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Francis Ysidro Edgeworth (8 February 1845 – 13 February 1926) was an
Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people ...
philosopher and
political economist Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
who made significant contributions to the methods of statistics during the 1880s. From 1891 onward, he was appointed the founding editor of ''
The Economic Journal ''The Economic Journal'' is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society by Oxford University Press. The journal was established in 1891 and publishes papers from all areas of economics.The editor ...
''.


Life

Edgeworth was born in
Edgeworthstown Edgeworthstown or Mostrim () is a small town in County Longford, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town is in the east of the county, near the border with County Westmeath. Nearby towns are Longford 12 km to the west, Mullingar 26 km t ...
,
County Longford County Longford ( gle, Contae an Longfoirt) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Cha ...
, Ireland. He did not attend school, but was educated by private
tutor Tutoring is private academic support, usually provided by an expert teacher; someone with deep knowledge or defined expertise in a particular subject or set of subjects. A tutor, formally also called an academic tutor, is a person who provides ...

tutor
s at the Edgeworthstown estate until he reached the age to enter university. His father, Francis Beaufort Edgeworth, was descended from
French Huguenots Huguenots ( , also , ) were a religious group of French Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Test ...
and "was a restless philosophy student at
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
on his way to
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
when he decided to elope with a teenage
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
refugee Rosa Florentina Eroles he met on the steps of the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
. One of the outcomes of their marriage was Ysidro Francis Edgeworth (the name order was reversed later)...."
Richard Lovell Edgeworth Richard Lovell Edgeworth (31 May 1744 – 13 June 1817) was an Anglo-Irish politician, writer and inventor. Biography Edgeworth was born in Pierrepont Street, Bath, England, son of Richard Edgeworth senior, and great-grandson of Sir Sal ...
was his grandfather, and the writer,
Maria Edgeworth Maria Edgeworth (1 January 1768 – 22 May 1849) was a prolific Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a groupin ...

Maria Edgeworth
, was his aunt. His maternal grandfather was the Catalan general Antonio Eroles. As a student at
Trinity College Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ital ...

Trinity College Dublin
he studied classics getting a scholarship in 1863 and graduating in 1865, and at
Balliol College, Oxford Balliol College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford The University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = ...

Balliol College, Oxford
, Edgeworth studied ancient and modern languages. A voracious
autodidact Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beli ...
, he studied mathematics and economics only after he had completed university. He qualified as a
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

barrister
in London in 1877 but did not practise. On the basis of his publications in economics and
mathematical statistics Mathematical statistics is the application of probability theory Probability theory is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related ...
in the 1880s, Edgeworth was appointed to a chair in economics at
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
in 1888, and in 1891, he was appointed
Drummond Professor of Political Economy The Drummond Professorship of Political Economy at All Souls College, Oxford, All Souls College, Oxford University, Oxford has been held by a number of distinguished individuals, including three Nobel Prize in Economics, Nobel laureates. The prof ...
at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
. In 1891, he was also appointed the founding editor of ''
The Economic Journal ''The Economic Journal'' is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society by Oxford University Press. The journal was established in 1891 and publishes papers from all areas of economics.The editor ...
''. He continued as editor or joint-editor until his death 35 years later. Edgeworth was a highly influential figure in the development of
neo-classical economics Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics in which the production, consumption and valuation (pricing) of goods and services are driven by the supply and demand In microeconomics Microeconomics is a branch of that studies ...
. He was the first to apply certain formal mathematical techniques to individual decision making in economics. He developed
utility theory As a topic of economics, utility is used to model worth or value. Its usage has evolved significantly over time. The term was introduced initially as a measure of pleasure or happiness as part of the theory of utilitarianism by moral philosopher ...
, introducing the
indifference curve In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behavi ...

indifference curve
and the famous
Edgeworth box In economics, an Edgeworth box, sometimes referred to as an Edgeworth-Bowley box, is a graphical representation of a market with just two commodities, ''X'' and ''Y'', and two consumers. The dimensions of the box are the total quantities Ω''x'' and ...

