Paris, which included works by Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo and Giacomo Balla. In 1912 and 1913, Boccioni turned to sculpture to translate into three dimensions his Futurist ideas. In ''
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space ''Unique Forms of Continuity in Space'' ( it, Forme uniche della continuità nello spazio) is a 1913 bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such ...
'' (1913) he attempted to realise the relationship between the object and its environment, which was central to his theory of "dynamism". The sculpture represents a striding figure, cast in bronze posthumously and exhibited in the
Tate Modern Tate Modern is an art gallery located in London. It houses the United Kingdom's national collection of international modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of h ...

Tate Modern
. (It now appears on the national side of Italian 20 eurocent coins). He explored the theme further in ''Synthesis of Human Dynamism'' (1912), ''Speeding Muscles'' (1913) and ''Spiral Expansion of Speeding Muscles'' (1913). His ideas on sculpture were published in the ''Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture'' In 1915 Balla also turned to sculpture making abstract "reconstructions", which were created out of various materials, were apparently moveable and even made noises. He said that, after making twenty pictures in which he had studied the velocity of automobiles, he understood that "the single plane of the canvas did not permit the suggestion of the dynamic volume of speed in depth ... I felt the need to construct the first dynamic plastic complex with iron wires, cardboard planes, cloth and tissue paper, etc."Martin, Marianne W. ''Futurist Art and Theory'', Hacker Art Books, New York, 1978 In 1914, personal quarrels and artistic differences between the Milan group, around Marinetti, Boccioni, and Balla, and the Florence group, around Carrà,
Ardengo Soffici Ardengo Soffici (7 April 1879 – 19 August 1964) was an Italian writer, painter, poet, sculptor and intellectual. Early life Soffici was born in Rignano sull'Arno, near Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy an ...

Ardengo Soffici
(1879–1964) and
Giovanni Papini Giovanni Papini (9 January 18818 July 1956) was an Italy, Italian journalist, essayist, novelist, short story writer, poet, literary critic, and Italian philosophy, philosopher. A controversial literary figure of the early and mid-twentieth century ...
(1881–1956), created a rift in Italian Futurism. The Florence group resented the dominance of Marinetti and Boccioni, whom they accused of trying to establish "an immobile church with an infallible creed", and each group dismissed the other as ''passéiste.'' Futurism had from the outset admired violence and was intensely patriotic. The ''Futurist Manifesto'' had declared, "We will glorify war—the world's only hygiene—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman." Although it owed much of its character and some of its ideas to radical political movements, it was not much involved in politics until the autumn of 1913. Then, fearing the re-election of , Marinetti published a political manifesto. In 1914 the Futurists began to campaign actively against the
Austro-Hungarian empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
, which still controlled some Italian territories, and Italian neutrality between the major powers. In September, Boccioni, seated in the balcony of the Teatro dal Verme in Milan, tore up an Austrian flag and threw it into the audience, while Marinetti waved an Italian flag. When Italy entered the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
in 1915, many Futurists enlisted. The experience of the war marked several Futurists, particularly Marinetti, who fought in the mountains of Trentino at the border of Italy and Austria-Hungary, actively engaging in propaganda. The combat experience also influenced Futurist music. The outbreak of war disguised the fact that Italian Futurism had come to an end. The Florence group had formally acknowledged their withdrawal from the movement by the end of 1914. Boccioni produced only one war picture and was killed in 1916. Severini painted some significant war pictures in 1915 (e.g. ''War'', ''Armored Train'', and ''Red Cross Train''), but in Paris turned towards Cubism and post-war was associated with the
Return to Order The return to order (french: Retour à l'ordre) was a European art movement that followed the First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28&n ...
. After the war, Marinetti revived the movement. This revival was called ''il secondo Futurismo'' (Second Futurism) by writers in the 1960s. The art historian Giovanni Lista has classified Futurism by decades: "Plastic Dynamism" for the first decade, "Mechanical Art" for the 1920s, "Aeroaesthetics" for the 1930s.


Russian Futurism

Russian Futurism was a movement of literature and the visual arts, involving various Futurist groups. The poet
Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (, ; rus, Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский, , vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ məjɪˈkofskʲɪj, Ru-Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky.ogg, links=y; – 14 Apri ...

Vladimir Mayakovsky
was a prominent member of the movement, as were
Velimir Khlebnikov Viktor Vladimirovich Khlebnikov, better known by the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page o ...
and
Aleksei Kruchyonykh Aleksei Yeliseyevich Kruchyonykh (russian: Алексе́й Елисе́евич Кручёных; 9 February 1886 – 17 June 1968) was a Russian poet, artist, and theorist, perhaps one of the most radical poet A poet is a person who ...
; visual artists such as
David Burliuk David Davidovich Burliuk ( rus, links=no, Давид Давидович Бурлюк; 21 July 1882 – 15 January 1967) was a Russian-language poet, artist, publicist and book illustrator associated with the Futurist Futurists (also known as f ...
,
Mikhail Larionov Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov (Russian language, Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Ларио́нов; June 3, 1881 – May 10, 1964) was an avant-garde Russian painter who worked with radical exhibitors and pioneered the first approac ...
,
Natalia Goncharova Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova ( rus, Ната́лья Серге́евна Гончаро́ва, p=nɐˈtalʲjə sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvnə ɡənʲtɕɪˈrovə; July 3, 1881October 17, 1962) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ...
,
Lyubov Popova Lyubov Sergeyevna Popova (russian: Любо́вь Серге́евна Попо́ва; April 24, 1889 – May 25, 1924) was a Russian avant-garde . Natalia Goncharova, ''Cyclist'', 1913 . Mikhail Larionov, ''The Glass'', 1912 . Kazimir Malevich, '' ...

