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Fullerton ( ) is a city located in northern Orange County,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 135,161. Fullerton was founded in 1887. It secured the land on behalf of the
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway , often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. The railroad was chartered in February 1859 to serve the cities of Atchison, Kansas, Topeka, Kansas, a ...
. Historically it was a center of
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
, notably groves of Valencia
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
s and other
citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

citrus
crops;
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

petroleum
extraction; transportation; and manufacturing. It is home to numerous higher educational institutions, particularly
California State University, Fullerton California State University, Fullerton (CSUF or Cal State Fullerton) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a ...
and
Fullerton College Fullerton College (FC) is a public community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facil ...
. From the mid-1940s through the late 1990s, Fullerton was home to a large industrial base made up of
aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronau ...

aerospace
contractors, canneries, paper products manufacturers, and is considered to be the birthplace of the
electric guitar An electric guitar is a guitar The guitar is a fret (in the background, coloured white) and first four frets A fret is a space between two fretbars on the neck (music), neck of a stringed instrument. Frets usually extend across the fu ...

electric guitar
, due in large part to
Leo Fender Clarence Leonidas Fender (August 10, 1909 – March 21, 1991) was an American inventor who founded the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation (FMIC, or simply Fender) is an American manufa ...
. The headquarters of
Vons Vons is a Southern California Southern California (popularly known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. It includes the Los Angeles ...
, which is owned by
Albertsons Albertsons Companies, Inc. is an American grocery company founded and headquartered in Boise Boise () is the capital and most populous city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geograp ...

Albertsons
, is located in Fullerton near the Fullerton–
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United St ...
line.


History


Early history

Evidence of prehistoric animal habitation, such as
saber-toothed cats A saber-tooth (alternatively spelled sabre-tooth) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "stud ...
and
mammoths A mammoth is any species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organ ...
, is present in Ralph B. Clark Regional Park in the northwest of the city.
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
ans first passed through the area in 1769 when
Gaspar de Portolà Gaspar is a given and/or surname of French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish origin that could refer to: Names * Gáspár, the Hungarian language cognate of Gaspar * Caspar (magus), one of the wise men mentioned in the Bible Given name * Gasp ...
led a Spanish expedition north to
Monterey Monterey ( es, Monterrey; Ohlone The Ohlone, formerly known as Costanoans (from Spanish ''costeño'' meaning "coast dweller"), are a Native American people of the Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a ...
. From the description recorded in the diary of Father
Juan Crespi ''Juan'' is a given name, the Spanish and Manx versions of '' John''. It is very common in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazona ...
, it seems likely that the party camped on
July 29 Events Pre-1600 *587 BC The year 587 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was ...
near present-day Laguna Lake, in the Sunny Hills area. In 1837, the Fullerton area became part of Rancho San Juan Cajón de Santa Ana, granted to Juan Pacifico Ontiveros, a
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the ...

soldier
. Ontiveros began to sell parcels of the Rancho to migrant Americans settling and developing California in the aftermath of the 1849
Gold Rush A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, ...
, including
Abel Stearns Abel Stearns (February 9, 1798 – August 23, 1871) was a trader who came to the Pueblo de Los Angeles, Alta California in 1829 and became a major landowner, cattle rancher and one of the area's wealthiest citizens. Early life Stearns was born in ...
. In the 1860s, Stearns sold in turn to Domingo Bastanchury, a
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...

Basque
shepherd. In 1886, while in the area on a duck hunting vacation, brothers George and Edward Amerige, heard rumors that the California Central Railroad, a subsidiary of the
Santa Fe Railway The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway , often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. The railroad was chartered in February 1859 to serve the cities of Atchison, Kansas, Topeka, Kansas ...
, was looking for land. Sensing opportunity, they arranged to buy north of
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United St ...
for approximately $68,000. They then began negotiations with George H. Fullerton, president of the Pacific Land and Improvement Company, also a Santa Fe subsidiary. They offered free right-of-way and half interest in the land to the railroad if Fullerton's survey were revised to include the proposed town site, and on July 5, 1887, Edward Amerige formally staked his claim at what is now the intersection of Harbor Boulevard and Commonwealth Avenue. In 1894, Charles Chapman purchased an organge orchard in eastern Fullerton. The Valencia variety of oranges he promoted from his Santa Ysabel Ranch, well suited to the local climate, proved a boon to producers; Fullerton boasted more orange groves than any other municipality in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Cultivation of
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...

walnut
s and
avocado The avocado (''Persea americana''), a tree likely originating from southcentral Mexico, is Biological classification, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae. The fruit of the plant, also called an avocado (or avocado pe ...

avocado
s also flourished, and the Western railroad town became an agricultural center. Fullerton was incorporated in 1904, but not officially recognized until 1907, due to conflicts at that time.


