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Fujian or Fukien Province (;
Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunciation: ) or Banlam (), ...
POJ: Hok-kiàn; Fuzhou BUC: Hók-gióng; Pu-Xian Min BUC: Ho̤h-ge̤̍ng; also
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
as Fuchien) is a nominal
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outs ...
of the Republic of China without formal administrative function. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County. The current Fujian Province under ROC control was once part of a larger Fujian Province, which consisted of a mainland portion and some islands. After the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
of 1949, the majority of the historical province became Fujian, People's Republic of China, while the remaining islands remained under ROC control, which comprise 0.5% of the ROC's territories.


History


Imperial China

The
Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and ...
collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the end of the Han dynasty#Eastern Han, Han dynasty and w ...
era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Eastern Wu, Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains. The first wave of Migration of the eight clans, immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (surname), Lin (林), Huang (surname), Huang (黃), Chen (surname), Chen (陳), Zheng (surname), Zheng (鄭), Zhan (surname), Zhan (詹), Qiū (surname), Qiu (邱), He (surname), He (何), and Hu (surname), Hu (胡). The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian. Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively backward economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two Commandery (China), commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian. The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China. As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by general Wang, who set up an independent Min (Ten Kingdoms), Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom. Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min (Ten Kingdoms), Min Kingdom, and is the largest seaport in the world. Its population is also greater than Fuzhou.伊本・白图泰(著)、马金鹏(译),《伊本・白图泰游记》,宁夏人民出版社,2005年 Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou was severely damaged. In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's Treasure voyages, naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the Hai jin, sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large scale piracy by Wokou (Japanese pirates) was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.


Qing Dynasty

Late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor of China, Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the Kingdom of Tungning, refuge Ming government of Koxinga in Taiwan. Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty Battle of Penghu, conquered Taiwan and annexed it into Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed, and the majority of people in Taiwan are descendants of Hoklo people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was split as its Taiwan Province, own province in 1885. Just ten more years later, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Taiwan Province would be lost to Japan due to the Qing losing the First Sino-Japanese War which ended in 1895.


Republic of China

The Xinhai Revolution deposed the Qing dynasty brought the province into the rule of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China. Fujian briefly gained independence from China again under the Fujian People's Government until it was recontrolled by the ROC during the Warlord Era. It came under Japanese sea blockade during Second Sino-Japanese War. During the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, the ROC lost control of mainland China, including most of Fujian province, and was forced to relocate to Taiwan, while the victorious Communist Party of China, Chinese Communist forces established the PRC in 1949, subsequently the capital of Fujian was also moved from Fuzhou, Foochow to Jincheng, Kinmen, Jincheng. In the Battle of Guningtou, however, ROC forces were able to defend the island of Quemoy (Kinmen) just off the coast of Fujian from communist attack. As a result, the ROC has been able to hold on to a number of offshore islands of Fujian, and has continued to maintain a separate Fujian Provincial Government to govern these islands, parallel to the province of Fujian in mainland China. In 1956, due to heightened potential for military conflict with the PRC, the ROC central government moved the Fujian provincial government out of Fujian to within Taiwan Province in Xindian District, Xindian (now part of New Taipei), and the islands were placed under an extraordinarily tight military administration due to their extreme proximity to mainland China. This was an unusual situation where the government of a province was located and operating in a different province. With the easing of cross-strait relations between the PRC and ROC and the democratization of the ROC in the 1990s, the islands were returned to civilian government in 1992. On January 15, 1996, the provincial government moved back to Kinmen, on Fujian soil. Beginning in 2010, the ROC significantly diluted the powers of the two provinces it governs, namely Taiwan Province, Taiwan and Fujian. Most of the authority at the Fujian province level has been delegated to the two county governments of Kinmen and Matsu Islands, Lienchiang.


Government

The Governor of Fujian Province was the head of the Fujian Provincial Government, the governor was also titled the "Chairperson of the Fujian Provincial Government". According to the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Additional Articles of the Constitution, the governor is appointed by the Government of the Republic of China, central government. The Fujian Provincial Government was located in Jincheng, Kinmen, Jincheng, Kinmen between January 1996 and 2018. In July 2018, the Executive Yuan decided to transfer the duties and functionalities of the provincial government to other branches under the Executive Yuan, including Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center and National Development Council (Taiwan), National Development Council The transformations were scheduled to be done by the end of year 2018.


Subdivisions

Fujian province nominally comprises two counties: Kinmen, Kinmen County and Matsu Islands, Lienchiang County. These islands have a total area of and a total population of 71,000 (2001). The following are the islands of Fujian under the administration of the ROC, given by county: The PRC claims Kinmen as a county of Quanzhou, Fujian and the Matsu Islands as a township of Lianjiang County, Fuzhou, Fujian (with some islands claimed as parts of other areas).


See also

* Taiwan Province * Fujian * Politics of the Republic of China * Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center * Battle of Kuningtou * First Taiwan Strait Crisis * Second Taiwan Strait Crisis * Third Taiwan Strait Crisis * Chekiang Province, Republic of China * Channel Islands


Notes


References


External links


ROC Fujian Provincial Government
* {{Authority control Provinces of the Republic of China Fujian