Edgeworth box
, which is now familiar to undergraduate students of
microeconomics Microeconomics is a branch of mainstream economics Mainstream economics is the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught by universities worldwide, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion. Als ...
. He is also known for the
Edgeworth conjecture In economics, the Edgeworth conjecture is the idea, named after Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, that the Core (game theory), core of an economy shrinks to the set of Walrasian equilibria as the number of Agent (economics), agents increases to infinity. T ...
, which states that the
core Core or cores may refer to: Science and technology * Core (anatomy) In common parlance, the core of the body is broadly considered to be the torso. Functional movements are highly dependent on this part of the body, and lack of core muscular dev ...
of an economy shrinks to the set of competitive equilibria as the number of agents in the economy gets larger. In statistics, Edgeworth is most prominently remembered by having his name on the
Edgeworth series The Gram–Charlier A series (named in honor of Jørgen Pedersen Gram and Carl Charlier), and the Edgeworth series (named in honor of Francis Ysidro Edgeworth) are series (mathematics), series that approximate a probability distribution in terms of ...
. His most original and creative book on economics was ''Mathematical Psychics: An Essay on the Application of Mathematics to the Moral Sciences'', published in 1881 at the beginning of his long career in the subject. The book was notoriously difficult to read. He frequently referenced literary sources and interspersed the writing with passages in a number of languages, including
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
, French and
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
. The mathematics was similarly difficult, and a number of his creative applications of mathematics to economic or moral issues were judged as incomprehensible. However, one of the most influential economists of the time,
Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was an English economist, who was one of the most influential economists of his time. His book, '' Principles of Economics'' (1890), was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years. ...

Alfred Marshall
, commented in his review of ''Mathematical Psychics'': :''This book shows clear signs of genius, and is a promise of great things to come... His readers may sometimes wish that he had kept his work by him a little longer till he had worked it out a little more fully, and obtained that simplicity which comes only through long labour. But taking it as what it claims to be, 'a tentative study', we can only admire its brilliancy, force, and originality.'' Edgeworth's close friend,
William Stanley Jevons William Stanley Jevons (; 1 September 183513 August 1882) was an English economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes ...

William Stanley Jevons
, said of ''Mathematical Psychics'': :''Whatever else readers of this book may think about it, they would probably all agree that it is a very remarkable one.... There can be no doubt that in the style of his composition Mr. Edgeworth does not do justice to his matter. His style, if not obscure, is implicit, so that the reader is left to puzzle out every important sentence like an enigma.'' The
Royal Statistical Society The Royal Statistical Society (RSS) is an established statistical society. It has three main roles: a British learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organiza ...
awarded him the
Guy Medal The Guy Medals are awarded by the Royal Statistical Society in three categories; Gold, Silver and Bronze. The Silver and Bronze medals are awarded annually. The Gold Medal was awarded every three years between 1987 and 2011, but is awarded biennia ...
in Gold in 1907. Edgeworth served as the president of the Royal Statistical Society, 1912–14. In 1928,
Arthur Lyon Bowley Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley, Fellow of the British Academy, FBA (6 November 1869 – 21 January 1957) was an English statistician and economist who worked on economic statistics and pioneered the use of sampling techniques in social surveys. Early li ...
published a book entitled and devoted to ''F. Y. Edgeworth's Contributions to Mathematical Statistics''.


Contributions to economics

In ''Mathematical Psychics'' (1881), his most famous and original book, he criticised Jevons's theory of
barter In trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according ...

barter
exchange Exchange may refer to: Physics *Gas exchange is the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Places United States * Exchange, Indiana, an unincorporated community * ...

exchange
, showing that under a system of "recontracting" there will be, in fact, many solutions, an "indeterminacy of contract". Edgeworth's "range of final settlements" was later resurrected by
Martin Shubik Martin Shubik (March 24, 1926 – August 22, 2018) was an American economist, who was Professor Emeritus of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "I ...
(1959) to be the game-theoretic concept of "the core".


