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Francis I (french: François Ier; frm, Francoys; 12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was
King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful ...
from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of
Charles, Count of Angoulême Charles of Orléans (1459 – 1 January 1496) () was the Count of Angoulême from 1467 until his death. He succeeded his father, John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: ...
, and
Louise of Savoy Louise of Savoy (11 September 1476 – 22 September 1531) was a French noble and regent, Duchess ''suo jure ''Suo jure'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...

Louise of Savoy
. He succeeded his first cousin once removed and father in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. A prodigious
patron of the arts Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists su ...
, he promoted the emergent
French Renaissance The French Renaissance was the cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one me ...
by attracting many Italian artists to work for him, including
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
, who brought the ''
Mona Lisa The ''Mona Lisa'' (; it, Gioconda or ''Monna Lisa'' ; french: Joconde ) is a half-length portrait painting by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance, it has been described as "the b ...

Mona Lisa
'' with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the growth of central power in France, the spread of
humanism Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

humanism
and
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose comin ...
, and the beginning of French exploration of the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
.
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French people, French-Breton people, Breton List of maritime explorers, maritime explorer for Kingdom of France, France. Jacques Cartier was the first ...

Jacques Cartier
and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first
French colonial empire The French colonial empire () comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and League of Nations mandate, mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First French Co ...
. For his role in the development and promotion of the
French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inf ...

French language
, he became known as ''le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres'' (the 'Father and Restorer of Letters').Knecht, R.J. ''Francis I'', (Cambridge University Press, 1984), 1–2. He was also known as ''François au Grand Nez'' ('Francis of the Large Nose'), the ''Grand Colas'', and the ''Roi-Chevalier'' (the 'Knight-King') for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival
Emperor Charles V Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanoru ...

Emperor Charles V
, who was also
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI Felipe VI or Philip VI (; Felipe Juan ...

King of Spain
. Following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced bu ...
. The succession of Charles V to the Burgundian Netherlands, the throne of Spain, and his subsequent election as
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
, meant that France was geographically encircled by the
Habsburg monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...
. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, Francis sought the support of
Henry VIII of England Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
at the
Field of the Cloth of Gold The Field of the Cloth of Gold (french: Camp du Drap d'Or, ) was a summit meeting A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of Head of state, heads of state or Head of government, government, usually with considerable media e ...
. When this was unsuccessful, he formed a
Franco-Ottoman alliance The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located i ...
with the Muslim sultan
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time.


Early life and accession

Francis of Orléans was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of
Cognac Cognac ( , also , ) is a variety of brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through al ...
, which at that time lay in the province of
Saintonge Saintonge may refer to: * County of Saintonge, a historical province of France on the Atlantic coast * Saintonge (region), a region of France corresponding to the historical province Places *Saint-Genis-de-Saintonge, a commune in the Charente-Mar ...
, a part of the
Duchy of Aquitaine The Duchy of Aquitaine ( oc, Ducat d'Aquitània, ; french: Duché d'Aquitaine, ) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République ...

Duchy of Aquitaine
. Today the town lies in the
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
of
Charente Charente (; Saintongese: ''Chérente''; oc, Charanta ) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subd ...
. Francis was the only son of Charles of Orléans, Count of Angoulême and
Louise of Savoy Louise of Savoy (11 September 1476 – 22 September 1531) was a French noble and regent, Duchess ''suo jure ''Suo jure'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...

Louise of Savoy
, and a great-great-grandson of King
Charles V of France Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called the Wise (french: le Sage; la, Sapiens), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 8 ...
. His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his father's cousin the
Duke of Orléans Duke of Orléans (french: Duc d'Orléans) was a French royal title usually granted by the List of French monarchs, King of France to one of his close relatives (usually a younger brother or son), or otherwise inherited through the male line. First ...
, later King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir.Knecht, R.J. ''Francis I'', 3. The
Salic Law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
prevented women from inheriting the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis (who was already
Count of Angoulême Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...
after the death of his own father two years earlier) became the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession ...
to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered for his daughter and Francis to be married immediately, but only through an assembly of nobles were the two engaged. Claude was heir presumptive to the
Duchy of Brittany The Duchy of Brittany ( br, Dugelezh Breizh, ; french: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and ...
through her mother,
Anne of Brittany Anne of Brittany (; 25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was List of rulers of Brittany, Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death. She is the only woman to have be ...
. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514. On 1 January 1515, Louis died, and Francis inherited the throne. He was crowned King of France in the
Cathedral of Reims , image = Facade de Notre Dame de Reims.png , imagealt = Facade, looking northeast , caption = Façade, looking northeast , pushpin map = France , pushpin map alt = Location within France , pushpin mapsize = , map caption = Location in France , coo ...
on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his
queen consort A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *I ...
.


