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Franglais (; also Frenglish ) is a French blend that referred first to the overuse of English words by French speakers and later to
diglossia In linguistics, diglossia () is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used (in fairly strict compartmentalization) by a single language community. In addition to the community's everyday or vernacular language variety (labeled ...
or the
macaronic Macaronic language uses a mixture of languages, particularly bilingual puns or situations in which the languages are otherwise used in the same context (rather than simply discrete segments of a text being in different languages). Hybrid words ...
mixture of
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, which originated in France, and its various dialects and accents ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with Fran ...
() and
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national i ...
().


Etymology

The word ''Franglais'' was first attested in French in 1959, but it was popularised by the academic, novelist, and critic René Étiemble in his denunciation of the overuse of English words in French, published in 1964. Earlier than the French term was the English label ''Frenglish'', first recorded in 1937. Other colloquial blends for French-influenced English include ''Franglish'' (recorded from 1967), ''Frenchlish'' (1974), and ''Fringlish'' (1982).


English sense

In English, ''Franglais'' means a combination of English and French. It evokes the linguistic concepts of
mixed language A mixed language is a language that arises among a bilingual group combining aspects of two or more languages but not clearly deriving primarily from any single language. It differs from a creole or pidgin language in that, whereas creoles/pidgi ...
and barbarism. Reasons for this blend could be caused by lexical gaps, native bilingualism, populations trying to imitate a language where they have no fluency (sometimes known as creoles/pidgins), or humorous intent. Franglais usually consists of either filling in gaps in one's knowledge of French with English words, using false friends, or speaking French which (although ostensibly "French") would not be understood by a French speaker who does not also have a knowledge of English (for example, by using a literal translation of English idiomatic phrases). Some examples of Franglais are: * ''Longtemps, pas voir.Long time, no see.' * ''Je vais driver downtown.I'm going to drive downtown.' () * ''Je suis tired.I am tired.' () * ''Je care pas.I don't care.' () * ''J'agree.I agree.' () * ''M'en va gazer mon char. (Québec)'' – 'I'm going to go fill up my car (with gas).' () Franglais may also mean a diplomatic compromise, such as the abbreviation ''UTC'' for
Coordinated Universal Time Coordinated Universal Time or UTC is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about one second of mean solar time (such as UT1) at 0° longitude (at the IERS Reference Meridian as the currently us ...
.