Edgeworth's conjecture

When the number of agents in an economy increases, the degree of indeterminacy is reduced. In the limit case of an infinite number of agents (perfect competition), contract becomes fully determinate and identical to the 'equilibrium' of economists. The only way of resolving this indeterminacy of contract would be to appeal to the
utilitarian Utilitarianism is a family of normative Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as ba ...
principle of maximising the sum of the
utilities A public utility company (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a ...

utilities
of traders over the range of final settlements. Incidentally, it was in this 1881 book that Edgeworth introduced into economics the generalised utility function, ''U''(''x'', ''y'', ''z'', ...), and drew the first 'indifference curve'.


International trade

He was the first one to use offer curves and community indifference curves to illustrate its main propositions, including the "optimal
tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
".


Taxation paradox

Taxation of a good may actually result in a decrease in price. He set the utilitarian foundations for highly progressive taxation, arguing that the optimal distribution of taxes should be such that 'the marginal disutility incurred by each taxpayer should be the same' (Edgeworth, 1897).


Monopoly pricing

In 1897, in an article on monopoly pricing, Edgeworth criticised Cournot's exact solution to the
duopoly A duopoly (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
problem with quantity adjustments as well as Bertrand's "instantly competitive" result in a duopoly model with price adjustment. At the same time, Edgeworth showed how price competition between two firms with capacity constraints and/or rising
marginal cost In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behavio ...

marginal cost
curves resulted in indeterminacy. This gave rise to the
Bertrand–Edgeworth model In microeconomics, the Bertrand–Edgeworth model of price-setting oligopoly looks at what happens when there is a homogeneous product (i.e. consumers want to buy from the cheapest seller) where there is a limit to the output of firms which they ar ...
of oligopoly.


Marginal productivity theory

Edgeworth criticised the marginal productivity theory in several articles (1904, 1911), and tried to refine the neo-classical theory of distribution on a more solid basis. Although his work in questions of
war finance War finance is a branch of defense economics. The power of a military depends on its economic base and without this financial support, soldiers will not be paid, weapons and equipment cannot be manufactured and food cannot be bought. Hence, victor ...
during World War I was original, they were a bit too theoretical and did not achieve the practical influence he had hoped.


Edgeworth's limit theorem

Edgeworth's limit theorem relates to equilibrium of supply and demand in a free market. See Edgeworth's limit theorem. Though Edgeworth's economic ideas were original and in depth, his contemporaries frequently complained of his manner of expression for lack of clarity. He was prone to
verbosity Verbosity or verboseness is speech or writing that uses more words than necessary, e.g. "in spite of the fact that" rather than "although". The opposite of verbosity is plain language Plain language is writing designed to ensure the reader und ...
and coining obscure words without providing definition for the reader.. See in particular Section 3, "Edgeworth's Style", pp. 292–293.


Publications


Collections/selections

* F. Y. Edgeworth (1925) ''Papers relating to political economy'' 3 vols. Available online a
Gallica
* * Charles R. McCann Jr. (ed.) (1966) ''F.Y. Edgeworth: Writings in Probability, Statistics and Economics,'' 3 vols. Cheltenham, Glos.: Elgar. *