Lyubov Popova
, and
Kazimir Malevich , birth_date = , birth_place = Kiev Governorate of Russian Empire , death_date = , death_place = Leningrad, Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, ...
found inspiration in the imagery of Futurist writings, and were writers themselves. Poets and painters collaborated on theatre production such as the Futurist opera ''
Victory Over the Sun __NOTOC__ ''Victory over the Sun'' (russian: Победа над Cолнцем, ''Pobeda nad Solntsem'') is a Russian Futurist opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Sin ...
'', with texts by Kruchenykh, music by
Mikhail Matyushin Michael Vasilyevich Matyushin (russian: Михаил Васильевич Матюшин; 1861 in Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod ( rus, links=no, Нижний Новгород, a=, p=ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), colloquially shortened to Niz ...
, and sets by Malevich. The main style of painting was
Cubo-Futurism Cubo-Futurism (also called Russian Futurism Russian Futurism (art), Futurism is the broad term for a movement of Russian poets and artists who adopted the principles of Filippo Marinetti's "Futurist Manifesto, Manifesto of Futurism," which esp ...
, extant during the 1910s. Cubo-Futurism combines the forms of
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
with the Futurist representation of movement; like their Italian contemporaries, the Russian Futurists were fascinated with dynamism, speed and the restlessness of modern urban life. The Russian Futurists sought controversy by repudiating the art of the past, saying that
Pushkin Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (; rus, links=no, Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкинIn Pushkin's day, his name was written ., r=Aleksándr Sergéyevich Púshkin, p=ɐlʲɪkˈsandr sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn, a=ru ...

Pushkin
and
Dostoevsky Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (; rus, Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, Fyódor Mikháylovich Dostoyévskiy, ˈfʲɵdər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪdʑ dəstɐˈjɛfskʲɪj, a=ru-Dostoevsky.ogg; 11 November 18219 February 1881) ...

Dostoevsky
should be "heaved overboard from the steamship of modernity". They acknowledged no authority and professed not to owe anything even to Marinetti, whose principles they had earlier adopted, most of whom obstructed him when he came to Russia to proselytize in 1914. The movement began to decline after the
revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relat ...
. The Futurists either stayed, were persecuted, or left the country. Popova, Mayakovsky and Malevich became part of the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
establishment and the brief
Agitprop Agitprop (; from rus, агитпроп, r=Agitpróp, portmanteau of ''agitatsiya'', "agitation" and ''propaganda'', "propaganda") is the promulgation of ideas (in Russian, "propaganda" does not have the pejorative connotation that it has acquired ...
movement of the 1920s; Popova died of a fever, Malevich would be briefly imprisoned and forced to paint in the new state-approved style, and Mayakovsky committed suicide on April 14, 1930.


Architecture

The Futurist architect
Antonio Sant'Elia Antonio Sant'Elia (; 30 April 1888 – 10 October 1916) was an Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection wit ...

Antonio Sant'Elia
expressed his ideas of modernity in his drawings for ''La Città Nuova'' (The New City) (1912–1914). This project was never built and Sant'Elia was killed in the First World War, but his ideas influenced later generations of architects and artists. The city was a backdrop onto which the dynamism of Futurist life is projected. The city had replaced the landscape as the setting for the exciting modern life. Sant'Elia aimed to create a city as an efficient, fast-paced machine. He manipulates light and shape to emphasize the sculptural quality of his projects. Baroque curves and encrustations had been stripped away to reveal the essential lines of forms unprecedented from their simplicity. In the new city, every aspect of life was to be rationalized and centralized into one great powerhouse of energy. The city was not meant to last, and each subsequent generation was expected to build their own city rather than inheriting the architecture of the past. Futurist architects were sometimes at odds with the Fascist state's tendency towards -classical aesthetic patterns. Nevertheless, several Futurist buildings were built in the years 1920–1940, including public buildings such as railway stations, maritime resorts and
post office A post office is a public facility that provides mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended fo ...

post office
s. Examples of Futurist buildings still in use today are
Trento railway station Trento railway station ( it, Stazione Ferroviaria di Trento, german: Bahnhof Trient) is the main station of Trento Trento (; also anglicized as Trent; lld, Trent; german: Trient, ; cim, Tria, ) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto A ...
, built by
Angiolo Mazzoni Angiolo Mazzoni (May 21, 1894 – September 28, 1979) was a state architect and engineer of the Italian Fascist government of the 1920s and 1930s. Mazzoni designed hundreds of public buildings, post offices and train stations during the Interwar p ...

Angiolo Mazzoni
, and the
Santa Maria Novella station Firenze Santa Maria Novella (in English Florence Santa Maria Novella) or Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is a terminus railway station in Florence, Italy. The station is used by 59 million people every year and is one of the busiest in Italy ...
in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
. The Florence station was designed in 1932 by the ''Gruppo Toscano'' (Tuscan Group) of architects, which included
Giovanni Michelucci Giovanni Michelucci, Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within ...
and Italo Gamberini, with contributions by Mazzoni.


Music

Futurist music rejected tradition and introduced experimental sounds inspired by machinery, and would influence several 20th-century composers. joined the Futurist movement in 1910 and wrote a ''Manifesto of Futurist Musicians'' in which he appealed to the young (as had Marinetti), because only they could understand what he had to say. According to Pratella, Italian music was inferior to music abroad. He praised the "sublime genius" of
Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic A polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic ( ...
and saw some value in the work of other contemporary composers, for example
Richard Strauss Richard Georg Strauss (; 11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, and violinist. Considered a leading composer of the late Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, l ...

Richard Strauss
,
Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, (; 2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Among his best-known compositions are orchestra ...

