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Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
on the southeastern coast of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. Fujian is bordered by
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
to the north,
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
to the west,
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
to the south, and the
Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel of water that lies between ...

Taiwan Strait
to the east. Its capital is
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
, while its largest city by population is
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province. While its population is predominantly of Chinese ethnicity, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. The dialects of the language group
Min Chinese Min (; Bàng-uâ-cê, BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Sinitic languages spoken by about 30 million people in Fujian Provinces of China, province as well as by the descendants of Min speaking colonists on Leizhou peninsula and Hainan, or as ...
were most commonly spoken within the province, including the
Fuzhou dialect The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, ...
of northeastern Fujian and various
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
dialects of southeastern Fujian.
Hakka Chinese Hakka is a language group of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people The Hakka (), sometimes Hakka Han, are a Han Chinese subgroup whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, ...
is also spoken, by the
Hakka people The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The fou ...
in Fujian. Min dialects, Hakka and
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
are mutually unintelligible. Due to emigration, a sizable amount of the ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines speak
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucrac ...
(or Hokkien). With a population of 39 million, Fujian ranks 17th in population among Chinese provinces. Its
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
is CN¥3.58 trillion, ranking 10th in GDP. Along with its coastal neighbours Zhejiang and Guangdong, Fujian's GDP per capita is above the national average, at CN¥92,830. It has benefited from its geographical proximity with Taiwan. As a result of the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, a small proportion of Historical Fujian is now within the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
(ROC, Taiwan). The Fujian province of the ROC consist of three offshore archipelagos namely the
Kinmen Islands
Kinmen Islands
, the
Matsu Islands The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; ) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originall ...
and the Wuqiu Islands.


Name

The name ''Fujian'' (福建) originated from the combination of the city names of Fuzhou (福州) and nearby Jianzhou (建州 present-day
Nanping Nanping (, historically known as Yenping) is a third-tier prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian Province, People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...

Nanping
(南平)).


History


Prehistoric Fujian

Recent archaeological discoveries in 2011 demonstrate that Fujian had entered the
Neolithic Age The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the ...
by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in
Pingtan Island Pingtan Island or Haitan Island is an islands of China, island of Fuzhou off the east coast of mainland Asia in Pingtan County, Fujian Province, China (PRC), south of the complex estuary of the Min River (Fujian), Min River. It is the largest isl ...
located about southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones,
shell Shell may refer to: Architecture and design * Shell (structure)A shell is a type of structural element which is characterized by its geometry, being a three-dimensional solid whose thickness is very small when compared with other dimensions, and ...
s,
bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...

bone
s,
jade Jade is a mineral, much used in some cultures as jewellery and for ornaments, mostly known for its green varieties, though it appears naturally in other colors as well, notably yellow and white. Jade can refer to either of two different silica ...

jade
s, and
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...

ceramic
s (including wheel-made ceramics) have been unearthed, together with
spinning wheel A spinning wheel is a device for spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) SPIN (or South Pacific Island Network) was a submarine communications cable, submarine communications cable system that would connec ...

spinning wheel
s, which is definitive evidence of
weaving Weaving is a method of textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheti ...

weaving
. The Tanshishan () site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and
Chalcolithic The Chalcolithic (),The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) , p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective ''Archaeology'' of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, ...

Chalcolithic
Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun () site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
in character. Tianlong Jiao (2013)Jiao, Tianlong. 2013. "The Neolithic Archaeology of Southeast China." In Underhill, Anne P., et al. ''A Companion to Chinese Archaeology'', 599-611. Wiley-Blackwell. notes that the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B.P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on mostly on fishing and hunting, along with limited agriculture. There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
. *Keqiutou culture (; c. 6000–5500 BP, or c. 4050–3550 BC) *Tanshishan culture (; c. 5000–4300 BP, or c. 3050–2350 BC) *Damaoshan culture (; c. 5000–4300 BP) *Huangguashan culture (; c. 4300–3500 BP, or c. 2350–1550 BC) There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were highly distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures. These are the Niubishan culture () from 5000 to 4000 years ago, and the Hulushan culture () from 2050 to 1550 BC.


Minyue kingdom

Fujian was also where the kingdom of
Minyue Minyue () was an ancient kingdom in what is now the Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit ...
was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (), which is perhaps an ethnic name (), and "", after the
State of Yue Yue (, Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a co ...
, a
Spring and Autumn period #REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period#REDIRECT Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dyna ...
kingdom in
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the
State of Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman ( ...
in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the
main river The Main () is the longest tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem r ...
in this area, but the ethnonym is probably older.