In English humour

Chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer (; – 25 October 1400) was an English poet, author, and civil servant best known for ''The Canterbury Tales''. He has been called the "father of English literature", or, alternatively, the "father of English poetry". He wa ...
's Prioress knew nothing of the French of France, but only that of Stratford-atte-Bow ('
Cockney Cockney is an accent and dialect of English, mainly spoken in London and its environs, particularly by working-class and lower middle-class Londoners. The term "Cockney" has traditionally been used to describe a person from the East End, or b ...
French'). Similar mixtures occur in the later stages of
Law French Law French ( nrf, Louai Français, enm, Lawe Frensch) is an archaic language originally based on Old Norman and Anglo-Norman, but increasingly influenced by Parisian French and, later, English. It was used in the law courts of England, be ...
, such as the famous defendant who "ject un brickbat a le dit Justice, que narrowly mist" ("threw a at the said Justice, which narrowly missed"). Another example in
English literature English literature is literature written in the English language from United Kingdom, its crown dependencies, the Republic of Ireland, the United States, and the countries of the former British Empire. ''The Encyclopaedia Britannica'' defines ...
is found in '' Henry V'' by
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor. He is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's nation ...
. In Act 3, Scene 4, a French princess is trying to learn English, but unfortunately, ''foot'' as pronounced by her maid sounds too much like (vulgar French for 'semen', or 'to have sexual intercourse' when used as a verb) and ''gown'' like (French for '
cunt ''Cunt'' () is a vulgar word for the vulva or vagina. It is used in a variety of ways, including as a term of disparagement. Reflecting national variations, ''cunt'' can be used as a disparaging and obscene term for a woman in the United St ...
', also used to mean 'idiot'). She decides that English is too obscene. A literary example of the delight in occurs in Robert Surtees' '' Jorrocks' Jaunts and Jollities'': The 19th-century American writer
Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was praised as the "greatest humorist the United States has p ...
, in '' Innocents Abroad'', included the following letter to a Parisian landlord: The humourist Miles Kington wrote a regular column "Let's Parler Franglais" which was published in the British magazine ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat), a strike made using the hand closed into a fist * Punch (drink), a wide assortment of drinks, non-alcoholic or alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice Punch may also refer to: Places * Pu ...
'' in the late 1970s. These columns were collected into a series of books: ''Let's Parler Franglais'', ''Let's Parler Franglais Again!'', ''Parlez-vous Franglais?'', ''Let's Parler Franglais One More Temps'', ''The Franglais Lieutenant's Woman and Other Literary Masterpieces''. A somewhat different tack was taken in Luis van Rooten's '' Mots d'Heures: Gousses, Rames: The D'Antin Manuscript''. Here, English nursery rhymes are written with meaningless French phrases which are meant to recall the sounds of the English words, and the resulting French texts are presented as a historical manuscript and given a pseudo-learned commentary. Another classic is Jean Loup Chiflet's ''Sky My Husband! Ciel Mon Mari!'' which is a literal translation of French into English. However, in this context, the correct translation of is 'heavens...!' In
Monty Python Monty Python (also collectively known as the Pythons) were a British comedy troupe who created the sketch comedy television show ''Monty Python's Flying Circus'', which first aired on the BBC in 1969. Forty-five episodes were made over fou ...
's 1975 movie ''
Monty Python and the Holy Grail ''Monty Python and the Holy Grail'' is a 1975 British comedy film satirizing the Arthurian legend, written and performed by the Monty Python comedy group ( Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin) ...
'', the French castle guard (
John Cleese John Marwood Cleese ( ; born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer. Emerging from the Cambridge Footlights in the 1960s, he first achieved success at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and as a scriptwriter an ...
) orders, when King Arthur (
Graham Chapman Graham Chapman (8 January 1941 – 4 October 1989) was a British actor, comedian and writer. He was one of the six members of the surreal comedy group Monty Python. He portrayed authority figures such as The Colonel and the lead role in two ...
) does not want to go away, his fellow guards to "''Fetchez la vache.''" The other French guards respond with "" and he repeats "''Fetchez la vache!''" The guards finally get it: fetch ('the cow'), which they then catapult at the Britons.


French sense

In French, refers to the use of English words sometimes deemed unwelcome borrowings or bad slang. An example would be (also ), which is used in many French dialects which have no synonym; however,
Canadians Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of ...
would use ' ('the end of the week') instead, although in France refers to the end of the work week, i.e. Thursday and Friday. also refers to nouns coined from Anglo-Saxon roots or from recent English loanwords (themselves not always Anglo-Saxon in origin), often by adding ''-ing'' at the end of a popular word—e.g., ('a car park or parking lot' is alternatively ' in Canadian French, although means 'the action of parking or the state of being parked' in European French); ('a campsite'); and ('shampoo', but pronounced , not ), which has been standardized and has appeared on many French hair-care product labels since at least the 1960s. A few words which have entered French are derived from English roots but are not found at all in English, such as ('a makeover'), and ('a rugby player'). Others are based on misunderstandings of English words, e.g.: ''un '' meaning 'a jog or a run' rather than 'a pediment'; meaning 'a tram', not 'a tram-track'. Still others are based on (with the apostrophe in both singular and plural) meaning 'a lapel pin'; or meaning 'a walkie-talkie' (hand-held, two-way radio). For those who do not speak English, such words may be believed to exist as such in English. However, in
Canada Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over , making it the world's second-largest country by tot ...
, where both English and French are spoken, expressions such as and are not used. Some examples of Franglais are in fact imagined or examples of words being
adopted Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents. Legal adoptions permanently transfer all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from ...
from one language into another in the opposite direction of what many people believe. People who have no linguistic training or do not bother to consult dictionaries tend to create and perpetuate such urban legends about Franglais. For example, many numismatists think that the French spelling of the English term ''piedfort'' results from an imagined reintroduction of an English misspelling. In fact, the spelling is found in French dictionaries as an alternative of and even as the only spelling given in the 1932–1935 edition of the ''
Dictionnaire de l'Académie française The ''Dictionnaire de l'Académie française'' is the official dictionary of the French language. The Académie française is France's official authority on the usages, vocabulary, and grammar of the French language, although its recommendations ...
'' and the etymology derived by professional linguists and shown in these dictionaries shows the change in spelling happened within French. Owing to the worldwide popularity of the Internet, relatively new English words have been introduced into French (e.g. and , referring to either e-mail or an e-mail address). An equivalent for the English word ''e-mail'' derived from French roots was coined in
Quebec French Quebec French (french: français québécois ), also known as Québécois French, is the predominant variety of the French language spoken in Canada. It is the dominant language of the province of Quebec, used in everyday communication, in educa ...
and promoted by Quebec government: ' (from ), and this term is now widely used there. The
Académie française An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning (and generally also research or honorary membership). The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, ...
has also suggested the use of the abbreviation (from ) as an analogy with the abbreviation for 'telephone', to be used before an e-mail address; however, the term , which roughly approximates the English pronunciation of ''mail'', is now used more broadly in France than that prescribed usage. Another example from French is the word . The equivalent of the English verb ''to look at'' in French is but the noun ''a look'' (i.e. the way that something looks or is styled) has become in French, such that the sentence "This Pepsi can has a new look" in French would be "".