Individual works

*"Mr. Matthew Arnold on Bishop Butler's Doctrine of Self-Love", 1876, ''Mind'' *''New and Old Methods of Ethics'', 1877.
"The Hedonical Calculus"
1879, ''Mind'', pp. 394–408 * *"Mr. Leslie Stephen on Utilitarianism", 1882, ''Mind''
"The Law of Error"
1883, ''Phil Mag'', pp. 300–309 *"The Method of Least Squares", 1883, ''Phil Mag'' *"The Physical Basis of Probability", 1883, ''Phil Mag'' *"On the Method of Ascertaining a Change in the Value of Gold", 1883, ''JRSS'' *"Review of Jevons's ''Investigations''", 1884, ''Academy'' *"The Rationale of Exchange", 1884, ''JRSS'' *"The Philosophy of Chance", 1884, ''Mind''
"On the Reduction of Observations"
1884, ''Phil Mag'', pp. 135–141 *"A Priori Probabilities", 1884, ''Phil Mag''
"Chance and Law"
1884, ''Hermathena'', pp. 154–163 *"Methods of Statistics", 1885, ''Jubilee Volume of RSS''. *"The Calculus of Probabilities Applied to Psychic Research, I & II", 1885, 1886, ''Proceedings of Society for Psychic Research'' *"On Methods of Ascertaining Variations in the Rate of Births, Deaths and Marriages", 1885, ''JRSS'' *"Progressive Means", 1886, ''JRSS'' *"The Law of Error and the Elimination of Chance", 1886 ''Phil Mag'' *"On the Determination of the Modulus of Errors", 1886, ''Phil Mag'' *"Problems in Probabilities", 1886, ''Phil Mag'' *"Review of Sidgwick's Scope and Method", 1886, ''Academy'' *"Review of Jevons's Journals", 1886, ''Academy'' *"Four Reports by the committee investigating best method of ascertaining and measuring variations in the monetary standard", 1887, ''Reports of the BAAS (Parts I & 3; Part 2)'' *"Observations and Statistics: An essay on the theory of errors of observation and the first principles of statistics", 1887, ''Transactions of Cambridge Society''. *''Metretike, or the method of measuring probability and utility'', 1887. *"On Observations Relating to Several Quantities", 1887, ''Hermathena'' *"The Law of Error", 1887, ''Nature'' *"The Choice of Means", 1887, ''Phil Mag'' *"On Discordant Observations", 1887, ''Phil Mag'' *"The Empirical Proof of the Law of Error", 1887, ''Phil Mag'' *"On a New Method of Reducing Observations Relating to Several Quantities", 1888, ''Phil Mag'' *"New Methods of Measuring Variation in General Prices, 1888, ''JRSS'' *"The Statistics of Examinations", 1888, ''JRSS'' *"The Value of Authority Tested by Experiment", 1888, ''Mind'' *"Mathematical Theory of Banking", 1888, ''JRSS'' *"On the Application of Mathematics to Political Economy: Address of the President of Section F of the British Association for the Advancement of Science", 1889, ''JRSS'' *"The Mathematical Theory of Political Economy: Review of Walras's Elements", 1889, ''Nature'' *"Review of Wicksteed's ''Alphabet''", 1889, ''Academy'' *"Review of Bohm-Bawerk's ''Kapital und Kapitalismus''", 1889, ''Academy'' *"Review of Bertrand's Calcul des Probabilites", 1889, ''J of Education'' *"Points at which Mathematical Reasoning is Applicable to Political Economy", 1889, ''Nature'' *"Appreciation of Gold", 1889, ''QJE'' *"The Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations", 1890, ''JRSS'' *"Economic Science and Statistics", 1889, ''Nature'' *"Review of Marshall's Principles", 1890, ''Nature'' *"Review of Jevons's Pure Logic", 1890, ''Academy'' *"Review of Walras's Elements", 1890, ''Academy'' *"Review of Bohm-Bawerk's Capital and Interest", 1890, ''Academy'' *"La Théorie mathématique de l'offre et de la demande et le côut de production", 1891, ''Revue d'Economie Politique'' *"Osservazioni sulla teoria matematica dell' economica politica", 1891, ''GdE'' (trans. "On the Determinateness of Economic Equilibrium") *"Ancora a proposito della teoria del baratto", 1891, ''GdE'' *"Review of Ricardo's Principles", 1891, ''J of Education'' * " The British Economic Association", 1891, In: ''The Economic Journal'' (''EJ''), Vol. 1, pp. 1–14 (in
Wikisource Wikisource is an online digital library A digital library, also called an online library, an internet library, a digital repository, or a digital collection is an online databaseAn online database is a database In computing Computing is a ...