Qin dynasty

The Qin deposed the King of Minyue, establishing instead a paramilitary province there called Minzhong Commandery. Minyue was a ''de facto'' kingdom until one of the emperors of the
Qin dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Qin dynasty
, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status.Britannica


Han dynasty

In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall,
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
broke out between two warlords,
Xiang Yu Xiang Yu (, –202 BC), born Xiang Ji (), was the Hegemon-King (Chinese: 霸王, ''Bà Wáng'') of Western Chu Chu (, Hanyu Pinyin: Chǔ, Old Chinese: ''*s-r̥aʔ'') was a Zhou dynasty ancient Chinese states, vassal state. Their fir ...

Xiang Yu
and
Liu Bang Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang () with courtesy name Ji (季), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning in 202–195 BC. His temple name was "Taizu" while his posthumous name was Emper ...

Liu Bang
. The Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu was victorious and founded the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
independent kingdom. Thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
as well as a few locations in the
Wuyi Mountains The Wuyi Mountains or Wuyishan (; formerly known as Bohea Hills in early Western documents) are a mountain range located in the prefecture of Nanping, in northern Fujian, Fujian province near the border with Jiangxi, Jiangxi province, China. Th ...
, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
, eastern
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
, and southern
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
. After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
,
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
, and
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
, primarily in the 2nd century BC. This was stopped by the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a
military campaign A military campaign is large-scale long-duration significant military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organization Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of ...
against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end. Fujian was part of the much larger
Yang Province Yangzhou, Yangchow or Yang Province was one of the Nine Provinces The term Nine Provinces or Nine Regions (), is used in ancient Chinese histories to refer to territorial divisions or islands during the Xia dynasty, Xia and Shang dynasty, Shan ...
(Yangzhou), whose provincial capital was designated in Liyang (歷陽; present-day He County, Anhui). The
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the
Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Cao Wei, Wei, Shu Han, Shu, and Eastern Wu, Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the End of the Han dynasty, end of the Han dynasty#East ...

Three Kingdoms
era.
Sun Quan Sun Quan (, Chinese: 孫權) (182 – 252), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sph ...

Sun Quan
, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.


Jin era

The first wave of
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the
Western Jin dynasty Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska Western is a village in Saline County, Nebraska, Saline County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 235 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. History Western was laid out in 1 ...
collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in
central China Central China () is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that includes the provinces of China, provinces of Henan, Hubei and Hunan. Jiangxi is sometimes also regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now officially p ...
: Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
,
Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, uni ...

Guangxi
,
Guizhou Guizhou (; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...

Guizhou
, and
Yunnan Yunnan () is a landlocked Provinces of China, province in Southwest China, the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Ku ...

Yunnan
, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time. During the
Southern and Northern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding ...
era, the
Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also histori ...
(
Liu Song The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南朝宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that laste ...
,
Southern Qi The Southern Qi ( or ) (479–502) also known as Xiao Qi () was the second of the Southern dynasties The Northern and Southern dynasties () was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of ...
,
Liang Liang may refer to: Chinese history * Liang (state) (梁) (8th century BC – 641 BC), a Spring and Autumn period state * Wei (state) (403–225  BC), a Warring States period state, also known as Liang (梁) after moving its capital to Daliang ** ...
( Western Liang), and
Chen Chen may refer to: People *Chen (surname) Chen () () is a common East Asian surname and one of the most common surnames in the world. It is the most common surname in Taiwan (2010) and Singapore (2000). Chen is also the most common family na ...
) reigned south of the
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
, including Fujian.


Sui and Tang dynasties

During the and Tang eras a large influx of migrants settled in Fujian. During the Sui dynasty, Fujian was again part of
Yang Province Yangzhou, Yangchow or Yang Province was one of the Nine Provinces The term Nine Provinces or Nine Regions (), is used in ancient Chinese histories to refer to territorial divisions or islands during the Xia dynasty, Xia and Shang dynasty, Shan ...
. During the Tang, Fujian was part of the larger
Jiangnan East Circuit The Tang dynasty administered territory using a hierarchical system of three descending divisions: Circuit (administrative division), circuit ''dào'' (道), Zhou (country subdivision), prefecture ''zhōu'' (州), and Counties of the People's Re ...
, whose capital was at
Suzhou Suzhou (; ; , Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and c ...