Reign

As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the
Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civi ...
were influential in France. Some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort (his Latin instructor, who later during the reign of Francis was named ''Grand Aumônier de France'') and Christophe de Longueil (a
Brabantian Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic or Brabantine ( nl, Brabants, pronunciation: , ), is a group of the . It is named after the historical , which corresponded mainly to the province of , the provinces of and as well as the (where ...
humanist), were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in
arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, έχνη ''tiké échne', 'art' or 'cr ...
, geography, grammar, history, reading, spelling, and writing and he became proficient in
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
. Francis came to learn chivalry, dancing, and music, and he loved archery, falconry, horseback riding, hunting, jousting,
real tennis Real tennis – one of several games sometimes called "the sport of king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen con ...
and wrestling. He ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature, poetry and science. His mother, who had a high admiration for
Italian Renaissance art Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian Peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political state ...
, passed this interest on to her son. Although Francis did not receive a humanist education, he was more influenced by
humanism Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

humanism
than any previous French king.


Patron of the arts

By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
had arrived in France, and Francis became an enthusiastic patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single sculpture, either ancient or modern. During Francis' reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the
Louvre The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of Fr ...

Louvre
, was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including
Andrea del Sarto Andrea del Sarto (, , ; 16 July 1486 – 29 September 1530) was an List of Italian painters, Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism. He was known as an outstanding fresco decorator, ...

Andrea del Sarto
and
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
; the latter of whom was persuaded to make France his home during his last years. While da Vinci painted very little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the ''
Mona Lisa The ''Mona Lisa'' (; it, Gioconda or ''Monna Lisa'' ; french: Joconde ) is a half-length portrait painting by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance, it has been described as "the b ...

Mona Lisa
'' (known in France as ''La Joconde''), and these remained in France after his death. Other major artists to receive Francis' patronage included the goldsmith
Benvenuto Cellini Benvenuto Cellini (, ; 3 November 150013 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote poetry and a famous autobiography. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism Man ...

Benvenuto Cellini
and the painters
Rosso Fiorentino Giovanni Battista di Jacopo (8 March 1495 in Gregorian style, or 1494 according to the calculation of times in Florence where the year began on 25 March – 14 November 1540), known as Rosso Fiorentino (meaning "Red Florentine" in Italian), o ...
,
Giulio Romano Giulio Romano (, ; – 1 November 1546), also known by his real name of Giulio Pippi, was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of ...

Giulio Romano
, and
Primaticcio Image:Francesco Primaticcio 002.jpg, 240px, ''Odysseus and Penelope'', 1563 Francesco Primaticcio (April 30, 1504 – 1570) was an Italy, Italian Mannerism, Mannerist Painting, painter, architect and sculpture, sculptor who spent most of his ...
, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis' various palaces. He also invited the noted architect
Sebastiano Serlio Sebastiano Serlio (6 September 1475 – c. 1554) was an Italian Mannerist architect, who was part of the Italian team building the Château de Fontainebleau, Palace of Fontainebleau. Serlio helped canonize the classical orders of architecture ...

Sebastiano Serlio
(1475–1554), who enjoyed a fruitful late career in France. Francis also commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France.


Man of letters

Francis was also renowned as a
man of letters An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex; several different Critical thinking#Definitions, definitions exist, which generally includ ...
. When Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in
Baldassare Castiglione Baldassare Castiglione (; December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, fro, ''Italica'', Rai International online. count of Casatico, was an Italy, Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Rena ...
's ''
Book of the Courtier ''The Book of the Courtier'' ( it, Il Cortegiano ) by Baldassare Castiglione, is a lengthy philosophical dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called Uni ...
'', it is as the great hope to bring culture to the war-obsessed French nation. Not only did Francis support a number of major writers of the period, but he was also a poet himself, if not one of particular abilities. Francis worked diligently at improving the royal library. He appointed the great French humanist
Guillaume Budé Guillaume Budé (; Onomastic Latinisation, Latinized as Guilielmus Budaeus; 26 January 1467 – 23 August 1540) was a French scholar and humanist. He was involved in the founding of Collegium Trilingue, which later became the Collège de France. ...