Elgar
,
Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky ( rus, link=no, Модест Петрович Мусоргский, Modést Petróvich Músorgskiy , mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj, Ru-Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky version.ogg; – ) was a Russian co ...

Mussorgsky
, and
Sibelius Jean Sibelius ( ; ; born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius, 8 December 186520 September 1957), was a Finnish composer and violinist of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. He is widely recognized as his country's greatest composer and, t ...

Sibelius
. By contrast, the Italian
symphony A symphony is an extended musical composition Musical composition can refer to an Originality, original piece or work of music, either Human voice, vocal or Musical instrument, instrumental, the musical form, structure of a musical piece ...

symphony
was dominated by
opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a s ...

opera
in an "absurd and anti-musical form". The conservatories was said to encourage backwardness and mediocrity. The publishers perpetuated mediocrity and the domination of music by the "rickety and vulgar" operas of
Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( , ; ; 22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers ...

Puccini
and
Umberto Giordano Umberto Menotti Maria Giordano (28 August 186712 November 1948) was an Italian composer, mainly of opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct ...
. The only Italian Pratella could praise was his teacher
Pietro Mascagni Pietro Mascagni (7 December 1863 – 2 August 1945) was an Italian composer primarily known for his operas. His 1890 masterpiece ''Cavalleria rusticana'' caused one of the greatest sensations in opera history and single-handedly ushered in the ' ...

Pietro Mascagni
, because he had rebelled against the publishers and attempted innovation in opera, but even Mascagni was too traditional for Pratella's tastes. In the face of this mediocrity and conservatism, Pratella unfurled "the red flag of Futurism, calling to its flaming symbol such young composers as have hearts to love and fight, minds to conceive, and brows free of cowardice."
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
(1885–1947) wrote '' The Art of Noises'' (1913), an influential text in 20th-century musical aesthetics. Russolo used instruments he called ''
intonarumori and the intonarumori Intonarumori are experimental musical instrument playing an experimental hydraulophone pipe organ made from a piece of sewer drainage pipe and plumbing fittings in 2006 An experimental musical instrument (or custom-made inst ...
'', which were
acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) * Acoustic (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), ''Acoustic'' (Joey Cape and Tony Sly album), 2004 * Aco ...
noise Noise is unwanted sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such waves and t ...

noise
generators that permitted the performer to create and control the
dynamics Dynamics (from Greek language, Greek δυναμικός ''dynamikos'' "powerful", from δύναμις ''dynamis'' "power (disambiguation), power") or dynamic may refer to: Physics and engineering * Dynamics (mechanics) ** Aerodynamics, the study o ...
and
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
of several different types of noises. Russolo and Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with ''intonarumori'', in 1914. However they were prevented from performing in many major European cities by the outbreak of war. Futurism was one of several 20th-century movements in art music that paid homage to, included or imitated machines.
Ferruccio Busoni Ferruccio Busoni (1 April 1866 – 27 July 1924) was an Italian composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...

Ferruccio Busoni
has been seen as anticipating some Futurist ideas, though he remained wedded to tradition. Russolo's ''intonarumori'' influenced
Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (; rus, Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, , ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj, Ru-Igor-Feodorovich-Stravinsky.ogg; 6 April 1971) was a Russian composer, pianist and conducto ...
,
Arthur Honegger Arthur Honegger (; 10 March 1892 – 27 November 1955) was a Swiss composer, who was born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris. He was a member of Les Six "Les Six" () is a name given to a group of six composers, five of them F ...
,
George Antheil George Antheil (; July 8, 1900 – February 12, 1959) was an American avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to ...
, Edgar Varèse,
Stockhausen Karlheinz Stockhausen (; 22 August 1928 – 5 December 2007) was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. He is known for his ground ...

Stockhausen
and
John Cage John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical ...
. In ''
Pacific 231 ''Pacific 231'' is an orchestral work by Arthur Honegger Arthur Honegger (; 10 March 1892 – 27 November 1955) was a Swiss composer, who was born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris. He was a member of Les Six "Les Six" () ...
'', Honegger imitated the sound of a steam locomotive. There are also Futurist elements in
Prokofiev Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (; rus, Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев, r=Sergej Sergejevič Prokofjev, link=no ; 27 April .S. 15 April1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor. ...
's ''The Steel Step'' and in his Second Symphony. Most notable in this respect, however, is the American
George Antheil George Antheil (; July 8, 1900 – February 12, 1959) was an American avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to ...
. His fascination with machinery is evident in his ''Airplane Sonata'', ''Death of the Machines'', and the 30-minute '' Ballet Mécanique''. The ''Ballet Mécanique'' was originally intended to accompany an experimental film by
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
, but the musical score is twice the length of the film and now stands alone. The score calls for a percussion ensemble consisting of three
xylophones The xylophone (from the Greek words —''xylon'', "wood" + —''phōnē'', "sound, voice", literally meaning "sound of wood") is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In princi ...
, four bass drums, a tam-tam, three airplane propellers, seven electric bells, a siren, two "live pianists", and sixteen synchronized player pianos. Antheil's piece was the first to synchronize machines with human players and to exploit the difference between what machines and humans can play.


Dance

The Futuristic movement also influenced the concept of dance. Indeed, dancing was interpreted as an alternative way of expressing man's ultimate fusion with the machine. The altitude of a flying plane, the power of a car's motor and the roaring loud sounds of complex machinery were all signs of man's intelligence and excellence which the art of dance had to emphasize and praise. This type of dance is considered futuristic since it disrupts the referential system of traditional, classical dance and introduces a different style, new to the sophisticated bourgeois audience. The dancer no longer performs a story, a clear content, that can be read according to the rules of ballet. One of the most famous futuristic dancers was the Italian . Trained as a classical ballerina, she is known for her "Aerodanze" and continued to earn her living by performing in classical and popular productions. She describes this innovative form of dance as the result of a deep collaboration with Marinetti and his poetry. Through these words, she explains: " I launched this idea of the aerial-futurist poetry with Marinetti, he himself declaiming the poetry. A small stage of a few square meters;... I made myself a satin costume with a helmet; everything that the plane did had to be expressed by my body. It flew and, moreover, it gave the impression of these wings that trembled, of the apparatus that trembled,... And the face had to express what the pilot felt."