Suzhou
. Modern-day Fujian was composed of around 5 prefectures and 25 counties. The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China, which contributed to a boom in Fujian's culture and economy.
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting even larger waves of northerners to immigrate to northern part of Fujian.


Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms

As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (), from 907 to 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from ...
. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon absorbed by
Southern Tang Southern Tang () was a state in Southern China that existed during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which proclaimed itself to be the successor of the former Tang Dynasty. The capital was located at Jinling, Nanjing in present-day Jiangsu ...
, another southern kingdom. Parts of northern Fujian were conquered by the
Wuyue Wuyue (; Shanghainese: ), 907–978, was an independent coastal kingdom founded during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960) of Chinese history. It was ruled by the Haiyan County, Zhejiang, Haiyan Qian (surname), Qian clan (海 ...
Kingdom to the north as well, including the Min capital
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
.
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
city was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the
Min Kingdom Min () was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945. It existed in a mountainous region of modern-day Fujian province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province ...
and was the largest seaport in the world. For a long period of time its population was also greater than Fuzhou. ''
Qingyuan Jiedushi ''Qingyuan Jiedushi'' () (i.e., the ''Jiedushi'' of Qingyuan Circuit) was a military/governance office late in History of China, China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, later renamed to ''Pinghai Jiedushi'' (). It was an office created i ...
'' was a military/governance office created in 949 by
Southern Tang Southern Tang () was a state in Southern China that existed during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which proclaimed itself to be the successor of the former Tang Dynasty. The capital was located at Jinling, Nanjing in present-day Jiangsu ...
's second emperor Li Jing for the warlord
Liu Congxiao Liu Congxiao (; 906-962), formally the Prince of Jinjiang (), was a general of the Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...
, who nominally submitted to him but controlled Quan (, in modern
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
, Fujian) and Zhang (, in modern
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lan ...

Zhangzhou
, Fujian) Prefectures in ''de facto'' independence from the Southern Tang state.''
Zizhi Tongjian ''Zizhi Tongjian'' () is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 AD during the Song dynasty in the form of a chronicle recording Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning almost 1 ...
'', vol. 288.
(Zhang Prefecture was, at times during the circuit's existence, also known as Nan Prefecture ().)'' History of Song'', vol. 483. Starting in 960, in addition to being nominally submissive to Southern Tang, Qingyuan Circuit was also nominally submissive to
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
, which had itself become Southern Tang's nominal overlord.''
Xu Zizhi Tongjian ''Xu Zizhi Tongjian'' (續資治通鑑; "Continuation to ''Zizhi Tongjian ''Zizhi Tongjian'' () is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 AD during the Song dynasty in the form of a chronicle recording Chine ...
'', vol. 1.
After Liu's death, the circuit was briefly ruled by his biological nephew/adoptive son
Liu Shaozi Liu Shaozi () was a nephew of Liu Congxiao, a warlord late in the History of China, Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. Under some traditional accounts, he briefly controlled Qingyuan Jiedushi, Qingyuan Circuit (headquartered in modern ...
, who was then overthrown by the officers
Zhang HansiZhang Hansi (張漢思) was a military officer of the History of China, Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min (Ten Kingdoms), Min. After Min's fall, he served under Liu Congxiao, who controlled Qingyuan Jiedushi, Qingyuan Circuit ( ...
and
Chen HongjinChen Hongjin () (914–985), courtesy name Jichuan (), formally Duke Zhongshun of Qi (), was a warlord late in the History of China, Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, who controlled Qingyuan Jiedushi, Qingyuan Circuit (headquartered in ...
. Zhang then ruled the circuit briefly, before Chen deposed him and took over. In 978, with Song's determination to unify Chinese lands in full order, Chen decided that he could not stay ''de facto'' independent, and offered the control of the circuit to Song's Emperor Taizong, ending Qingyuan Circuit as a ''de facto'' independent entity.''Xu Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 9.


Song dynasty

The area was reorganized into the
Fujian Circuit Fujian Circuit, also translated as Fujian Province, was one of the major Circuit (administrative division), circuits during the Tang dynasty, Tang and Song dynasty, Song list of Chinese dynasties, dynasties of imperial China. Its administrative ar ...
in 985, which was the first time the name "Fujian" was used for an administrative region.