Boom years

Drilling for
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

petroleum
began in 1880 with the discovery of the
Brea-Olinda Oil Field The Brea-Olinda Oil Field is a large oil field in northern Orange County and Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in the United States The United States ...
and fueled the first real boom, peaking in the 1920s. Construction reflected the vogue for Spanish Colonial and Italian Renaissance-inspired architecture, as in the historic Fox Fullerton Theatre (erected 1925); the Muckenthaler House, designed by Frank K. Benchley (erected 1924); and the city's chief landmark, the Plummer Auditorium and clock tower (erected 1930).
Fullerton College Fullerton College (FC) is a public community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facil ...
was established at its present location at Chapman Avenue and Lemon Street in 1913. Meanwhile, the city banned all overnight street parking in 1924— a law enforced to the present day, unless an area is specifically exempted. Significant public works projects from the interwar period were constructed during this period, including the conversion of a southwestern sewer farm into
Fullerton Municipal Airport Fullerton Municipal Airport , owned and operated by the Fullerton, California, City of Fullerton, is a regional relief airport in Orange County, California. The airport is in the southwestern corner of Fullerton on Commonwealth Avenue, northeast o ...
at the behest of Placentia ranchers and aviators William and Robert Dowling in 1927. Through the mid-1900s the economy shifted toward
food processing Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes with ...
rather than food production, as well as manufacturing; southeastern Fullerton became an industrial center. Val Vita Food Products began operating a citrus juice plant in western Fullerton in 1932. By 1941 it had become the largest food processing company in the US. In 1934 A.W. Leo, Tom Yates and Ralph Harrison developed the first
Hawaiian Punch Hawaiian Punch is a brand of Punch (drink), fruit punch currently manufactured by Keurig Dr Pepper, originally invented in 1934 by A.W. Leo, Tom Yeats, and Ralph Harrison as a topping for ice cream. It was started from an original syrup flavor cal ...

Hawaiian Punch
recipe in a converted garage in Fullerton. The city also became a producer of aerospace equipment, electrical and electronic components, navigation systems, and laboratory instruments. In 1949,
Leo Fender Clarence Leonidas Fender (August 10, 1909 – March 21, 1991) was an American inventor who founded the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation (FMIC, or simply Fender) is an American manufa ...
developed and refined the world's first commercially successful solid-body electric guitar, the
Fender Telecaster The Fender Telecaster, colloquially known as the Tele , is the world's first mass-produced, commercially successfulLes Paul Lester William Polsfuss (June 9, 1915 – August 12, 2009), known as Les Paul, was an American jazz Jazz is a m ...
.


Postwar suburbanization

Although Fullerton, like other Southern California cities, had experienced an expansion of population due to housing development, this increased by an order of magnitude during the post war years. Fullerton's population soared after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
as American veterans migrated to
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, bought housing in the land development which destroyed the surrounding farming and park areas, and in particular after the construction of
Interstate 5 Interstate 5 (I-5) is the main north–south Interstate Highway System, Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running largely parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U.S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels t ...
and development in neighboring
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United St ...
. To serve the growing population, the
California State Legislature The California State Legislature is a bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social beh ...
authorized Orange County State College in 1957, which began operating out of Fullerton high schools in 1959. In 1963, it moved to its present campus on State College Boulevard, and later, after several name-changes, was finally redesignated
California State University, Fullerton California State University, Fullerton (CSUF or Cal State Fullerton) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a ...
. The Fullerton Arboretum, a 26-acre (105,000 m2)
botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

botanical garden
, opened in 1979. Manufacturing growth leveled off as ever-soaring property prices, increasing environmental regulation, traffic, and other pressures increased. By the late 20th century the city had lost much of its rural character in favor of
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
an housing tracts and shopping centers.