Literature

Futurism as a literary movement made its official debut with F.T. Marinetti's ''
Manifesto of Futurism The ''Manifesto of Futurism'' ( Italian: ''Manifesto del Futurismo'') is a manifesto written by the Italians, Italian poetry, poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and published in 1909. Marinetti expresses an artistic philosophy called Futurism that wa ...
'' (1909), as it delineated the various ideals Futurist poetry should strive for. Poetry, the predominate medium of Futurist literature, can be characterized by its unexpected combinations of images and hyper-conciseness (not to be confused with the actual length of the poem). The Futurists called their style of poetry ''parole in libertà'' (word autonomy), in which all ideas of meter were rejected and the word became the main unit of concern. In this way, the Futurists managed to create a new language free of syntax punctuation, and metrics that allowed for free expression. Theater also has an important place within the Futurist universe. Works in this genre have scenes that are few sentences long, have an emphasis on nonsensical humor, and attempt to discredit the deep rooted traditions via parody and other devaluation techniques. There are a number of examples of Futurist novels from both the initial period of Futurism and the neo-Futurist period, from Marinetti himself to a number of lesser known Futurists, such as Primo Conti, Ardengo Soffici and Giordano Bruno Sanzin (''Zig Zag, Il Romanzo Futurista'' edited by Alessandro Masi, 1995). They are very diverse in style, with very little recourse to the characteristics of Futurist Poetry, such as 'parole in libertà'. Arnaldo Ginna's 'Le ''locomotive con le calze(Trains with socks on) plunges into a world of absurd nonsense, childishly crude. His brother Bruno Corra wrote in ''Sam Dunn è morto'' (Sam Dunn is Dead) a masterpiece of Futurist fiction, in a genre he himself called 'Synthetic' characterized by compression, and precision; it is a sophisticated piece that rises above the other novels through the strength and pervasiveness of its irony. Science Fiction novels play an important role in Futurist literature.


Film

When interviewed about her favorite film of all times, famed movie critic
Pauline Kael Pauline Kael (; June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art Th ...
stated that the director
Dimitri Kirsanoff Dimitri Kirsanoff (russian: Димитрий Кирсанов, né Markus David Sussmanovitch Kaplan, Маркус Давид Зусманович Каплан; 6 March 1899 – 11 February 1957) was an early filmmaker Filmmaking (or, in any c ...
, in his silent
experimental film Experimental film, experimental cinema, or avant-garde cinema is a mode of filmmaking that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms or alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working. Many experi ...
'' Ménilmontant'' "developed a technique that suggests the movement known in painting as Futurism". '' Thaïs'' ("Thaïs"), directed by
Anton Giulio Bragaglia__NOTOC__ Anton Giulio Bragaglia (11 February 1890 – 15 July 1960) was a pioneer in Italy, Italian Futurism, Futurist photography and Italian Futurism (cinema), Futurist cinema. A versatile and intellectual artist with wide interests, he wrote a ...
(1917), is the only surviving of the 1910s Italian futurist cinema to date (35 min. of the original 70 min.).


Female Futurists

Within F.T. Marinetti's '''', two of his tenets briefly highlight his hatred for women under the pretense that it fuels the Futurist movement's visceral nature: Marinetti would begin to contradict himself when, in 1911, he called a Futurist; he dedicated a portrait of himself painted by Carrà to her, the said dedication declaring Casati as a Futurist being pasted on the canvas itself. In 1912, only three years after the ''
Manifesto of Futurism The ''Manifesto of Futurism'' ( Italian: ''Manifesto del Futurismo'') is a manifesto written by the Italians, Italian poetry, poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and published in 1909. Marinetti expresses an artistic philosophy called Futurism that wa ...

Manifesto of Futurism
'' was published, responded to Marinetti's claims in her ''Manifesto of the Futurist Woman'' ''(Response to F.T. Marinetti''.) Marinetti even later referred to her as "the 'first futurist woman.'" Her manifesto begins with a misanthropic tone by presenting how men and women are equal and both deserve contempt. She instead suggests that rather than the binary being limited to men and women, it should be replaced with "femininity and masculinity"; ample cultures and individuals should possess elements of both. Yet, she still embraces the core values of Futurism, especially its focus on "virility" and "brutality". Saint-Point uses this as a segue into her
antifeminist Antifeminism, also spelled anti-feminism, is opposition to some or all forms of feminism. In the late 19th century and early 20th century antifeminists opposed particular policy proposals for women's rights, such as women's suffrage, the right t ...
argument—giving women equal rights destroys their innate "potency" to strive for a better, more fulfilling life. In
Russian Futurist Russian Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni and Gino Severini in front of Le Figaro, Paris, February 9, 1912 Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an Art movement, artistic and social movement Social organisms, in ...
and
Cubo-Futurist Cubo-Futurism (also called Russian Futurism or Kubo-Futurizm) was an art movement that arose in early 20th century Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Nort ...
circles, however, from the start, there was a higher percentage of women participants than in Italy; examples of major female Futurists are
Natalia Goncharova Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova ( rus, Ната́лья Серге́евна Гончаро́ва, p=nɐˈtalʲjə sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvnə ɡənʲtɕɪˈrovə; July 3, 1881October 17, 1962) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ...
,
Aleksandra Ekster Oleksandra Oleksandrivna Ekster (née Grigorovich) ( uk, Олекса́ндра Олекса́ндрівна Е́кстер; 18 January 1882 – 17 March 1949), also known as Alexandra Exter, was a Ukrainian/French painter and designer of Belo ...
, and
Lyubov Popova Lyubov Sergeyevna Popova (russian: Любо́вь Серге́евна Попо́ва; April 24, 1889 – May 25, 1924) was a Russian avant-garde . Natalia Goncharova, ''Cyclist'', 1913 . Mikhail Larionov, ''The Glass'', 1912 . Kazimir Malevich, '' ...