Vietnam

Many Chinese migrated from Fujian's major ports to Vietnam's
Red River Delta The Red River Delta or Hong River Delta ( vi, Châu thổ sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Bình River in northern Vietnam , image_map = , m ...
. The settlers then created Trần port and Vân Đồn. Fujian and Guangdong Chinese moved to the Vân Đồn coastal port to engage in commerce. During the Lý dynasty, Lý and Trần dynasty, Trần dynasties, many Chinese ethnic groups with surname Trần (陳) migrated to Vietnam from what is now Fujian or Guangxi. They settled along the coast of Vietnam and the capital's southeastern area. The Vietnamese Trần clan traces their ancestry to Trần Tự Minh (227 BC). He was a Qin General during the Warring state period who belonged to the indigenous Mân, a Baiyue ethnic group of Southern China and Northern Vietnam. Tự Minh also served under King An Dương Vương of Âu Lạc kingdom in resisting Qin (state), Qin's conquest of Âu Lạc. Their genealogy also included Trần Tự Viễn (582 - 637) of Giao Châu and Trần Tự An (1010 - 1077) of Đại Việt. Near the end of the 11th century the descendants of a fisherman named Trần Kinh, whose hometown was in Tức Mạc village in Đại Việt (Modern day Vietnam), would marry with the royal Lý clan, which was then founded the Vietnam Tran Dynasty in the year 1225. In Vietnam the Trần served as officials. The surnames are found in the Trần and Lý dynasty Imperial exam records. Chinese ethnic groups are recorded in Trần and Lý dynasty records of officials. Clothing, food, and languages were fused with the local Vietnamese in Vân Đồn District, Vân Đồn district where the Chinese ethnic groups had moved after leaving their home province of what in now Fujian, Guangxi, and Guangdong. In 1172, Fujian was attacked by Pi-she-ye pirates from Taiwan or the Visayas, Philippines.


Yuan dynasty

After the establishment of the Yuan dynasty, Fujian became part of Jiangzhe province, whose capital was at Hangzhou. From 1357 to 1366 Muslims in
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
participated in the Ispah Rebellion, advancing northward and even capturing Putian and Fuzhou before the rebellion was crushed by the Yuan. Afterwards, Quanzhou city lost foreign interest of trading and its formerly welcoming international image as the foreigners were all massacred or deported. Yuan dynasty General Chen Youding, who had put down the Ispah Rebellion, continued to rule over the Fujian area even after the outbreak of the Red Turban Rebellion. Forces loyal to eventual Ming dynasty founder Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu Emperor) defeated Chen in 1367.


Ming dynasty

After the establishment of the Ming dynasty, Fujian became a province, with capital at Fuzhou. In the early Ming era, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's Treasure voyages, naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the Hai jin, sea trade ban, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by the Chinese military. An account of Ming dynasty Fujian was written by No In (Lu Ren ). The Iloilo#History, Pisheya appear in Quanzhou Ming era records.


Qing dynasty

The late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the Kingdom of Tungning, refuge Ming government of Koxinga in the island of Taiwan. The sea ban implemented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources. This has led to the myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water". Incoming refugees did not translate into a major labor force, owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu and annexed it into the Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Many more Han Chinese then settled Taiwan. Today, most Taiwanese are descendants of Hokkien people from Southern Fujian. Fujian and Taiwan were originally treated as one province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province), but starting in 1885, they split into two separate provinces. In the 1890s, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War. In 1905-1907 Japan made overtures to enlarge its sphere of influence to include Fujien. Japan was trying to obtain French loans and also avoid the Open Door Policy. Paris provided loans on condition that Japan respect the Open Door principles and not violate China's territorial integrity.


Republic of China

The Xinhai revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty and brought the province into the rule of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China. Fujian briefly established the independent Fujian People's Government on 1933. It was re-controlled by the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China in 1934. Fujian came under a Japanese sea blockade during World War II.


People's Republic of China

After the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, the People's Republic of China unified the country and took over most of Fujian, excluding the Kinmen, Quemoy and Matsu Islands. In its early days, Fujian's relatively slow development compared to the rest of China has proved a blessing for the province's ecology. Today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion, with frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage. Development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the overpopulated areas to Fujian's north and west, and much of the farmland and forest, as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu, have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings. Fujian faces challenges to sustain development while at the same time preserving Fujian's natural and cultural heritage.


Geography

The province is mostly mountainous and is traditionally said to be "eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the
Wuyi Mountains The Wuyi Mountains or Wuyishan (; formerly known as Bohea Hills in early Western documents) are a mountain range located in the prefecture of Nanping, in northern Fujian, Fujian province near the border with Jiangxi, Jiangxi province, China. Th ...
forming the border between Fujian and
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
. It is the most forested provincial-level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009. Fujian's highest point is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of . Fujian faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the
Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel of water that lies between ...