Recent history

In the 1990s, the downtown commercial district had become economically depressed, and was known mainly for being an area of sleepy antique stores and small shops. A symbol of downtown's problems was the Fox Theatre, a local landmark, which had fallen into disrepair. As of November 2004, a fundraising drive had accumulated sufficient funds to buy the theater, but not yet enough money to restore it. By 2006, restoration was started. During this same period, downtown Fullerton (DTF), especially in the south of Commonwealth area (SOCO), has become more of a busy entertainment district, described by the ''
OC Weekly ''OC Weekly'' was a free alternative weekly paper distributed in Orange County, California, Orange County and Long Beach, California. OC Weekly was founded in September 1995 by Will Swaim, who acted as editor and publisher until 2007. The paper ...
'' as "
Bourbon Street Bourbon Street (french: Rue Bourbon, es, Calle de Borbón) is a historic street in the heart of the French Quarter of New Orleans. Extending thirteen blocks from Canal Street, New Orleans, Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue, New Orleans, Esplanad ...

Bourbon Street
West." In less than five years, some 30 businesses that sell alcohol have opened, making the downtown area much more active at night. In 2008, City Manager Chris Meyer called together department head and the finance department and reported to the city council that the Restaurant Overlay District (established December 2002)was costing the city $935,000 over and above the sales taxes collected. The
Hughes Aircraft Company The Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applicati ...
's Ground Systems Group campus in western Fullerton was redeveloped into a new residential and commercial district called ''Amerige Heights,'' in 2001–2004.


Geography

Fullerton is located at (33.879914, -117.928749). It is approximately southeast of downtown
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...
, and approximately north-northwest of Santa Ana, the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with Fre ...
. The city has a mean elevation of 150 feet (46 m) and lies approximately northeast of the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
straight-line distance. It has a
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
climate, with a mean temperature of 62.2 degrees Fahrenheit (16.8 °C). According to the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
, the city has a total area of . of it is land and of it (0.05%) is water. It is bordered by
La Habra La Habra is a city in the northwestern corner of Orange County, California, Orange County, California, United States. In the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,239. A related city, La Habra Heights, is located ...
and on the north,
La Mirada La Mirada is a city in southeast Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County, California United States, and is one of the Gateway Cities. The population was 48,527 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, up from 46,783 at the 2000 Uni ...
on the northwest,
Buena Park Buena Park () is a city in northwestern Orange County, about 12 miles (20 km) northwest of downtown Santa Ana, the county seat. As of Census 2010 its population was 80,530. It is the location of several tourist attractions, including Knott ...
on the west,
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United St ...
on the south, and Placentia on the east. The flat downtown area is laid out in a
grid plan In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification f ...
centered at the intersection of Harbor Boulevard and Commonwealth Avenue. After recent renewal and beautification projects, it has attracted specialty stores, coffee shops, and restaurants, and has uncharacteristically retained much of its
downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up t ...

downtown
character. Southeastern Fullerton is historically the industrial sector, and is home to small manufacturing, particularly east of Raymond Street and south of Commonwealth. The northern and western reaches of Fullerton are dominated by the Coyote Hills, a low-lying mountain range divided into the East Coyote Hills and West Coyote Hills. The land south of West Coyote Hills is known as Sunny Hills. For most of the city's history these areas were groves of citrus trees, open
scrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community A plant community is a collection or Association (ecology), association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguisha ...

scrubland
, and oil fields. While
equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of equestrian sports, Equestrian sports *Equestrianism, ...

equestrian
trails and many old estates endure along Bastanchury Road, the meandering roads through these areas today mostly connect a succession of housing tract subdivisions and commercial developments. In recent years, the City Council has tried to allow development in the remaining open land throughout the city. The most notable impending project, in West Coyote Hills, has been met with opposition by many of the citizens in the area.