Lyubov Popova
. Although Marinetti expressed his approval of
Olga Rozanova Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (also spelled Rosanova, Russian: Ольга Владимировна Розанова) (22 June, 1886 – 7 November, 1918, Moscow) was a Russian avant-garde artist painting in the styles of Suprematism, Neo-Primi ...
's paintings during his 1914 lecture tour of Russia, it is possible that the women painters' negative reaction to the said tour may have largely been due to his misogyny. Despite the chauvinistic nature of the Italian Futurist program, many serious professional female artists adopted the style, especially so after the end of the first World War. Notably among these female futurists is 's own wife , whom he had met in 1918 and exchanged a series of letters discussing each of their respective work in Futurism. Letters continued to be exchanged between the two with F.T Marinetti often complimenting Benedetta - the single name she was best known as - on her genius. In a letter dated August 16, 1919, Marinetti wrote to Benedetta "Do not forget your promise to work. You must carry your genius to its ultimate splendor. Every day." Although many of Benedetta's paintings were exhibited in major Italian exhibitions like the 1930-1936
Venice Biennale The Venice Biennale (; it, La Biennale di Venezia ; in English also called the "Venice ''Biennial''") is an arts organization based in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy ...

Venice Biennale
s (in which she was the first woman to have her art displayed since the exhibition's founding in 1895), the 1935
Rome Quadriennale The Rome Quadriennale (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional I ...
and several other futurist exhibitions, she was oft overshadowed in her work by her husband. The first introduction of Benedetta's feminist convictions regarding futurism is in the form of a public dialogue in 1925 (with a L.R Cannonieri) concerning the role of women in society. Benedetta was also one of the first to paint in
Aeropittura Aeropittura (''Aeropainting'') was a major expression of the second generation of Italian Futurism, from 1929 through the early 1940s. The technology and excitement of flight, directly experienced by most aeropainters,
, an abstract and futurist art style of landscape from the view of an airplane.


1920s and 1930s

Many Italian Futurists supported
Fascism Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and the economy that rose to prominence in early 20th-century Europ ...

Fascism
in the hope of modernizing a country divided between the industrialising north and the rural, archaic South. Like the Fascists, the Futurists were Italian nationalists, radicals, admirers of violence, and were opposed to parliamentary democracy. Marinetti founded the Futurist Political Party (''Partito Politico Futurista'') in early 1918, which was absorbed into Benito Mussolini's ''Fasci Italiani di Combattimento'' in 1919, making Marinetti one of the first members of the National Fascist Party. He opposed Fascism's later exaltation of existing institutions, calling them "reactionary", and walked out of the 1920 Fascist party congress in disgust, withdrawing from politics for three years; but he supported Italian Fascism until his death in 1944. The Futurists' association with Fascism after its triumph in 1922 brought them official acceptance in Italy and the ability to carry out important work, especially in architecture. After the Second World War, many Futurist artists had difficulty in their careers because of their association with a defeated and discredited regime. Marinetti sought to make Futurism the official state art of Fascist Italy but failed to do so. Mussolini chose to give patronage to numerous styles and movements in order to keep artists loyal to the regime. Opening the exhibition of art by the Novecento Italiano group in 1923, he said, "I declare that it is far from my idea to encourage anything like a state art. Art belongs to the domain of the individual. The state has only one duty: not to undermine art, to provide humane conditions for artists, to encourage them from the artistic and national point of view." Mussolini's mistress, Margherita Sarfatti, who was as able a cultural entrepreneur as Marinetti, successfully promoted the rival Novecento group, and even persuaded Marinetti to sit on its board. Although in the early years of Italian Fascism modern art was tolerated and even embraced, towards the end of the 1930s, right-wing Fascists introduced the concept of "degenerate art" from Germany to Italy and condemned Futurism. Marinetti made numerous moves to ingratiate himself with the regime, becoming less radical and avant-garde with each. He moved from Milan to Rome to be nearer the centre of things. He became an academician despite his condemnation of academies, married despite his condemnation of marriage, promoted religious art after the Lateran Treaty of 1929 and even reconciled himself to the Catholic Church, declaring that Jesus was a Futurist. Although Futurism mostly became identified with Fascism, it had leftist and anti-Fascist supporters. They tended to oppose Marinetti's artistic and political direction of the movement, and in 1924 the socialists, communists and anarchists walked out of the Milan Futurist Congress. The anti-Fascist voices in Futurism were not completely silenced until the annexation of Ethiopian Empire, Abyssinia and the Italo-German Pact of Steel in 1939. This association of Fascists, socialists and anarchists in the Futurist movement, which may seem odd today, can be understood in terms of the influence of Georges Sorel, whose ideas about the regenerative effect of political violence had adherents right across the political spectrum.