Taiwan Strait
to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen, controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Mazu (goddess), Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors. The Min River (Fujian), Min River and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin River (Fujian), Jin and the Jiulong River, Jiulong. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids. Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the -wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. The islands of Kinmen and Matsu Islands, Matsu are under the administration of the Republic of China. Fujian contains several Fault (geology), faults, the result of collision between the Eurasian Plate, Asiatic Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The Changle-Naoao and Longan-Jinjiang fault zones in this area have annual displacement rates of 3–5 mm. They could cause major earthquakes in the future. Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January, the coastal regions average around while the hills average . In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific Ocean, Pacific. Average annual precipitation (meteorology), precipitation is .


Transportation


Roads

, there are of highways in Fujian, including of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The Five-year plans of the People's Republic of China, 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to .


Railways

Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken first language, natively by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in ...

Jiangxi
,
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
and
Zhejiang Zhejiang (, ; , Chinese postal romanization, also romanized as Chekiang) is an East China, eastern, coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou. Zhejiang is bordered ...

Zhejiang
Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway, Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southernmost section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway, Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway, Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to . Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou Railway, Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo Railway, Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways, (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to .


Air

The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport, Longyan Guanzhishan Airport and Sanming Shaxian Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers as of 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Hong Kong.


Administrative divisions

The People's Republic of China controls most of the province and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions: all Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities (including a Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, sub-provincial city): All of the prefecture-level cities except Nanping, Sanming, and Longyan are found along the coast. These nine prefecture-level cities are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 District of China, districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44 County (People's Republic of China), counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Township level, township-level divisions (605 town of China, towns, 328 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts). The People's Republic of China claims five of the six townships of Kinmen, Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as a county of the prefecture-level city of
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
. The PRC claims Wuqiu, Kinmen, Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Xiuyu District of the prefecture-level city of Putian. Finally, the PRC claims Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands), Republic of China (Taiwan) as a township of its Lianjiang County, which is part of the prefecture-level city of
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
. Together, these three groups of islands make up Fujian Province, Republic of China, the Republic of China's Fujian Province.


Urban areas


Politics

List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee *Zhang Dingcheng (): June 1949 – October 1954 *Ye Fei (): October 1954 – June 1958 *Jiang Yizhen (): acting 1958–1970 *Han Xianchu (): April 1971 – December 1973 *Liao Zhigao (): December 1974 – February 1982 *Xiang Nan (): February 1982 – March 1986 *Chen Guangyi (): March 1986 – December 1993 *Jia Qinglin (): December 1993 – October 1996 *Chen Mingyi (): October 1996 – December 2000  *Song Defu (): December 2000 – February 2004 *Lu Zhangong (): February 2004 – November 2009 *Sun Chunlan (): November 2009 – December 2012 *You Quan (): December 2012 – October 2017 *Yu Weiguo (): October 2017 – present List of Governors *Zhang Dingcheng (): August 1949 – October 1954   *Ye Fei (): October 1954 – January 1959 *Jiang Yizhen (): October 1959 – December 1962 *Wen Jinshui (): December 1962 – August 1968  *Han Xianchu (): August 1968 – December 1973 *Liao Zhigao (): November 1974-December 1979 *Ma Xingyuan (politician), Ma Xingyuan (): December 1979 – January 1983 *Hu Ping (): January 1983 – September 1987 *Wang Zhaoguo (): September 1987 – November 1990 *Jia Qinglin (): November 1990 – April 1994 *Chen Mingyi (): April 1994 – October 1996 *He Guoqiang (): October 1996 – August 1999 *Xi Jinping (): August 1999 – October 2002 *Lu Zhangong (): October 2002 – December 2004 *Huang Xiaojing (): December 2004 – April 2011 *Su Shulin (): April 2011 – November 2015 *Yu Weiguo (): November 2015 – January 2018 *Tang Dengjie (): January 2018 – present


Economy

Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta Sports, Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic. In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley. Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent. Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions. See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen,
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
and
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lan ...

Zhangzhou
accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province. Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of Three Links, direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan. Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China. In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3 billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year. Its GDP per capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)). By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.