Development of West Coyote Hills

West Coyote Hills is a ridge lying mostly in northern Fullerton, including owned by Pacific Coast Homes (a land development division of the
Chevron Corporation Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. One of the successor companies of Standard Oil Standard Oil Co. was an American -producing, transporting, refining, and marketing . Established in 1870 by and as a i ...
) that are the largest remaining tract of undeveloped land in north Orange County. The current development agreement calls for building houses on some of the land while donating the remainder to the city as a nature preserve. A group that supports keeping the entire area as open space/nature preserve qualified a referendum for a November 2012 election. In the election, voters approved Measure W, which would prevent development in the area. Ongoing lawsuits between the City of Fullerton (pro-development) and local conservationists (anti-development) have resulted over the interpretation of the measure. In February 2019, the California State Supreme Court denied a petition to review a lower court pro-development decision against Measure W. The City of Fullerton and The Friends of Coyote Hills are currently in competing negotiations with Chevron over either purchasing the land for development or donating the land for conservation with Chevron receiving tax credits and conservation funds in exchange for the donation.


Climate

According to the
Köppen Climate Classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
system, Fullerton has a
warm-summer Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the gre ...
, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps.


Parks

Fullerton maintains more than 50 city parks and is home to Hillcrest Park, Chapman Park, and the Orange County Regional parks Craig Regional Park and Ralph B. Clark Regional Park (in neighboring
Buena Park Buena Park () is a city in northwestern Orange County, about 12 miles (20 km) northwest of downtown Santa Ana, the county seat. As of Census 2010 its population was 80,530. It is the location of several tourist attractions, including Knott ...
, although a small portion lies within Fullerton city limits). The
Fullerton Arboretum The Fullerton Arboretum is a botanical garden with a collection of plants from around the world, located on the northeast corner of the California State University, Fullerton campus in Fullerton, California, Fullerton, California, in the United St ...
comprises (105,000 m2) of sculpted gardens and unusual plants in northeastern Fullerton. Additionally, the city features approximately of recreational land in the Brea Dam Recreational Area, plus an equestrian center and trails, two golf courses, a sports complex located southeast of St. Jude Medical Center Hospital and the
Janet Evans Janet Beth Evans (born August 28, 1971) is an American former competition swimmer who specialized in distance freestyle events. Evans was a world champion and world record-holder, and won a total of four gold medals at the 1988 Summer Olympics ...
swim Complex. The Fullerton city council voted on November 15 to proceed with work on a concept plan for a memorial to Korean War veterans at Hillcrest Park. The project will be funded and developed by The Orange County Korean War Memorial Committee.


Demographics


2000

In 2000, there were 44,771 housing units at an average density of 2,016.7 per square mile (778.7/km2). There were 43,609 households, out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were
married couples Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A spouse is a significant other in a marriage (in certain contexts, it can also apply to a civil union or comm ...

married couples
living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.1% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.37. In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.1% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $57,345 (Orange County 2005), and the median income for a family was $75,700. Males had a median income of $40,674 versus $31,677 for females. The
per capita income Per capita income (PCI) or total income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita i ...
for the city was $23,370. About 8.0% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the
poverty line The poverty threshold, poverty limit, poverty line or breadline is the minimum level of income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, w ...
, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.


2010

The
2010 United States Census The United States Census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in ...
reported that Fullerton had a population of 135,161. The
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
was 6,043.9 people per square mile (2,333.6/km2). The racial makeup of Fullerton was 72,845 (53.9%)
White White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
, 3,138 (2.3%)
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
, 842 (0.6%)
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, 30,788 (22.8%)
Asian Asian may refer to: * Items from or related to the continent of Asia: ** Asian people, people in or descending from Asia ** Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia ** Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asi ...
, 321 (0.2%)
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
, 21,439 (15.9%) from
other races Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, and 5,788 (4.3%) from two or more races.
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and ...
or
Latino Latino or Latinos most often refers to: * Latino (demonym), a term used in the United States for people with cultural ties to Latin America * Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States * The people or cultures of Latin America; ** Latin Am ...
of any race were 46,501 persons (34.4%).
Non-Hispanic Whites Non-Hispanic whites or Non-Latino whites are European Americans European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nation ...
were 38.2% of the population, down from 79.0% in 1980. The Census reported that 132,084 people (97.7% of the population) lived in households, 2,318 (1.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 759 (0.6%) were institutionalized. There were 45,391 households, out of which 16,155 (35.6%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 23,240 (51.2%) were living together, 5,502 (12.1%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,505 (5.5%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,366 (5.2%)
unmarried opposite-sex partnerships POSSLQ ( , plural ''POSSLQs'') is an abbreviation (or acronym) for "Person of Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters", a term coined in the late 1970s by the United States Census Bureau as part of an effort to more accurately gauge the prevalence of c ...
, and 290 (0.6%)
same-sex married couples or partnerships Same sex may refer to: * A phrase used in the discussion of sex or gender * Gonochorism, the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism * Homosexuality, the romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexua ...
. 9,771 households (21.5%) were made up of individuals, and 3,342 (7.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91. There were 31,247
families In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politi ...
(68.8% of all households); the average family size was 3.43. The population was spread out, with 31,558 people (23.3%) under the age of 18, 17,522 people (13.0%) aged 18 to 24, 37,764 people (27.9%) aged 25 to 44, 32,465 people (24.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 15,852 people (11.7%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males. There were 47,869 housing units at an average density of 2,140.5 per square mile (826.5/km2), of which 24,600 (54.2%) were owner-occupied, and 20,791 (45.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 7.0%. 73,127 people (54.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 58,957 people (43.6%) lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Fullerton had a median household income of $67,617, with 14.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line.


