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Francis Langhorne Dade (1793? – December 28, 1835) was a Brevet
Major Major is a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are repre ...
in the U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment,
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
, during the
Second Seminole War The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered t ...
. Dade was killed in a battle with
Seminole The Seminole are a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigeno ...
Indians that came to be known as the " Dade Massacre".


Life and career

Dade was born in
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
, most likely in King George County. He joined the Twelfth Infantry in March 1813 (during the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
) as a
third lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations. The meaning of lieutenant differs in different militaries (see ...

third lieutenant
. He was transferred to the Fourth Infantry in May 1815. Under this post, he successfully led two military expeditions, in 1825 and 1826, from
Fort Brooke Fort Brooke was a historical military post situated on the east bank (at the mouth) of the Hillsborough River (Florida), Hillsborough River in present-day Tampa, Florida. The fort was established in 1824, soon after Florida was acquired by the Un ...

Fort Brooke
in Tampa to
Fort King Fort King (also known as Camp King or Cantonment King) was a United States military fort in north central Florida, near what later developed as the city of Ocala, Florida, Ocala. It was named after Colonel William King (Governor of West Florida), W ...
near Ocala, through an area that was wilderness at the time and in the midst of ongoing conflict with Native Americans. He also commanded the United States Army base at
Key West Key West ( es, Cayo Hueso) is an island in the Straits of Florida 250px, The Straits of Florida The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait ( es, Estrecho de Florida) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, t ...

Key West
, and was eventually assigned to command the southern portion of
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
, running from
Cape Florida Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area occupies approximately the southern third of the island of Key Biscayne (island), Key Biscayne, at coordinates . This park includes the Cape Florida Light, the oldest standing structure in Miami-Dade C ...

Cape Florida
on the Atlantic coast to Charlotte Harbor on the Gulf coast. He was brevetted major in February 1828 after ten years of service as a captain.Historical Register and Dictionary of the US Army
/ref> By late 1835, he commanded a unit of 47 men, half of whom were European immigrants. Dade's final mission was to lead 110 men from Fort Brooke to Fort King. The Seminoles, led by
Osceola Osceola (1804 – January 30, 1838, Asi-yahola in Creek A creek is a stream that is usually smaller than a river Creek may refer to: People * Muscogee, also known as Creek, Native Americans * Murder of Amber Creek, Amber Creek (1982&ndas ...

Osceola
and
Micanopy Micanopy (c. 1780 – December 1848 or January 1849), also known as Micco-Nuppe, Michenopah, Miccanopa, and Mico-an-opa, and Sint-chakkee ("pond frequenter", as he was known prior to being selected as chief), was the leading chief Chief may ...

Micanopy
, destroyed bridges over the Hillsborough River and Withlacoochee River in order to delay the progress of the command, and ambushed the men on December 28, killing Dade and most of his men, and leaving only two survivors. The attack was followed in 1836 by widespread attacks on white settlers in Florida, and then by a US military buildup under General
Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786May 29, 1866) was an American military commander and political candidate. He served as a general in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service bra ...

Winfield Scott
. Dade and his men were not formally buried until a unit led by Edmund P. Gaines arrived at the site of the massacre in February 1836, Dade's remains only being identifiable by his vest and infantry buttons.


Legacy

When hostilities ceased, the Army proposed to transfer the remains of all who died in the territory, including those who fell with Dade, to a single burial ground. Reinterment took place at the St. Augustine Post Cemetery, which would become St. Augustine National Cemetery. In addition to Dade's command, more than 1,400 soldiers were interred in three
mass grave A mass grave is a grave A grave is a location where a dead body A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that t ...
s. These men are memorialized by the Dade Monument, which is composed of three distinct
pyramid A pyramid (from el, πυραμίς ') is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act ...

pyramid
s, constructed of native
coquina Coquina () is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the ...
stone, and an
obelisk An obelisk (; from grc, ὀβελίσκος ; diminutive of ''obelos'', " spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion A pyramidion (plural: pyramidia) is the ...

obelisk
. The dedication of the memorial at a ceremony on August 14, 1842, marked the end of the Florida
Indian Wars The American Indian Wars, also known as the American Frontier Wars, the First Nations Wars in Canada (french: Guerres des Premières Nations) and the Indian Wars were fought by European governments and colonists, and later by the United States an ...
.
Miami-Dade County, Florida Miami-Dade County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William ...
(Dade County, until 1997);
Dade County, Georgia Dade County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is de ...
;
Dade County, Missouri Dade County is a County (United States), county located in the southwest part of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 7,883. Its county seat is Greenfield, Missouri, Greenfield. The count ...
;
Dadeville, Alabama Dadeville is a city in Tallapoosa County, Alabama, Tallapoosa County, Alabama, United States. At the 2010 United States census, 2010 census the population was 3,230, up from 3,212 in 2000. The city is the county seat of Tallapoosa County. History ...
; and
Dade City, Florida Dade City is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Town ...
are all named after Major Dade. The now decommissioned fort on
Egmont Key Egmont may refer to: * Egmont Group, a media corporation founded and rooted in Copenhagen, Denmark * Egmond family (often spelled "Egmont"), an influential Dutch family, lords of the town of Egmond ** Lamoral, Count of Egmont (1522–1568), the bes ...
was also named for him. The battle is re-enacted at the
Dade Battlefield Historic State Park Dade Battlefield Historic State Park is a Florida State Parks, state park located on County Road 603 between Interstate 75 (Exit 314) and U.S. Route 301 in Florida, U.S. Route 301 in Sumter County, Florida. The park includes of pine flatwoods a ...
each year. In 2002, the Dade County
Courthouse A courthouse or court house is a building that is home to a local court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a st ...

Courthouse
was renamed the Major Francis Langhorne Dade County Courthouse by the
Board of County Commissioners A county commission (or a board of county commissioners) is a group of elected officials collectively charged with administering the county (United States), county government in some U.S. state, states of the United States; such commissions usuall ...
of Miami-Dade County. In the resolution changing the courthouse's name, the Board noted that it found "that Major Francis Langhorne Dade is a person who made a significant contribution to Miami-Dade County".Legislative Matter
/ref>


Notes


References

*''Dade's Last Command'' (1995) by Frank Laumer () *John T. Kneebone et al., eds., ''
Dictionary of Virginia Biography The ''Dictionary of Virginia Biography'' (''DVB'') is a multivolume biographical reference work published by the Library of Virginia that covers aspects of Virginia's history and culture since 1607. The work was intended to run for a projected fou ...
'' (Richmond: The
Library of Virginia The Library of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia (Thus do we reach the stars) , image_map = , mapsize = 250 px , map_caption = Location within Virginia , pushpin_map ...
, 1998- ), 3: 658–659. ()


External links

*http://www.abfla.com/parks/DadeBattlefield/dadebattlefield.html *https://web.archive.org/web/20050831030840/http://www.cem.va.gov/nchp/staugustine.htm *http://sniff.numachi.com/~rickheit/dtrad/pages/tiDADEMASS.html {{DEFAULTSORT:Dade, Francis Langhorne 1793 births 1835 deaths
United States Army officers This category is for people who are or have been U.S. Army, Army Reserve, or Army National Guard officers in the ranks of warrant officer through lieutenant colonel. For colonels, see :United States Army colonels. For general officers, see :United ...
Deaths by firearm in Florida People from King George County, Virginia American people of the Seminole Wars American military personnel killed in the American Indian Wars