Economic and Technological Development Zones

*Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone *
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
Economic & Technical Development Zone * Fuzhou Free Trade Zone * Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park * Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area * Jimei District, Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area * Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort * Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort * Xiamen Export Processing Zone * Xiamen Free Trade Zone * Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone * Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese version) *Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area


Demographics

As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions." Fujianese who are legally classified as Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Min Chinese speakers make up the largest subgroups classified as Han Chinese in Fujian such as Hoklo people, Fuzhou people, Fuzhounese people, Putian people and Fuzhou Tanka. Hakka people, Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the central and southwestern parts of Fujian. The She (ethnic group), She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest List of Chinese ethnic groups, minority ethnic group of the province. Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia, trace their ancestries to the Fujianese branches of Hoklo people and Teochew people. Descendants of
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucrac ...
speaking emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Australia, Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines. While Eastern Min speaking people, especially Fuzhou people, Fuzhounese people, is one of the major sources of China immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.


Religion

The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. In 2010, there are 115.978 Muslims in Fujian


Culture

Because of its mountainous nature and waves of migration from central China and assimilation of numerous foreign ethnic groups such as maritime traders in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse places of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within , and the regional cultures and ethnic composition can be completely different from each other as well. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".French, Howard W.
Uniting China to Speak Mandarin, the One Official Language: Easier Said Than Done
." ''The New York Times''. July 10, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min Chinese, Min category. A recent classifications subdivide Min into * Eastern Min (the former Northern group), including the
Fuzhou dialect The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, ...
* Northern Min, spoken in inland northern areas * Pu-Xian Min, Pu-Xian, spoken in central coastal areas * Central Min, spoken in the west of the province * Shao-Jiang Min, Shao-Jiang, spoken in the northwest *
Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucrac ...
, including the Amoy dialect and Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian. Hakka Chinese, Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the
Hakka people The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The fou ...
who live there. As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Standard Chinese, Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities, although native Fujian peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively. Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang City, Jinjiang and
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
; Xiangju (Fujian), Xiangju around
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lan ...

Zhangzhou
; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County. Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber (food), sea cucumber, abalone and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage). Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
of the Min Nan languages. Standard Chinese, Mandarin and Standard Cantonese, Cantonese pronounce the word ''chá''. Nanyin is a popular form of music of Fujian. Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed.
Fuzhou Fuzhou (; , Fuzhounese The Fuzhou dialect (, FR: ), also Foochow, Hokchew, Hok-chiu, or Fuzhounese, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of Eastern Fujian Province. Like ma ...

Fuzhou
is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.


Tourism

Fujian is home to a number of tourist attractions, including four UNESCO World Heritage Sites, one of the highest in China. In the capital of Fuzhou is the Yongquan Temple (Fuzhou), Yongquan Temple, a Buddhist temple built during the Tang dynasty. The
Wuyi Mountains The Wuyi Mountains or Wuyishan (; formerly known as Bohea Hills in early Western documents) are a mountain range located in the prefecture of Nanping, in northern Fujian, Fujian province near the border with Jiangxi, Jiangxi province, China. Th ...
was the first location in Fujian to be listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 1999. They are a mountain range in the prefecture of
Nanping Nanping (, historically known as Yenping) is a third-tier prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian Province, People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List ...

Nanping
and contains the highest peak in Fujian, Mount Huanggang. It is famous as a natural landscape garden and a summer resort in China. The Fujian Tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in southwest Fujian. They were listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2008. Gulangyu Island, Xiamen, is notable for its beaches, winding lanes and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China, 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site in 2017. Also in Xiamen is the South Putuo Temple. The Guanghua Temple (Putian), Guanghua Temple is a Buddhist temple in Putian. It was built in the penultimate year of the Chen Dynasty, Southern Chen Dynasty. Located in the northern half of the mouth of Meizhou Bay, it is about 1.8 nautical miles from the mainland and faces the Strait of Taiwan to the southeast. Covering an area of six square miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 miles of beach area. Another buddhist temple, Nanshan Temple (Zhangzhou), Nanshan Temple is located in
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lan ...

Zhangzhou
. Around Meizhou Islands is the Matsu (goddess), Matsu pilgrimage. The Kaiyuan Temple (Quanzhou), Kaiyuan Temple, is a Buddhist temple in West Street,
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
, the largest in Fujian province with an area of ."Kaiyuan Temple". Chinaculture.org. Retrieved 31 January 2012. Although it is known as a both a Hindu and Buddhist temple, on account of added Tamil-Hindu influences, the main statue in the most important hall is that of Vairocana Buddha, the main Buddha according to Huayan Buddhism. Mount Taimu is a mountain and a scenic resort in Fuding. It offers a grand view of mountain and sea, and is famous for its natural scenery including granite caves, odd-shaped stones, steep cliffs, clear streams, cascading waterfalls, and cultural attractions such as ancient temples and cliff Inscriptions. The Danxia landform in Taining County, Taining was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2010. It is a unique type of Petrography, petrographic geomorphology found in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. Danxia landform is formed from red-coloured sandstones and Conglomerate (geology), conglomerates of largely Cretaceous age. The landforms look very much like karst topography that forms in areas underlain by limestones, but since the rocks that form danxia are sandstones and conglomerates, they have been called "pseudo-karst" landforms. They were formed by endogenous forces (including Tectonic uplift, uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion).