Aeropainting

Aeropainting (''aeropittura'') was a major expression of the second generation of Futurism beginning in 1926. The technology and excitement of flight, directly experienced by most aeropainters, offered aeroplanes and aerial landscape art, aerial landscape as new subject matter. Aeropainting was varied in subject matter and treatment, including realism (especially in works of propaganda), abstraction, dynamism, quiet Umbrian landscapes, portraits of Mussolini (e.g. Dottori's ''Portrait of il Duce''), devotional religious paintings, decorative art, and pictures of planes. Aeropainting was launched in a manifesto of 1929, ''Perspectives of Flight'', signed by Benedetta, Depero, Gerardo Dottori, Dottori, Fillìa, Marinetti, Enrico Prampolini, Prampolini, Somenzi and :it:Tato (Guglielmo Sansoni), Tato (Guglielmo Sansoni). The artists stated that "The changing perspectives of flight constitute an absolutely new reality that has nothing in common with the reality traditionally constituted by a terrestrial perspective" and that "Painting from this new reality requires a profound contempt for detail and a need to synthesise and transfigure everything." Crispolti identifies three main "positions" in aeropainting: "a vision of cosmic projection, at its most typical in Prampolini's 'cosmic idealism' ... ; a 'reverie' of aerial fantasies sometimes verging on fairy-tale (for example in Dottori ...); and a kind of aeronautical documentarism that comes dizzyingly close to direct celebration of machinery (particularly in Tullio Crali, Crali, but also in Tato and Ambrosi)." Eventually there were over a hundred aeropainters. Major figures include
Fortunato Depero Fortunato Depero (March 30, 1892 – November 29, 1960) was an Italian Futurism (art), futurist painter, writer, sculptor and graphic designer. Biography Although born in Fondo or in the neighboring village of Malosco, according to other sour ...

Fortunato Depero
, Marisa Mori, Enrico Prampolini, Gerardo Dottori, Mino Delle Site and Crali. Crali continued to produce ''aeropittura'' up until the 1980s.


Legacy

Futurism influenced many other twentieth-century art movements, including
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...

Art Deco
,
Vorticism Vorticism was a London-based modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philoso ...
,
Constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
,
Surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the aftermath of in which artists depicted unnerving, illogical scenes and developed techniques to allow the to express itself. Its aim was, according to leader , to "resolve the previously contradi ...

Surrealism
,
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Cabaret Voltaire (c. 1916). New York Dada began c. 1915, and after 1920 ...

Dada
, and much later Neo-Futurism and the Grosvenor School linocut artists. Futurism as a coherent and organized artistic movement is now regarded as extinct, having died out in 1944 with the death of its leader Marinetti. Nonetheless, the ideals of Futurism remain as significant components of modern Western culture; the emphasis on youth, speed, power and technology finding expression in much of modern commercial cinema and culture. Ridley Scott consciously evoked the designs of Antonio Sant'Elia, Sant'Elia in ''Blade Runner''. Echoes of Marinetti's thought, especially his "dreamt-of metallization of the human body", are still strongly prevalent in Japanese culture, and surface in manga/anime and the works of artists such as Shinya Tsukamoto, director of the ''Tetsuo'' (lit. "Ironman") films. Futurism has produced several reactions, including the literary genre of cyberpunk—in which technology was often treated with a critical eye—whilst artists who came to prominence during the first flush of the Internet, such as Stelarc and Mariko Mori, produce work which comments on Futurist ideals. and the art and architecture movement Neo-Futurism in which technology is considered a driver to a better quality of life and sustainability values. A revival of sorts of the Futurist movement in theatre began in 1988 with the creation of the Neo-Futurist style in Chicago, which utilizes Futurism's focus on speed and brevity to create a new form of immediate theatre. Currently, there are active Neo-Futurist troupes in Chicago, New York City, New York, San Francisco, and Montreal. Futurist ideas have been a major influence in Western popular music; examples include ZTT Records, named after Marinetti's poem ''Zang Tumb Tumb''; the band Art of Noise, named after Russolo's manifesto '' The Art of Noises''; and the Adam and the Ants single "Zerox (song), Zerox", the cover featuring a photograph by Bragaglia. Influences can also be discerned in dance music since the 1980s. Japanese Composer Ryuichi Sakamoto's 1986 album "Futurista (Ryuichi Sakamoto album), Futurista" was inspired by the movement. It features a speech from Tommaso Marinetti in the track 'Variety Show'. In 2009, Italian director Marco Bellocchio included Futurist art in his feature film ''Vincere''. In 2014, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum featured the exhibition "Italian Futurism, 1909–1944: Reconstructing the Universe". This was the first comprehensive overview of Italian Futurism to be presented in the United States.Guggenheim Museum's Italian Futurism Exhibition
Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art is a museum in London, with a collection solely centered around modern Italian artists and their works. It is best known for its large collection of Futurist paintings.


Futurism, Cubism, press articles and reviews

File:Luigi Russolo, Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini, The Sun, 25 February 1912.jpg, Photos, in descending order: Carlo Carrà,
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist Futurists are people whose specialty or interest is futurology Futures studies, futures resear ...

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
,
Umberto Boccioni Umberto Boccioni (, ; 19 October 1882 – 17 August 1916) was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. Despite his short life, his approach to ...