In France

After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing ...
, a backlash began in
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area ...
over the growing use of English there. "Corruption of the national language" was perceived by some to be tantamount to an attack on the identity of the country itself. During this period, ever greater imports of American products led to the increasingly widespread use of some English phrases in French. Measures taken to slow this trend included government
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...
of
comic strips A comic strip is a sequence of drawings, often cartoons, arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th and into the 21st c ...
and financial support for the French film and French-language dubbing industries. Despite public policies against the spread of English, Franglais is gaining popularity in both writing and speaking. In recent years, English expressions are increasingly present in French mass media: * TV reality shows often use English titles such as ''Loft Story'', ''Star Academy'', ''Popstars'', and ''Secret Story''. * A leading national newspaper, ''
Le Monde ''Le Monde'' (; ) is a French daily afternoon newspaper. It is the main publication of Le Monde Group and reported an average circulation of 323,039 copies per issue in 2009, about 40,000 of which were sold abroad. It has had its own website si ...
'', publishes a weekly article selection of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to comprise a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid d ...
'' entirely in English and uses anglicisms such as ''newsletter'', ''chat'', and ''e-mail'' instead of French substitutions (/ for 'chat' or for 'e-mail'). ** Note that saying to a French person instead of Internet 'chat' may confuse them, since refers in France to real-life conversation and is rarely used in an Internet context. The word ' (a blend of 'keyboard' and 'chat') is hardly known outside of Canada. The word ''chat'' in writing can be confusing as well since it natively means 'cat' in French; thus, the unique respelling is occasionally seen. * In James Huth's blockbuster movie '' Brice de Nice'' (to be pronounced as if it were in English), Franglais is used in a satirical way to make fun of teens and other trendy people who use English words to sound cool. Most telecommunication and Internet service providers use English and Franglais expressions in product names and advertising campaigns. The leading operator,
France Télécom Orange S.A. (), formerly France Télécom S.A. (stylized as france telecom) is a French multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 266 million customers worldwide and employs 89,000 people in France, and 5 ...
, has dropped the accents in its corporate logo. In recent years, it has changed its product names with trendier expressions such as Business Talk, Live-Zoom, Family Talk. France Télécom's mobile telecommunications subsidiary
Orange SA Orange S.A. (), formerly France Télécom S.A. (stylized as france telecom) is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 266 million customers worldwide and employs 89,000 people in France, and 59,000 elsewhere. In 2015, ...
runs a franchise retail network called . Its Internet subsidiary, formerly known as Wanadoo (inspired by the American slang expression ''wanna do'') provides a popular triple play service through its ''Livebox''
cable modem A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC), radio frequency over glass (RFoG) and coaxial cable infrastructure. Cable modems are prima ...
. The second-largest Internet service provider in France is Free, which offers its ''freebox''. Set-top boxes that are offered by many other providers are also following this trend (e.g. Neuf-box, Alice-box, etc.) and the word ''box'' by itself is gradually ending up referring to these set-top boxes.
SNCF The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (; abbreviated as SNCF ; French for "National society of French railroads") is France's national State-owned enterprise, state-owned railway company. Founded in 1938, it operates the Rail tra ...
, the state-owned railway company, has recently introduced a customer fidelity program called S'Miles. Meanwhile,
Air France Air France (; formally ''Société Air France, S.A.''), stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the flag carrier of France headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global air ...
has renamed its Fréquence Plus frequent flyer program to Flying Blue. The Paris transportation authority RATP has also recently introduced a
contactless smartcard A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store (and sometimes process) data and communicate with a terminal via NFC. Commonplace uses include transit ticke ...
ticketing system (like the
Oyster card The Oyster card is a payment method for public transport in London (and certain areas around it) in England, United Kingdom. A standard Oyster card is a blue ISO/IEC 7810, credit-card-sized Stored-value card, stored-value contactless smart car ...
in
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a maj ...
) called NaviGO. Public authorities such as the
Académie française An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning (and generally also research or honorary membership). The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, ...
and the Conseil supérieur de la langue française generally propose alternative words for anglicisms. The acceptance of such words varies considerably; for example, and existed before the English words ''computer'' and ''software'' reached France, so they are accepted (even outside France in the case of ). On the other hand, failed to replace ''weekend'' or ' (the latter being in current usage in Canada). The word , equivalent to 'e-mail', coined and used in French-speaking Canada, is gaining popularity in written European French. However, most French Internet users generally speak about ''mail'' without the prefix "e-". Note that English words are often shorter, and they are usually coined first (the French alternatives are generally thought of only after the original word has already been coined, and then they are debated at length before coming into use). This is partly why they tend to stay in use. Alternative words proposed by the Académie française are sometimes poorly received by a technologically aware audience and unclear to a non-technologically aware audience. The proposed terms may be ambiguous (often because they are coined based on phonetics, thus hiding their etymology) which results in nonsense (e.g. for
CD-RW CD-RW (Compact Disc-Rewritable) is a digital optical disc storage format introduced in 1997. A CD-RW compact disc (CD-RWs) can be written, read, erased, and re-written. CD-RWs, as opposed to CDs, require specialized readers that have sens ...
(literally 'rewritable CD-ROMs', despite ''ROM'' meaning 'read-only memory'). Some words are considered uncool, for example, (formed by adding ''t-'' to ''chat'') or (formed by writing ''DVD'' phonetically). The use of English expressions is very common in the youth language, which combines them with wordplay. The letter ''j'' is thus sometimes humorously pronounced as in English in words such as ('youth'), rendered as /dʒœns/ and thus written ,