Notable individuals

The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable people. These include people whose ancestral home (祖籍) is Fujian (their ancestors originated from Fujian). In addition to the below list, many notable individuals of Han Chinese descent in Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and elsewhere have ancestry that can be traced to Fujian. Some notable individuals include (in rough chronological order): Han, Tang, Song dynasties *Baizhang Huaihai (720–814), an influential master of Chan Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty *Huangbo Xiyun (died 850), an influential master of Chan Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty *Chen Yan (governor), Chen Yan (849-892), Tang dynasty governor of Fujian *Liu Yong (Song dynasty), Liu Yong (987–1053), a famous poet *Cai Jing (1047–1126), government official and calligrapher who lived during the Northern Song dynasty *Li Gang (Song dynasty), Li Gang (1083–1140), Song dynasty politician and military leader (ancestral home is Shaowu) *Zhu Xi (1130–1200), Confucian philosopher *Zhen Dexiu (1178–1235), Song dynasty politician and philosopher *Yan Yu (poetry theorist), Yan Yu (1191–1241), a poetry theorist and poet of the Southern Song dynasty *Chen Wenlong (1232–1277), a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song dynasty *Pu Shougeng (1250–1281), a Muslim merchant and administrator in the last years of the Southern Song dynasty Yuan, Ming, Qing dynasties *Chen Youding (1330–1368), Yuan dynasty military leader *Gao Bing (1350–1423), an author and poetry theorist during Ming Dynasty *Ong Sum Ping, Huang Senping (14th–15th century), royal son-in-law of Sultan Muhammad Shah of Brunei *Zhang Jing (Ming dynasty), Zhang Jing (1492–1555), Ming dynasty politician and general *Yu Dayou (1503–1579), Ming dynasty general and martial artist *Chen Di (1541–1617), Ming dynasty philologist, strategist and traveler *Huang Daozhou (1585–1646), Ming dynasty politician, calligrapher and scholar *Ingen (1592–1673), well known Buddhist monk, poet and calligrapher who lived during Ming Dynasty *Hong Chengchou (1593–1665), Ming dynasty official *Shi Lang (1621–1696), Qing dynasty admiral *Koxinga (1624–1662), Ming dynasty general who expelled the Dutch from Taiwan *Huang Shen (1687–1772), a painter during the Qing dynasty *Lin Zexu (1785–1850), Qing dynasty scholar and official *Chen Baochen (1848–1935), imperial preceptor of Qing dynasty *Zhan Shi Chai (1840s–1893), entertainer as "Chang the Chinese giant" *Wong Nai Siong, Huang Naishang (1849–1924), scholar, revolutionary, discovered the town of Sibu in Sarawak, east Malaysia in 1901 *Lin Shu (1852–1924), translator, who introduced the western classics into Chinese. *Yan Fu (1854–1921), scholar and translator *Sa Zhenbing (1859–1952), high-ranking naval officer of Mongols, Mongolian origin *Zheng Xiaoxu (1860–1938), statesman, diplomat and calligrapher *Qiu Jin (1875–1907), revolutionary and writer *Lin Changmin (:zh:林長民) (1876—1925), a high-rank governor in the Beiyang Government *Liang Hongzhi (1882–1946), a high-rank governor in the Beiyang Government *Lin Juemin (1887–1911), one of 72 Second Guangzhou Uprising, Revolutionary Martyrs at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou *Chen Shaokuan (1889–1969), Fleet Admiral who served as the senior commander of naval forces of the National Revolutionary Army *Huang Jun (author), Huang Jun (1890–1937), writer *Hsien Wu (1893–1959), protein scientist *Lin Yutang (1894–1976), writer *Zou Taofen (1895–1944), journalist, media entrepreneur, and political activist *Zheng Zhenduo (1898–1958), literary historian *Lu Yin (writer), Lu Yin (1899–1934), writer 20th-21st century *Bing Xin (1900–1999), writer *Shu Chun Teng (1902–1970), scientist, researcher and lecturer *Zhang Yuzhe (1902–1986), astronomer and director of the Purple Mountain Observatory *Hu Yepin (1903–1931), writer *Lin Huiyin (1904–1955), architect and writer *Go Seigen (1914–2014), pseudonym of Go (board game), Go champion Wú Qīngyuán *Chia-Chiao Lin, Lin Jiaqiao (1916-2013), well-known mathematician *Wang Shizhen (physician), Wang Shizhen (1916-2016), nuclear medicine physician *Sudono Salim, Liem Sioe Liong (1916–2012), a Chinese-born Indonesian businessman of Fuqing origin, founder of Salim Group *Zheng Min (born 1920), a scholar and poet *Ray Wu (1928–2008), geneticist *Chih-Tang Sah (born 1932), well-known electronics engineer of Mongols, Mongolian origin *Chen Jingrun (1933-1996), a widely known mathematician who invented the Chen's theorem and Chen prime *Wang Wen-hsing (born 1939), writer *Liu Yingming (1940–2016), a mathematician and academician *Sun Shensu (born 1943), a geochemist and PhD holder from the Columbian University (ancestral home is Fuzhou) *Chen Kaige (born 1952), film director (ancestral home is Fuzhou) *Chen Zhangliang (born 1961), a Chinese biologist, elected as vice-governor of
Guangxi Guangxi (; alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; ; za, Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, uni ...