Wikisource
) *"Review of Keynes's Scope and Method", 1891, ''EJ'' *"An Introductory Lecture on Political Economy", 1891, ''EJ'' *"Review of Sidgwick's Elements of Politics", 1891, ''EJ'' *"Review of Second Edition of Marshall's Principles", 1891, ''EJ'' *"Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices," Connecticut Academy, 1892. *"Correlated Averages", 1892, ''Phil Mag'' *"The Law of Error and Correlated Averages", 1892, ''Phil Mag''. *"Recent Attempts to Evaluate the Amount of Coin Circulating in a Country", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Marshall's Economics of Industry", 1892, ''Nature'' *"Review of Cantillon's Essai", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Palgrave's Dictionary", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bohm-Bawerk's Positive Theory of Capital", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Smart's Introduction to the Theory of Value", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Dusing's Das Geschlechtverhaltniss", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Benson's Capital, Labor and Trade", 1892, ''EJ'' *"Review of Smart's Women's Wages", 1893 *"Review of Bonar's Philosophy", 1893, ''Mind'' *"Review of Walsh's Bimetallism", 1893, ''EJ'' *"Review of Fisher's Mathematical Investigations", 1893, ''EJ'' *"Professor Böhm-Bawerk on the Ultimate Standard of Value", 1894, ''EJ'' *"One More Word on the Ultimate Standard of Value", 1894, ''EJ'' *"Review of Wiser's Natural Value", 1894, ''EJ'' *"Theory of International Values: Parts I, II and III", 1894, ''EJ'' *"Recent Writings on Index Numbers", 1894, ''EJ'' *"The Measurement of Utility by Money", 1894, ''EJ'' *"Asymmetric Correlation between Social Phenomenon", 1894, ''JRSS'' *Entries: "Average", "Census", "Cournot", "Curves", "Demand Curves", Difficulty of Attainment", "Distance in Time", "Error", 1894, in Palgrave, editor, ''Dictionary of Political Economy, Vol. 1''. *"Review of the Webbs' History of Trade Unionism", 1894, ''EJ'' *"Review of Third Edition of Marshall's Principles", 1895, ''EJ'' *"Mr. Pierson on the Scarcity of Gold", 1895, ''EJ'' *"Thoughts on Monetary Reform", 1895, ''EJ'' *"The Stationary State in Japan", 1895, ''EJ'' *"A Defense of Index-Numbers", 1896, ''EJ'' *"Statistics on Unprogressive Communities", 1896, ''JRSS'' *"The Asymmetrical Probability Curve (Abstract)", 1894, ''Proceedings of the Royal Society'' *"The Asymmetrical Probability Curve", 1896, ''Phil Mag'' *"The Compound law of Error", 1896, ''Phil Mag'' *Entries: "Gossen", "Index Numbers", "Intrinsic Value", "Jenkin", "Jennings", "Least Squares" and "Mathematical Method", 1896, in Palgrave, editor, ''Dictionary of Political Economy, Vol. 2''. *"Review of Price's Money", 1896, ''EJ'' *"Review of Nicholson's Strikes and Social Problems", 1896, ''EJ'' *"Review of Pierson's Leerboek, Vol. 1", 1896, ''EJ'' *"Review of Pierson's Leerkook, Vol. 2", 1897, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bastable, Theory of International Trade", 1897, ''EJ'' *"Review of Grazani's Istituzioni", 1897, ''EJ'' *"La teoria pura del monopolio", 1897, GdE, (trans."The Pure Theory of Monopoly") *"The Pure Theory of Taxation: Parts I, II and III", 1897, ''EJ'' *"Miscellaneous Applications of the Calculus of Probabilities", Parts 1, 2, 3, 1897, 1898, ''JRSS'' *"Review of Cournot's Recherches", 1898, ''EJ'' *"Professor Graziani on the Mathematical Theory of Monopoly", 1898, ''EJ'' *"Review of Darwin's Bimetallism", 1898, ''EJ'' *"On the Representation of Statistics by