In Canada


Quebec

Quebec Quebec ( ; )According to the Canadian government, ''Québec'' (with the acute accent) is the official name in Canadian French and ''Quebec'' (without the accent) is the province's official name in Canadian English is one of the thirteen p ...
is the only French-majority province in Canada and the only "de jure" (but not "de facto") monolingual jurisdiction.
New Brunswick New Brunswick (french: Nouveau-Brunswick, , locally ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. It is the only province with both English and ...
is officially bilingual, and the other provinces, while mostly
English-speaking Speakers of English are also known as Anglophones, and the countries where English is natively spoken by the majority of the population are termed the ''Anglosphere''. Over two billion people speak English , making English the largest languag ...
, are not officially English-only. When a speaker uses calques and
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word at least partly assimilated from one language (the donor language) into another language. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because the ...
in speech which includes English or French words and grammatical structures in a combination, it is sometimes referred to as Franglais, or a
mixed language A mixed language is a language that arises among a bilingual group combining aspects of two or more languages but not clearly deriving primarily from any single language. It differs from a creole or pidgin language in that, whereas creoles/pidgi ...
. The ''Montreal Gazette'' has examined this so-called "linguistic mosaic".
Quebec French Quebec French (french: français québécois ), also known as Québécois French, is the predominant variety of the French language spoken in Canada. It is the dominant language of the province of Quebec, used in everyday communication, in educa ...
has longstanding borrowings from English due to the historical coexistence of two speech communities within
Quebec Quebec ( ; )According to the Canadian government, ''Québec'' (with the acute accent) is the official name in Canadian French and ''Quebec'' (without the accent) is the province's official name in Canadian English is one of the thirteen p ...
(and especially around
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as '' Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple- ...
). Likewise, Quebec English, the language of the English-speaking minority, has borrowed many French words such as '' dépanneur'' ('convenience store'), '' autoroute'' ('highway'), ''stage'' ('internship'), ''circular'' ('flyer', from the word , a circulated pamphlet), and many others . These are permanent and longstanding features of local usage, rather than the recent slangish improvisation by any speaker or affinity group with poor knowledge of the other language. Some words are attributed to what is called Joual (French pronunciation: wal: the name given by some to linguistic features of what is known as basilectal dialect of French when it is placed on a post-creole continuum. These expressions have mainly become part of a common tongue/ register born out of mutual concession to each other. In fact, the substantial bilingual community in and around Montreal will occasionally refer to Franglais, usually after it is pointed out by an observer that someone has used various French and English words, expressions or prepositions in the same sentence, a surprisingly common occurrence in various spoken registers.