Umberto Boccioni
,
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
. Paintings, in descending order: Luigi Russolo, 1911, ''Souvenir d'un nuit'', 1911–12, ''La révolte'' (two versions are depicted here); Umberto Boccioni, 1912, ''Le rire''; Gino Severini, 1911, ''La danseuse obsedante''. Published in ''The Sun'', 25 February 1912 File:Jean Metzinger, Gino Severini, Albert Gleizes, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, Sommaire du n. 1536, décembre 1912.jpg, Jean Metzinger, 1910–11, ''Paysage'' (whereabouts unknown);
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1911, ''La danseuse obsedante''; Albert Gleizes, 1912, ''Man on a Balcony, l'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud)''. Published in ''Les Annales politiques et littéraires'', Sommaire du n. 1536, décembre 1912 File:Gino Severini, La Danse du Pan-Pan, L’autobus, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, 14 March 1920.jpg, Paintings by
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1911, ''La Danse du Pan-Pan'', and Severini, 1913, ''L'autobus''. Published in ''Les Annales politiques et littéraires'', ''Le Paradoxe Cubiste'', 14 March 1920 File:Gino Severini, Albert Gleizes, Luigi Russolo, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, n. 1916, 14 March 1920.jpg, Paintings by
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1911, ''Souvenirs de Voyage''; Albert Gleizes, 1912, ''Man on a Balcony, Man on a Balcony, L'Homme au balcon''; Severini, 1912–13, ''Portrait de Mlle Jeanne Paul-Fort'';
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
, 1911–12, ''La Révolte''. Published in ''Les Annales politiques et littéraires'', ''Le Paradoxe Cubiste'' (continued), n. 1916, 14 March 1920


People involved with Futurism

This is a partial list of people involved with the Futurist movement.


Architects

*
Angiolo Mazzoni Angiolo Mazzoni (May 21, 1894 – September 28, 1979) was a state architect and engineer of the Italian Fascist government of the 1920s and 1930s. Mazzoni designed hundreds of public buildings, post offices and train stations during the Interwar p ...

Angiolo Mazzoni
, Italian architect *
Antonio Sant'Elia Antonio Sant'Elia (; 30 April 1888 – 10 October 1916) was an Italian architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection wit ...

Antonio Sant'Elia
, Italian architect


Actors and dancers

* Arturo Bragaglia, Italian actor * Giannina Censi, dancer


Artists

*
Giacomo Balla Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 Decembe ...
, Italian painter and playwrightAngelo Bozzolla and Caroline Tisdall, ''Futurism'', Thames & Hudson, p. 107 * Alice Bailly, Swiss painter *
Umberto Boccioni Umberto Boccioni (, ; 19 October 1882 – 17 August 1916) was an influential Italian painter and sculptor. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures. Despite his short life, his approach to ...

Umberto Boccioni
, Italian painter and sculptor * Kseniya Boguslavskaya, Russian painter *
Anton Giulio Bragaglia__NOTOC__ Anton Giulio Bragaglia (11 February 1890 – 15 July 1960) was a pioneer in Italy, Italian Futurism, Futurist photography and Italian Futurism (cinema), Futurist cinema. A versatile and intellectual artist with wide interests, he wrote a ...
, Italian artist and photographer *
David Burliuk David Davidovich Burliuk ( rus, links=no, Давид Давидович Бурлюк; 21 July 1882 – 15 January 1967) was a Russian-language poet, artist, publicist and book illustrator associated with the Futurist Futurists (also known as f ...
, Ukrainian painter and co-founder of Russian Futurism * Vladimir Burliuk, Ukrainian painter and co-founder of Russian Futurism * Francesco Cangiullo, Italian writer and painter * Benedetta Cappa, Italian painter and writer * Carlo Carrà, Italian painter * Ambrogio Casati, Italian painter * Primo Conti, Italian artist * Tullio Crali, Italian artist * Luigi De Giudici, Italian painter *
Natalia Goncharova Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova ( rus, Ната́лья Серге́евна Гончаро́ва, p=nɐˈtalʲjə sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvnə ɡənʲtɕɪˈrovə; July 3, 1881October 17, 1962) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ...
, Russian painter *
Fortunato Depero Fortunato Depero (March 30, 1892 – November 29, 1960) was an Italian Futurism (art), futurist painter, writer, sculptor and graphic designer. Biography Although born in Fondo or in the neighboring village of Malosco, according to other sour ...

Fortunato Depero
, Italian painter * Gerardo Dottori, Italian painter, poet and art critic * Fillìa, Italian artist * Félix Del Marle, French painter *
Kazimir Malevich , birth_date = , birth_place = Kiev Governorate of Russian Empire , death_date = , death_place = Leningrad, Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, ...
, Russian painter and developer of
Cubo-Futurism Cubo-Futurism (also called Russian Futurism Russian Futurism (art), Futurism is the broad term for a movement of Russian poets and artists who adopted the principles of Filippo Marinetti's "Futurist Manifesto, Manifesto of Futurism," which esp ...
* Sante Monachesi, Italian painter * Marisa Mori, Italian painter * Almada Negreiros, Portuguese painter, poet and novelist * C. R. W. Nevinson, English painter and memoirist *
Mikhail Larionov Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov (Russian language, Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Ларио́нов; June 3, 1881 – May 10, 1964) was an avant-garde Russian painter who worked with radical exhibitors and pioneered the first approac ...
, Russian painter * Aristarkh Lentulov, Russian painter * Aldo Palazzeschi, Italian writer * Ivo Pannaggi, Italian artist *
Giovanni Papini Giovanni Papini (9 January 18818 July 1956) was an Italy, Italian journalist, essayist, novelist, short story writer, poet, literary critic, and Italian philosophy, philosopher. A controversial literary figure of the early and mid-twentieth century ...
, Italian writer * Emilio Pettoruti, Argentinian painter *
Lyubov Popova Lyubov Sergeyevna Popova (russian: Любо́вь Серге́евна Попо́ва; April 24, 1889 – May 25, 1924) was a Russian avant-garde . Natalia Goncharova, ''Cyclist'', 1913 . Mikhail Larionov, ''The Glass'', 1912 . Kazimir Malevich, '' ...