Mathematical Formulae", Part 1 (1898), Parts 2, 3, 4 (1899) *"On a Point in the Theory of International Trade", 1899, ''EJ'' *"Review of Davidson, Bargain Theory of Wages", 1899, ''EJ'' *"Professor Seligman on the Mathematical Method in Political Economy", 1899, ''EJ'' *Entries: "Pareto", "Pareto's Law", "Probability", Supply Curve" and "Utility", 1899, in Palgrave, editor, ''Dictionary of Political Economy, Vol. 3'' *"Answers to Questions by Local Taxation Commission", 1899, ''Reprint of Royal Commission for Local Taxation'' *"The Incidence of Urban Rates, Parts I, II and III" 1900, ''EJ'' *"Defence of Mr. Harrison's Calculation of the Rupee Circulation", 1900, ''EJ'' *"Review of J.B. Clark's Theory of Distribution", 1900, ''EJ'' *"Review of Smart's Taxation of Land-Values", 1900, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bastable, Theory of International Trade (3rd edition)", 1897, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bonar and Hollander, Letters of Ricardo", 1900, ''EJ'' *"Mr. Walsh on the Measurement of General Exchange Value", 1901, ''EJ'' *"Disputed Points in the Theory of International Trade", 1901, ''EJ'' *"Review of Gide's Cooperation", 1902, ''EJ'' *"Review of Wells's Anticipations", 1902, ''EJ'' *"Methods of Representing Statistics of Wages and Other Groups Not *"Fulfilling the Normal Law of Error", with A.L. Bowley, 1902, ''JRSS'' *"The Law of Error", 1902, ''Encycl Britannica'' *"Review of Cannan's History of Theories of Production", 1903, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bortkiewicz's Anwendungen and Pareto's Anwendungen", 1903, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bastable's Public Finance", 1903, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bastable's Cartels et Trusts", 1903, ''EJ'' *"Review of Pigou's Riddle of the Tariff", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Review of Nicholson's Elements", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bowley's National Progress", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Review of Plunkett's Ireland", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Review of Northon's Loan Credit", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Review of Graziani's Istituzione", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Review of Dietzel's Vergeltungzolle", 1904, ''EJ'' *"Preface", 1904, in J.R. MacDonald, editor, ''Women in the Printing Trades''. *"The Theory of Distribution", 1904, ''QJE'' *"The Law of Error", 1905, ''Transactions of Cambridge Society'' *"Review of Nicholson's History of English Corn Laws", 1905, ''EJ'' *"Review of Cunynghame's Geometrical Political Economy", 1905, ''EJ'' *"Review of Carver's Theory of Distribution", 1905, ''EJ'' *"Review of Taussig's Present Position", 1905, ''EJ'' *"Review of Henry Sidgwick: A memoir", 1906, ''EJ'' *"The Generalised Law of Error, or Law of Great Numbers", 1906, ''JRSS'' *"Recent Schemes for Rating Urban Land Values", 1906, ''EJ'' *"On the Representation of Statistical Frequency by a Series", 1907, ''JRSS'' *"Statistical Observations on Wasps and Bees", 1907, ''Biometrika'' *"Review of de Foville's Monnaie and Guyot's Science economique", 1907, ''EJ'' *"Appreciations of Mathematical Theories", Parts I & II (1907), Parts III & IV (1908), ''EJ'' *"On the Probable Errors of Frequency Constants", I, II & III (1908), Add. (1909), ''JRSS'' *"Review of Andreades's Lecture on the Census", 1908, ''EJ'' *"Review of Rea's Free Trade", 1908, ''EJ'' *"Review of Withers's Meaning of Money", 