Other areas in Canada

Canadian French Canadian French (french: français canadien) is the French language as it is spoken in Canada. It includes multiple varieties, the most prominent of which is Québécois (Quebec French). Formerly ''Canadian French'' referred solely to Quebec ...
is French as it is spoken in Canada. Scholars debate to what extent language mixture can be distinguished from other mechanisms, such as code-switching, substrata, or lexical borrowing. A
mixed language A mixed language is a language that arises among a bilingual group combining aspects of two or more languages but not clearly deriving primarily from any single language. It differs from a creole or pidgin language in that, whereas creoles/pidgi ...
arises in a population which is fluent in both languages. The word ''Franglais'' refers to the long-standing and stable mixes of English and French spoken in some towns, cities, and rural areas of other Canadian provinces:
New Brunswick New Brunswick (french: Nouveau-Brunswick, , locally ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. It is the only province with both English and ...
,
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia ( ; ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland". Most of the population are native Engl ...
,
Ontario Ontario ( ; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.Ontario is located in the geographic eastern half of Canada, but it has historically and politically been considered to be part of Central Canada. Located in Central Cana ...
,
Manitoba , image_map = Manitoba in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Manitoba's location in the centre of Southern Canada , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Win ...
, and
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (; french: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; frequently abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. The province comprises the island of Newfoundland and the continental regio ...
. Such mixing is used in the northern regions of
Maine Maine () is a state in the New England and Northeastern regions of the United States. It borders New Hampshire to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and nort ...
(U.S.) (see
Chiac Chiac (or ''Chiak'', ''Chi’aq''), is a Creole variety of Acadian French spoken mostly in southeastern New Brunswick, Canada. Chiac is often characterized and distinguished from other forms of Acadian French by its borrowings from English, ...
and
Acadian French Acadian French (french: français acadien, acadjonne) is a variety of French spoken by Acadians, mostly in the region of Acadia, Canada. Acadian French has 7 regional accents, including chiac and brayon. Phonology Since there was relatively l ...
). It has been asserted that this mix uses approximately equal proportions of each language (except in Newfoundland), although it is more likely to be understood by a French-speaker, since it usually uses English words in French pronunciation and grammar. Franglais is commonly spoken in French-language schools in Ontario and Alberta, as well as in DSFM ( ''Division scolaire franco-manitobaine'') schools in Manitoba, where students may speak French as their first language but will use English as their preferred language, yet will refer to school-related terms in French specifically (e.g. "Let's go to the ", instead of "Let's go to the library"). As many French schools and French immersion classes have a strict "French-only" policy, English or Franglais is used out of class, between students. Because of bilingual product packaging, speakers and readers may form new pronunciations that become terms. For example, someone may pronounce the words on a package of strong cheddar and call it "old fort".