Guangxi
in 2007 *Liu Yudong (born 1970), professional basketball player *Kelly Lin (born 1973), actress and model (ancestral home is Fuzhou) *Lin Chi-ling (born 1974), model, actress, singer and television host (ancestral home is Fuzhou) *Chiang Tsu-ping (born 1978), actress and television host (ancestral home is Fuzhou) *Shi Zhiyong (weightlifter, born 1980), Shi Zhiyong (born 1980), professional weightlifter *Zhang Jingchu (born 1980), actress *Lin Dan (born 1983), professional badminton player *Jeremy Lin (born 1988), professional basketball player *Jony J (born 1989), rapper and songwriter *Xu Bin (born 1989), actor and singer *Tian Houwei (born 1992), professional badminton player *Oho Ou (born 1992), actor and singer *Wang Zhelin (born 1994), professional basketball player *Qian Kun (born 1996), singer and songwriter *Zhang Yiming (born 1983), founder of ByteDance, TikTok's parent company.


Sports

Fujian includes professional sports teams in both the Chinese Basketball Association and the China League One, Chinese League One. The representative of the province in the Chinese Basketball Association are the Fujian Sturgeons, who are based in Jinjiang, Fujian, Jinjiang,
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
. The Fujian Sturgeons made their debut in the 2004–2005 season, and finished in seventh and last place in the South Division, out of the playoffs. In the 2005–2006 season, they tied for fifth, just one win away from making the playoffs. The Xiamen Blue Lions formerly represented Fujian in the Chinese Super League, prior to the teams closure in 2007. Today the province is represented by Fujian Tianxin F.C., who play in the China League Two, and the Fujian Broncos F.C., Fujian Broncos.


Education


High schools

*Fuzhou Gezhi High School *Fuzhou No.1 Middle School *Fuzhou No.3 Middle School *Quanzhou No.5 Middle School *Xiamen Shuangshi High School *Xiamen No.1 Middle School *Xiamen Foreign Language School


Colleges and universities


National

*Xiamen University (founded 1921, also known as University of Amoy, "985 project", "211 project") (Xiamen) *Huaqiao University (Quanzhou, Xiamen)


Provincial

*Fuzhou University (founded 1958, one of "211 project" key Universities)u(Fuzhou) *Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Fuzhou) *Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Fuzhou) *Fujian Medical University (Fuzhou) *Fujian Normal University (founded 1907) (Fuzhou) *Fujian University of Technology (Fuzhou) *Xiamen University (Xiamen) *Jimei University (Xiamen) *Xiamen University of Technology (Xiamen) *Longyan University (Longyan) *Minnan Normal University (Zhangzhou) *Minjiang University (Fuzhou) *Putian University (Putian) *Quanzhou Normal College (Quanzhou) *Wuyi University (Wuyishan)


Private

*Yang-en University (Quanzhou)


See also

* Major national historical and cultural sites (Fujian), Major national historical and cultural sites in Fujian


Notes


References

;''Economic data''
Economic profile for Fujian


External links

* * *
Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces
from 1821 to 1850 {{Authority control Fujian, Provinces of the People's Republic of China East China