1909, ''EJ'' *"Review of Mitchell's Gold Prices", 1909, ''EJ'' *"Review of Jevons's Investigations", 1909, ''EJ'' *"Application du calcul des probabilités à la Statistique", 1909, ''Bulletin de l'Institut international de statistique'' *"On the Use of the Differential Calculus in Economics to Determine Conditions of Maximum Advantage", 1909, ''Scientia'' *"Applications of Probabilities to Economics, Parts I & II", 1910, ''EJ''. *"The Subjective Element in the First Principles of Taxation", 1910, ''QJE'' *"Review of John Stuart Mill's Principles", 1910, ''EJ'' *"Review of Colson's Cours", 1910, ''EJ'' *"Review of J. Maurice Clark's Local Freight Discriminations", 1910, ''EJ'' *"Review of Hammond's Railway Rate Theories", 1911, ''EJ'' *"Probability and Expectation", 1911, ''Encycl Britannica'' *"Monopoly and Differential Prices", 1911, ''EJ'' *"Contributions to the Theory of Railway Rates", Part I & II (1911), Part III (1912), Part IV (1913), ''EJ'' *"Review of Moore's Laws of Wages", 1912, ''EJ'' *"Review of Pigou's Wealth and Welfare", 1913, ''EJ'' *"On the Use of the Theory of Probabilities in Statistics Relating to Society", 1913, ''J of RSS'' *"A Variant Proof of the Distribution of Velocities in a Molecular Chaos", 1913, ''PhilMag'' *"On the Use of Analytical Geometry to Represent Certain Kinds of Statistics", Parts I–V, 1914, ''J of RSS'' *"Recent Contributions to Mathematical Economics, I & II", 1915, ''EJ'' *''On the Relations of Political Economy to War'', 1915. *''The Cost of War and ways of reducing it suggested by economic theory'', 1915. *"Economists on War: Review of Sombart, etc.", 1915, ''EJ'' *"Review of Pigou's Economy and Finance of War", 1916, ''EJ'' *"Review of Preziosi's La Germania alla Conquista dell' Italia", 1916, ''EJ'' *"British Incomes and Property", 1916, ''EJ'' *"On the Mathematical Representation of Statistical Data", Part I (1916), Parts II–IV (1917), ''J of RSS'' *"Review of Gill's National Power and Prosperity", 1917, ''EJ'' *"Review of Lehfeldt's Economics in Light of War", 1917, ''EJ'' *"Some German Economic Writings about the War", 1917, ''EJ'' *"After-War Problems: Review of Dawson at al.", 1917, ''EJ'' *"Review of Westergaard's Scope and Methods of Statistics", 1917, ''JRSS'' *"Review of Anderson's Value of Money", 1918, ''EJ'' *"Review of Moulton and Phillips on Money and Banking", 1918, ''EJ'' *"Review of Loria's Economic Causes of War", 1918, ''EJ'' *"Review of Arias's Principii", 1918, ''EJ'' *"Review of Smith-Gordon, Rural Reconstruction of Ireland and Russell's National Being", 1918, ''EJ'' *"On the Value of a Mean as Calculated from a Sample", 1918, ''EJ'' *"An Astronomer on the Law of Error", 1918, ''PhilMag'' *''Currency and Finance in Time of War'', 1918. *"The Doctrine of Index-Numbers According to Prof. Wesley Mitchell", 1918, ''EJ'' *"Psychical Research and Statistical Method", 1919, ''JRSS'' *"Methods of Graduating Taxes on Income and Capital", 1919, ''EJ'' *"Review of Cannan's Money", 1919, ''EJ'' *"Review of Andreades's Historia", 1919, ''EJ'' *"Review of Lehfeldt's Gold Prices", 1919, ''EJ'' *''A Levy on Capital for the Discharge of the Debt'', 1919. *"Mathematical Formulae and the National Commission on Income Tax", 1920, ''EJ'' *"On the Application of Probabilities to the Movement of Gas Molecules", Part I (1920), Part II (1922), ''Phil Mag''
"Entomological Statistics"