Mistaken and unstable usages

Franglais, in the sense of mistaken usage by second-language speakers, occurs across Canada. An example of an anglicism turned Franglais is the mistranslation of English phrases into French by students who are unaware of the
Canadian French Canadian French (french: français canadien) is the French language as it is spoken in Canada. It includes multiple varieties, the most prominent of which is Québécois (Quebec French). Formerly ''Canadian French'' referred solely to Quebec ...
word. For example, a
hot dog A hot dog (uncommonly spelled hotdog) is a food consisting of a grilled or steamed sausage served in the slit of a partially sliced bun. The term hot dog can refer to the sausage itself. The sausage used is a wiener ( Vienna sausage) or a f ...
is sometimes called when the French word is simply . (However, the Quebec government has itself promoted expressions such as for 'hot dog', and for '
hamburger A hamburger, or simply burger, is a food consisting of fillings—usually a patty of ground meat, typically beef—placed inside a sliced bun or bread roll. Hamburgers are often served with cheese, lettuce, tomato, onion, pickles, bacon, or ...
', neither of which has gained widespread acceptance.) In some ways, confusion over which expression is more correct, and the emphasis that many immersion schools place on eliminating anglicisms from students' vocabulary, has promoted the use of Franglais. Franglais can also slowly creep into use from mispronunciation and misspelling by many bilingual Canadians. Common mistakes that immersion or bilingual students propagate include incorrect inflection and stresses on syllables, incorrect doubling of consonants, strange vowel combinations in their spelling and using combinations of prefixes and suffixes from English. Recently, Canadian youth culture (especially in British Columbia and southeastern Ontario) purposely uses Franglais for its comical or
euphemistic A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes ...
characteristics, for example, in replacing English swear words with French ones. Some English-speaking Canadians, especially Anglo-Quebecers and those in southeastern Ontario, euphemistically use the (i.e., religious words such as as expletives) rather than swearing in English.


Pseudo-anglicisms

There is a particular form of Franglish which consists of the adoption of English words with alternative meanings to their usage in English. These are words like ('a scramble', 'a rush', 'a strong effort'), or ('a tan', 'the act of sunbathing'), made by adding the English ending ''-ing'' to a verb from French (e.g. 'to force' or 'to tan') to form a new noun. These are slang or informal at best, and not widely accepted. Another type of false anglicism comes from the shortening of an English name, keeping only the first word (while the important word is the last). For example, a dress suit is designated by the word , borrowed ultimately from ' smoking jacket'. Yet the British use ''dinner jacket'' and Americans use ''
tuxedo Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is often referred to synecdochically by its principal element ...
'' (or ''tux''); in English, ''smoking'' is used only as a
participle In linguistics, a participle () (from Latin ' a "sharing, partaking") is a nonfinite verb form that has some of the characteristics and functions of both verbs and adjectives. More narrowly, ''participle'' has been defined as "a word derived from ...
and as the
gerund In linguistics, a gerund ( abbreviated ) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages; most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun. In English, it has the properties of both verb and noun, such as being modifiabl ...
. Another example is the use of the word for '
clapperboard A clapperboard (also known by various other names including dumb slate) is a device used in filmmaking and video production to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they ar ...
' used in filmmaking. They are either French constructions which mimic English rules, or shifts of meaning which affect borrowings.


In Cameroon

Cameroon Cameroon (; french: Cameroun, ff, Kamerun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in west-central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the ...
has substantial English and French-speaking populations as a legacy of its colonial past as British
Southern Cameroons The Southern Cameroons was the southern part of the British League of Nations mandate territory of the British Cameroons in West Africa. Since 1961, it has been part of the Republic of Cameroon, where it makes up the Northwest Region and Sout ...
and
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, which originated in France, and its various dialects and accents ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with Fran ...
Cameroun. Despite linguistically segregated education since independence, many younger Cameroonians in urban centres have formed a version of Franglais/Franglish from English, French and
Cameroonian Pidgin English Cameroonian Pidgin English, or Cameroonian Creole ( wes, Wes Cos, from West Coast), is a language variety of Cameroon. It is also known as Kamtok (from 'Cameroon-talk'). It is primarily spoken in the North West and South West English speaking re ...
known as Camfranglais or Frananglais. Many educational authorities disapprove of it, and they have banned it in their schools. Nevertheless, the youth-culture
argot A cant is the jargon or language of a group, often employed to exclude or mislead people outside the group.McArthur, T. (ed.) ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (1992) Oxford University Press It may also be called a cryptolect, argot ...
has gained popularity and has a growing music scene.