Economy

According to the city's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:


Government

Fullerton is a
General-law municipality In the systems of local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or ena ...
with a council-manager government system. Legislative authority is vested in a city council of five non-partisan members who serve four-year staggered terms, who elect a chair who serves as mayor. Elections are held every two years and are consolidated with the statewide general elections held in November of even numbered years. The city manager is responsible for day-to-day operations. Prior to 2016, all council seats were elected at large. In 2016 voters passed Measure II which changed at large representation to election for five districts.


State and federal representation

In the
United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national Bicameralism, bicameral legislature of the United S ...
, Fullerton is in
California's 39th congressional district California's 39th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California. The district includes parts of Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles, Orange County, California, Orange and San Bernardino County, Califor ...
, which has a
Cook PVI The Cook Partisan Voting Index (abbreviated CPVI or PVI) is a measurement of how strongly a List of United States congressional districts, United States congressional district or U.S. state, state leans toward the Democratic Party (United States), ...
of EVEN and is represented by .


Emergency services

Fire protection and emergency medical services are provided by the Fullerton Fire Department with ambulance transport by Care Ambulance Service. Fullerton has one full-service hospital with an emergency room, St.Jude Regional Medical Center. The Fullerton Police Department provides law enforcement for the city, while the California State University Police Department provides services around the California State University, Fullerton, Cal State Fullerton campus. ;Allegations of police misconduct In 2011, a major controversy arose in the city over misconduct by the Fullerton Police, involving sexual assault by an officer against women he arrested and the Death of Kelly Thomas, killing of a mentally ill homeless man by police. This has led to the indictment of two officers and a recall campaign against McKinley, Bankhead, and Jones. Officer Manuel Ramos, 37, was charged with second-degree murder and involuntary manslaughter, and Corporal Jay Patrick Cicinelli, 39, was charged with involuntary manslaughter and felony use of excessive force with regards to the death of Kelly Thomas. They pleaded not guilty. On July 5, 2012, (one year after the beating death), the father of Kelly Thomas filed a lawsuit against the city and six officers, two of whom are facing criminal charges. The lawsuit also names former police chiefs Patrick McKinley and Michael Sellers. The suit alleges the violation of Kelly Thomas' federal and state civil rights; assault and battery; negligence and supervisor liability among others as causes of action. It seeks unspecified damages. Thomas' mother, Cathy, who is divorced from Ron Thomas, has already received a $1-million settlement from the city. On July 3, 2012, Officer Ramos's employment was terminated. Thomas' father eventually received a 5 million dollar settlement from the City of Fullerton. Both Ramos and Cicinelli were found not guilty of any criminal charges. Both were terminated by Fullerton.