1920, ''Metron'', pp. 75–80 *"Review of Gustav Cassel's Theory of Social Economy", 1920, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bowley's Change in Distribution of National Income", 1920, ''JRSS'' *"Review of the Webbs' History of Trade Unionism", 1920, ''EJ'' *"Molecular Statistics", Part I (1921), Part II (1922), ''JRSS'' *"On the Genesis of the Law of Eror", 1921, ''PhilMag'' *"The Philosophy of Chance", 1922, ''Mind'' *"The Mathematical Economics of Professor Amoroso", 1922, ''EJ'' *"Equal Pay to Men and Women for Equal Work", 1922, ''EJ'' *"Review of Keynes's Treatise on Probability", 1922, ''JRSS'' *"Review of Pigou's Political Economy of War", 1922, ''EJ'' *"Statistics of Examinations", 1923, ''JRSS'' *"On the Use of Medians for Reducing Observations Relating to Several Quantities", 1923, ''Phil Mag'' *"Mr. Correa Walsh on the Calculation of Index Numbers", 1923, ''JRSS'' *"Index Numbers According to Mr. Walsh", 1923, ''EJ'' *"Women's Wages in Relation to Economic Welfare", 1923, ''EJ'' ::''Also available as'': *"Review of Marshall's Money, Credit and Commerce", 1923, ''EJ'' *"Review of The Labour Party's Aim", 1923, ''EJ'' *"Review of Bowley's Mathematical Groundwork", 1924, ''EJ'' *"Review of Fisher's Economic Position of the Married Woman", 1924, ''EJ'' *"Untried Methods of Representing Frequency", 1924, ''JRSS'' *''Papers Relating to Political Economy'', 3 volumes, 1925. *"The Plurality of Index-Numbers", 1925, ''EJ'' *"The Element of Probability in Index-Numbers", 1925, ''JRSS'' *"The Revised Doctrine of Marginal Social Product", 1925, ''EJ'' *"Review of J.M. Clark's Overhead Costs", 1925, ''EJ''. * "mathematical method in political economy," 1926, ''Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy,'' reprinted in 1987, ''
The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics ''The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics'' (2018), 3rd ed., is an twenty-volume reference work on economics published by Palgrave Macmillan. It contains around 3,000 entries, including many classic essays from the original Inglis Palgrave Dictiona ...
'', v. 3. *"Mr Rhode's Curve and the Method of Adjustment", 1926, ''JRSS''


References


External links

* * *


Further reading

* P J FitzPatrick, "Leading British statisticians of the nineteenth century, ''Journal of the American Statistical Association'' 55 (1960), 38–70. * M G Kendall, "Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, 1845–1926," ''Biometrika'' 55 (1968), 269–275. * Newman, Peter (1987). "Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro," ''The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics'', v. 2, pp. 84–98. * _____. (2001). "Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro (1845–1926)," ''
International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences The ''International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences'', originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier. It has some 4,000 signed articles (commissioned by around 50 subject editor ...
'', pp. 4170–4175
Abstract.
* Spiegel, Henry William. ''The Growth of Economic Thought''. Ed. Durham & London. Duke University Press, 1991. * Stigler, Stephen M. (1987). "Edgeworth as statistician," ''The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics'', v. 2, pp. 98–98. * {{DEFAULTSORT:Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro 1845 births 1926 deaths Academics of King's College London Alumni of Trinity College Dublin Alumni of Balliol College, Oxford British people of Catalan descent Drummond Professors of Political Economy Economics journal editors
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