Elsewhere in the world

Franglais is spoken in London, due to its large French-speaking population. Franglais also thrives in communities where imperfect English–French bilingualism is common. The
United Nations Office at Geneva The United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG, french: Office des Nations Unies à Genève) in Geneva, Switzerland, is one of the four major offices of the United Nations where numerous different UN agencies have a joint presence. The main UNOG ...
is so named in an imitation of the French , rather than the expected "''in'' Geneva". Another example is provided by the civil servants in
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has often been ...
institutions (
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of the legislative bodies of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union (known as the Council and informally as the Council of Ministers), it adopt ...
,
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive of the European Union (EU). It operates as a cabinet government, with 27 members of the Commission (informally known as "Commissioners") headed by a President. It includes an administrative body ...
,
European Court of Justice The European Court of Justice (ECJ, french: Cour de Justice européenne), formally just the Court of Justice, is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law. As a part of the Court of Justice of the European Unio ...
), based in bilingual
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Bruss ...
(French and Dutch) and
Luxembourg City Luxembourg ( lb, Lëtzebuerg; french: Luxembourg; german: Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City ( lb, Stad Lëtzebuerg, link=no or ; french: Ville de Luxembourg, link=no; german: Stadt Luxemburg, link=no or ), is the capital city of the G ...
( Luxembourgish and German). They often work in English, but they are surrounded by a French-speaking environment, which influences their English (e.g. "I'm a stagiaire at the Commission and I'm looking for another stage in a consultancy", referring to internships).


Songs

* A notable song with substantial Franglais lyrics was " (Si Si) Je Suis un Rock Star", written and recorded by
Bill Wyman William George Wyman ( né Perks; born 24 October 1936) is an English musician who achieved international fame as the bassist for the Rolling Stones from 1962 until 1993. In 1989, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member ...
. The record reached #14 in the UK Singles Chart in 1981. * The song "Je Suis Une Dolly" by Dolly Rockers references French culture whilst singing to a Frenchman. * The song "For Me, for Me, Formidable" by
Charles Aznavour Charles Aznavour ( , ; born Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, hy, Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրեան, ; 22 May 1924 – 1 October 2018) was a French-Armenian singer, lyricist, actor and diplomat. Aznavour was known for his dist ...
relates the struggle of a French singer trying to sing a love song to an English girl. * The song "I Want to Pogne" by Rock et Belles Oreilles. * "It is not because you are" by
Renaud Renaud Pierre Manuel Séchan (), known as Renaud (), born 11 May 1952, is a French singer, songwriter and actor. His characteristically 'broken' voice makes for a very distinctive vocal style. Several of his songs are popular classics in F ...
. * "I went to the market, mon p'tit panier sous mon bras", a popular Acadian song made famous by Gilles Vigneault. * " Michelle" by the
Beatles The Beatles were an English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960, that comprised John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. They are regarded as the most influential band of all time and were integral to the developme ...
('Michelle, ma belle, these are words that go together well: ma Michelle' and more). * " L'amour à la française", French entry at the
Eurovision Song Contest 2007 The Eurovision Song Contest 2007 was the 52nd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Helsinki, Finland, following the country's victory at the with the song "Hard Rock Hallelujah" by Lordi. Organised by the European Broadcasti ...
. * Québécois musician
Daniel Lanois Daniel Roland Lanois ( , ; born September 19, 1951) is a Canadian record producer, guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter. He has produced albums by artists including Bob Dylan, Neil Young, Peter Gabriel, Robbie Robertson, Emmylou Harris, Will ...
has written many songs in Franglais, including "O Marie" and "Under a Stormy Sky" from his 1989 album '' Acadie'' and "The Collection of Marie Claire" from his 1993 album '' For the Beauty of Wynona''.


See also

* Post-creole continuum *
Cultural identity Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity, or their self-conception and self-perception, and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct cultu ...
and Cultural imperialism *
Creole language A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages into a new one within a fairly brief period of time: often, a pidgin evolved into a full-fledged language. Wh ...
*
Code-switching In linguistics, code-switching or language alternation occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation or situation. Code-switching is different from plurilingualis ...
*
Loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word at least partly assimilated from one language (the donor language) into another language. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because the ...
* Dunglish *
Spanglish Spanglish (a portmanteau of the words "Spanish" and "English") is any language variety (such as a contact dialect, hybrid language, pidgin, or creole language) that results from conversationally combining Spanish and English. The term is m ...
* Béarlachas


References


External links


La petite lesson en Franglais

Au revoir Mister Franglais
BBC reporting on the death of Miles Kington *

' by Art Buchwald {{interlanguage varieties Macaronic forms of English Macaronic forms of French