Education


Public schools

The city of Fullerton is served by three elementary and junior high school districts, two unified school districts, and one high school exclusive school district: *La Habra City School District *Buena Park School District *Fullerton School District *Brea Olinda Unified School District *Placentia-Yorba Linda Unified School District *Fullerton Joint Union High School District Fullerton has four public high schools within the city limits, all part of the Fullerton Joint Union High School District: *Sunny Hills High School. *Fullerton Union High School. The oldest high school in Orange County, it is the home of historic Plummer Auditorium and the Academy of the Arts magnet program. *Troy High School (California), Troy High School (which includes Troy Tech, a public magnet program). *La Vista High School, La Vista High School and La Sierra High School (continuation schools, adjacent to Troy) Other public schooling in Fullerton is provided by the Fullerton School District. There are four public junior high schools, enrolling grades 7-8: Ladera Vista, Nicolas, Parks, and Parks Junior High School, D. Russell Parks Junior High School. Fullerton has only two public elementary K-8 schools: Beechwood and Robert C. Fisler. Fullerton has fifteen public elementary schools enrolling grades K-6: Acacia, Commonwealth, Fern Drive, Golden Hill, Hermosa Drive, Laguna Road, Maple, Orangethorpe, Pacific Drive, Raymond, Richman, Rolling Hills, Sunset Lane, Valencia Park, and Woodcrest.


Private schools

Fullerton's Catholic schools are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange. They include: Annunciation Catholic School, Saint Justin School, Saint Juliana School, and Rosary Academy (Fullerton, California), Rosary Academy. Other private schools include the Arborland Montessori School, the IvyCrest Montessori School, Eastside Christian School, West Fullerton Christian School, and Berkeley School.


Postsecondary institutions

*
California State University, Fullerton California State University, Fullerton (CSUF or Cal State Fullerton) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a ...
, commonly known as Cal State Fullerton or CSUF, was first established in 1957 as Orange County State College. The twelfth member of the California State University system, it is currently composed of eight colleges, a community extended education program and several institutions and centers. The main campus is located on of former orange groves in northeast Fullerton near California State Route 57, State Route 57 and Nutwood Avenue. As of 2019, 39,868 students were enrolled in 55 undergraduate and 55 graduate degree programs (including doctorate in education and doctor in nursing practice programs), making it the largest university in the California State University system and the second largest university in the state of California in terms of enrollment. *
Fullerton College Fullerton College (FC) is a public community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facil ...
is a two-year community college, the oldest in continuous operation in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. Part of the North Orange County Community College District, it is situated on a 63-acre (255,000 m2) campus adjacent to Fullerton Union High School on Chapman Avenue and had 25,051 students enrolled as of 2019. The college offers 90 majors leading to A.A. or A.S. degrees in academic and vocational subjects, 68 programs leading to vocational certificates, and transfer programs specializing in preparing students to transfer into the California State University and University of California systems. *Hope International University is a private Christian university *Marshall B. Ketchum University is a health sciences university.


Culture

Fullerton is home to a vibrant music scene. In the early 1990s, downtown featured several venues that featured bands such as Room to Roam and Trip the Spring. It was a center for the Music of California#Orange County, Orange County hardcore punk music scene, producing acts such as The Adolescents, Agent Orange (band), Agent Orange, Social Distortion, D.I. (band), D.I., the "fathers of hardcore punk" The Middle Class, Gwen Stefani, lead vocalist of the alternative rock group No Doubt, was a student at CSUF and the group performed there regularly. Other popular groups and musicians from the area include Lit (band), Lit, 80s synthpop acts Berlin (band), Berlin and Stacey Q, and Mike Ness. The popular singer-songwriter Jackson Browne attended Sunny Hills High School in the city. Singer-songwriter Tim Buckley also attended
Fullerton College Fullerton College (FC) is a public community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facil ...
and dropped out after only a few weeks to focus on his music career. Fullerton is also home to one of the signature cities in the Make Music Day Alliance. Make Music Day is a global annual music celebration occurring on the summer solstice (June 21) each year in more than 1,000 cities in 120 countries across the globe. Starting in 2015, The Day of Music Fullerton began as a grass roots initiative by a team of volunteers to create a unique and free music festival in alliance with the internationally renowned ''Fête de la Musique.'' Each year on June 21 Fullerton comes alive from morning to night with musicians of all ages and musical persuasions performing in musical venues, shops, bars, restaurants, plazas, churches, parks and parking lots. From high school bands to established musicians/bands, Day of Music Fullerton is open to anyone who wants to perform and enjoyed by everyone who wants to attend for free. Since inception, Day of Music Fullerton has grown into a popular and critical success hosting over 150 performance in more than 40 venues around the city including the Museum Plaza, Historic Fox Theatre, Hillcrest Park, Villa del Sol, The Muckenthaler Cultural Center among others. Contributing greatly to Fullerton's musical heritage was the Fender Musical Instruments Corporation, Fender musical instrument company, whose products such as the Fender Stratocaster, Stratocaster and Fender Telecaster, Telecaster
electric guitar An electric guitar is a guitar The guitar is a fret (in the background, coloured white) and first four frets A fret is a space between two fretbars on the neck (music), neck of a stringed instrument. Frets usually extend across the fu ...