Lyubov Popova
, Russian painter * Enrico Prampolini, Italian painter, sculptor and scenographer * Ivan Puni, Russian painter *
Olga Rozanova Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (also spelled Rosanova, Russian: Ольга Владимировна Розанова) (22 June, 1886 – 7 November, 1918, Moscow) was a Russian avant-garde artist painting in the styles of Suprematism, Neo-Primi ...
, Russian painter *
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
, Italian painter, musician, musical instrument, instrument builder * Jules Schmalzigaug, Belgian painter *
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, Italian painter *
Ardengo Soffici Ardengo Soffici (7 April 1879 – 19 August 1964) was an Italian writer, painter, poet, sculptor and intellectual. Early life Soffici was born in Rignano sull'Arno, near Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy an ...

Ardengo Soffici
, Italian painter and writer * Joseph Stella, Italian-American painter * Frances Simpson Stevens, American painter * Mary Swanzy, Irish painter * Růžena Zátková, Czech painter


Composers and musicians

* Aldo Giuntini, Italian composer * Luigi Grandi, Italian composer * Nikolai Kulbin, Russian musician * Virgilio Mortari, Italian composer * , Italian composer, musicologist and essayist * Ugo Piatti, instrument maker, luthier and artist *
Luigi Russolo Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo (30 April 1885 – 6 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto '' The Art of Noises'' (1913). He is often regarded as one ...
, Italian painter, musician, musical instrument, instrument builder


Writers and poets

*
Giacomo Balla Giacomo Balla (18 July 1871 – 1 March 1958) was an Italian painter, art teacher and poet best known as a key proponent of Futurism , Carlo Carrà, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 Decembe ...
, Italian painter and playwright * Francesco Cangiullo, Italian writer and painter * Benedetta Cappa, Italian painter and writer * Mario Carli, Italian poet * Gerardo Dottori, Italian painter, poet and art critic * Escodamè (Michele Leskovic), Italian poet and artist * Farfa (poet), Farfa, Italian poet * Ilya Zdanevich ("Iliazd"), Georgian writer * Bruno Jasieński, Polish poet, prosaist and playwright *
Velimir Khlebnikov Viktor Vladimirovich Khlebnikov, better known by the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page o ...
, Russian poet * Aleksei Kruchenykh, Russian poet *
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (; 22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet, editor, art theorist, and founder of the Futurist Futurists are people whose specialty or interest is futurology Futures studies, futures resear ...

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
, Italian poet, playwright, novelist, journalist, theorist and founder of Futurism *
Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (, ; rus, Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский, , vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ məjɪˈkofskʲɪj, Ru-Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky.ogg, links=y; – 14 Apri ...

Vladimir Mayakovsky
, Russian poet and playwright * Almada Negreiros, Portuguese painter, poet and novelist * C. R. W. Nevinson, English painter and memoirist * Aldo Palazzeschi, Italian writer *
Giovanni Papini Giovanni Papini (9 January 18818 July 1956) was an Italy, Italian journalist, essayist, novelist, short story writer, poet, literary critic, and Italian philosophy, philosopher. A controversial literary figure of the early and mid-twentieth century ...
, Italian writer * Mykhaylo Semenko, Ukrainian poet and founder of Panfuturism * Igor Severyanin, Russian poet and leader of Ego-Futurism *
Ardengo Soffici Ardengo Soffici (7 April 1879 – 19 August 1964) was an Italian writer, painter, poet, sculptor and intellectual. Early life Soffici was born in Rignano sull'Arno, near Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy an ...

Ardengo Soffici
, Italian painter and writer * Vincenzo Fani Ciotti, Italian novelist and political writer


Scenographers

*Enrico Prampolini, Italian painter, sculptor and scenographer


See also

* Africanfuturism * Art manifesto * Futurist cooking * Googie architecture * High-tech architecture * Raygun Gothic * Universal Flowering * Afrofuturism * Indigenous Futurism


References


Further reading

* * Conversi, Daniele 200
"Art, Nationalism and War: Political Futurism in Italy (1909–1944)"
Sociology Compass, 3/1 (2009): 92–117. * D'Orsi Angelo 2009 'Il Futurismo tra cultura e politica. Reazione o rivoluzione?'. Editore: Salerno * Gentile, Emilo. 2003. ''The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism''. Praeger Publishers. * ''I poeti futuristi'', dir. by M. Albertazzi, w. essay of G. Wallace and M. Pieri, Trento, La Finestra editrice, 2004. * John Rodker (1927). ''The future of futurism''. New York: E.P. Dutton & company. * Lawrence Rainey, Christine Poggi, and Laura Wittman, eds., ''Futurism: An Anthology'' (Yale, 2009). . * ''Futurism & Sport Design'', edited by M. Mancin, Montebelluna-Cornuda, Antiga Edizioni, 2006.
''Manifesto of Futurist Musicians''
by
Donatella Chiancone-Schneider (editor) "Zukunftsmusik oder Schnee von gestern? Interdisziplinarität, Internationalität und Aktualität des Futurismus", Cologne 2010
Congress papers * Berghaus, Gunter, ''Futurism and the technological imagination'', Rodopi, 2009 * Berghaus, Gunter, ''International Yearbook of Futurism Studies'', De Gruyter. * Zaccaria, Gino, ''The Enigma of Art: On the Provenance of Artistic Creation'', Brill, 2021 (https://brill.com/view/title/59609)


External links


''Cycling, Cubo‐Futurism and the 4th Dimension. Jean Metzinger’s "At the Cycle‐Race Track"'', Curated by Erasmus Weddigen, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, 2012

Futurism: Manifestos and Other Resources

The Futurist Moment: Howlers, Exploders, Crumplers, Hissers, and Scrapers
by Kenneth Goldsmith


''Encyclopædia Britannica''
{{Authority control Futurism, Art movements Avant-garde art Italian art movements Italian Futurism Modern art Italian Fascism Opposition to feminism