electric guitar
s, Fender Precision Bass, Precision Bass bass guitar, and Twin Reverb instrument amplifier, guitar amplifier revolutionized the music business and contributed greatly to the development of rock and roll.
Leo Fender Clarence Leonidas Fender (August 10, 1909 – March 21, 1991) was an American inventor who founded the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation (FMIC, or simply Fender) is an American manufa ...
sold the company to CBS in 1965; production continued in the Fullerton plant until 1985, when the company was sold to a group of private investors. In 1980, Leo Fender and his original partner George William Fullerton, George Fullerton (relation to the Fullerton founder of the same name unknown) reunited and started a new company, G&L (George and Leo) Guitars, which are built in what had been Leo Fender's CLF Research factory in Fullerton. The Muckenthaler House, Muckenthaler Cultural Center on Malvern Avenue near Euclid Avenue houses art galleries and a theater group. The former estate of the Muckenthaler family, it was donated to the city by Harold Muckenthaler in 1965. Fullerton Friends of Music, the oldest chamber music society in Orange County, perform five concerts a year at Sunny Hills Performing Arts Center, a notable classical concert venue in the county. Fullerton is home to the Fullerton Public Library. The Main Library is located on Commonwealth Avenue in Downtown Fullerton and adjacent to the City Hall. Formerly there was a branch library, called the Hunt Branch on Basque Avenue. The Hunt Branch was closed in 2013 There are several storefront theaters, including the Maverick Theater, Stages Theater and the Hunger Artists Theatre Company. The Maverick Theatre is the host for the "World Famous Skipper Stand Up Show." Held six times a year, The Skipper Stand Up Show has, since 2006, showcased former and current skippers from Disneyland's famous attraction, the Jungle Cruise. Fullerton was also home to the Golden Baseball League's Orange County Flyers (formerly known as the Fullerton Flyers), which disbanded in 2012. The team's home was Goodwin Field, home to the Cal State Fullerton Titans. The city is also home to Burger Records.


Media

From 1921 to 1984, Fullerton had the largest independent daily newspaper in Orange County, The Fullerton Daily News Tribune. The Fullerton Daily News Tribune circulated 6 days a week, Monday thru Saturday, in all of Fullerton, Brea, Placentia, La Habra, Buena Park, Yorba Linda, and a northern section of Anaheim. At one point in the 1970s The Fullerton News Tribune reached a peak circulation of 30,000 daily subscribers. Formerly owned, for 30 years, by former Scripps newspaper executive Edgar F. Elfstrom, The Fullerton News Tribune was bought by Scripps Howard Newspapers in 1975. In 1984 the Orange County Register bought the Fullerton News Tribune and converted the daily newspaper to a once-weekly free distribution newspaper. Fullerton is also one of the few Southern California municipalities to be served by an independent newspaper, the Fullerton Observer. The ''Fullerton Observer Community Newspaper'' is an all-volunteer 40-year old paper that is printed two times a month. It was founded in the late 1970s by Ralph Kennedy, a fair housing and civil rights activist who advocated saving Coyote Hills as an open space. In 2010, the city of Fullerton and the ''Orange County Register'' came out in court against the then 32-year-old ''Fullerton Observer'' in its request to adjudicate the paper. In response to the city of Fullerton and the Orange County Register's high powered lawyers coming out against the newspaper, the not-for-profit Fullerton Observer dropped its court case to be adjudicated a newspaper.


Transportation


Rail

Fullerton was founded as a railroad town and is still bisected by the BNSF Railway. The Fullerton Transportation Center is home to train station serving Metrolink (California), Metrolink and Amtrak and a major north Orange County bus terminal for the Orange County Transportation Authority. The center is located at Harbor Blvd and Santa Fe Avenue. The bus terminal is located north of Santa Fe Avenue and serves routes 26, 43, 143, 543, and 213. The Fullerton Train Station is located south of Santa Fe Avenue. The Southern California Metrolink commuter rail system serves the city of Fullerton from the Orange County Line (Union Station (Los Angeles), Union Station, Los Angeles to Oceanside, California) and the 91/Perris Valley Line (Union Station, Los Angeles to Perris, California, Perris Valley in Riverside County). Travel time on Metrolink or Amtrak from Fullerton to Los Angeles is approximately 45 minutes. The city is served by two Amtrak lines. The Southwest Chief (running between Chicago and Los Angeles) and the Pacific Surfliner (running between San Diego, California, San Diego and San Luis Obispo, California, San Luis Obispo with major stops at Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, California, Santa Barbara). In addition to the Fullerton Transportation Center, the Orange County Transportation Authority has a park and ride transportation hub in Fullerton located on Orangethorpe Avenue at Magnolia Avenue which makes connections to OCTA routes 25, 26, 30, 33, 35, 529, and 721 (Downtown Los Angeles) and Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles Metro 460 (Downtown Los Angeles).


Roads

Fullerton is crossed by five state-maintained highways (all maintained by Caltrans' 12th district), three of which are freeways. California State Route 91, State Route 91, the Riverside Freeway, runs east-to-west down the length of the city south of Orangethorpe Avenue. It intersects with
Interstate 5 Interstate 5 (I-5) is the main north–south Interstate Highway System, Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running largely parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U.S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels t ...
, the Santa Ana Freeway, in the west near Magnolia Avenue and with California State Route 57, State Route 57, the Orange Freeway, in the east near State College Boulevard. Short portions of California State Route 39, State Route 39 (Beach Boulevard) and California State Route 90, State Route 90 (Imperial Highway), also run through western and northern portions of the city, respectively. The main road in Fullerton is Harbor Boulevard (served by OCTA route 43/143/543), a 23-mile road running from Costa Mesa, California, Costa Mesa to Rowland Heights, California, Rowland Heights. Fullerton is composed of many main arterials. Other main south-to-north arterials include Magnolia Street, Brookhurst Street, Lemon Street, Placentia Avenue, Gilbert Street, Raymond Avenue, State College Boulevard (served by OCTA route 57/57X), Brea Boulevard (served by OCTA route 143), Euclid Street (served by OCTA route 37). Rosecrans Avenue, Bastanchury Road (not served by OCTA), Chapman and Malvern Avenues (served by OCTA route 24), Commonwealth Avenue (served by OCTA route 26) and Orangethorpe Avenue (served by OCTA route 30) are the main west-to-east arterials. Yorba Linda Boulevard (served by OCTA route 26) runs along the east end of the city. Minor arterials include Nutwood Avenue, Associated Road, Highland Avenue, Berkeley Avenue, Parks Road/Castlewood Drive, Kimberly Avenue, Acacia Avenue, Valencia Drive, and Dale Street.


Airport

Fullerton Municipal Airport Fullerton Municipal Airport , owned and operated by the Fullerton, California, City of Fullerton, is a regional relief airport in Orange County, California. The airport is in the southwestern corner of Fullerton on Commonwealth Avenue, northeast o ...
, the only general aviation airport remaining in Orange County, located in the southwest of the city, is the last remnant of the Hughes Company in the area, which was prominent in the aerospace industry up until the 1970s. From the early 1970s through the early 1980s the airport was served by Golden West Airlines, one of the larger commuter airlines of the period. The nearest airport with scheduled service is John Wayne Airport (SNA) in Santa Ana.


Sister cities

* Fukui (city), Fukui, Japan * Morelia, Mexico (the city of Fullerton has a street named Morelia Avenue, named after their sister city) * Yongin, South Korea


See also

*List of people from Fullerton, California


References


External links

* *
Downtown Fullerton

Fullerton Chamber of Commerce

Fullerton Heritage

Fullerton ''Observer''

Fullerton Transportation Center

Fullerton Community Center

Fullerton Library
{{authority control Fullerton, California, 1904 establishments in California Cities in Orange County, California Incorporated cities and towns in California Populated places established in 1904