Guillaume Budé
as chief librarian and began to expand the collection. Francis employed agents in Italy to look for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had agents looking for art works. During his reign, the size of the library greatly increased. Not only did he expand the library, there is also evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer event in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge. In 1537, Francis signed the Ordonnance de Montpellier, which decreed that his library be given a copy of every book to be sold in France. Francis' older sister, ,
Queen of Navarre This is a list of the kings and queens of kingdom of Pamplona, Pamplona, later kingdom of Navarre, Navarre. Pamplona was the primary name of the kingdom until its union with Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon (1076–1134). However, the territorial desi ...
, was also an accomplished writer who produced the classic collection of short stories known as the '' Heptameron''. Francis corresponded with the abbess and philosopher
Claude de Bectoz Claude de Bectoz (1490–1547) was a France, French writer and philosopher of the Renaissance. Life Both her mother, Michelette de Salvaing, and father, Jacques de Bactoz, were from well-known families in the Dauphiné. Denys Fauchier taught he ...
, of whose letters he was so fond that he would carry them around and show them to the ladies of his court. Together with his sister, he visited her in
Tarascon Tarascon (; ), sometimes referred to as Tarascon-sur-Rhône, is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the ...

Tarascon
.


Construction

Francis poured vast amounts of money into new structures. He continued the work of his predecessors on the
Château d'Amboise The Château d'Amboise is a château in Amboise, located in the Indre-et-Loire ''Departments of France, département'' of the Loire Valley in France. Confiscated by the monarchy in the 15th century, it became a favoured royal residence and was ext ...

Château d'Amboise
and also started renovations on the
Château de Blois The Royal Château de Blois (french: Château Royal de Blois, link=no, ) is located in the city center of Blois at the Loir-et-Cher ''département in France, département'' in the Loire Valley, in France. The residence of several French kings, it ...

Château de Blois
. Early in his reign, he began construction of the magnificent
Château de Chambord The Château de Chambord () in Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, Chambord, Centre-Val de Loire, France, is one of the most recognisable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French ...

Château de Chambord
, inspired by the architectural styles of the Italian renaissance, and perhaps even designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Francis rebuilt the
Louvre Palace The Louvre Palace (french: Palais du Louvre, ), often referred to simply as the Louvre, is an iconic building of the French state located on the Rive Droite, Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, occupying a vast expanse of land between the Tuiler ...

Louvre Palace
, transforming it from a medieval fortress into a building of Renaissance splendour. He financed the building of a new City Hall (the '' Hôtel de Ville'') for Paris in order to have control over the building's design. He constructed the
Château de Madrid The Château de Madrid was a Renaissance building in France. It was built in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Neuilly, on the edge of the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris in the early 16th century. It fell into disuse in the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost co ...
in the
Bois de Boulogne The Bois de Boulogne (, "Boulogne woodland") is a large public park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine. The land was ceded to the city of Paris by t ...

Bois de Boulogne
and rebuilt the
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye The Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye () is a former royal palace in the commune in France, commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the ''département in France, département'' of Yvelines, about 19 km west of Paris, France. Today, it houses the ...

Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
. The largest of Francis' building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the
Château de Fontainebleau The Palace of Fontainebleau (; ) or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residenc ...

Château de Fontainebleau
, which quickly became his favourite place of residence, as well as the residence of his official mistress, . Each of Francis' projects was luxuriously decorated both inside and out. Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water.


Military action

Although the Italian Wars (1494–1559) came to dominate the reign of Francis I, the wars were not the sole focus of his policies. Francis merely continued the incessant wars that his predecessors had started and that his successors on the throne of France would drag on after Francis' death. Indeed, the Italian Wars had begun when Milan sent a plea to King Charles VIII of France for protection against the aggressive actions of the
King of Naples The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of Naples, from its first Sicilian Vespers, separation from the Kingdom of Sicily to its merger with the same into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Kingdom of Naples (1282–1501) House of Anjou I ...
. Militarily and diplomatically, Francis' reign was a mixed bag of success and failure. Francis tried and failed to become
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
at the
Imperial election of 1519 The imperial election of 1519 was an imperial election The election of a Holy Roman Emperor was generally a two-stage process whereby, from at least the 13th century, the King of the Romans was elected by a small body of the greatest princes of t ...
. However, there were also temporary victories, such as in the portion of the Italian Wars called the
War of the League of Cambrai The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and several other names, was fought from 1508 to 1516 as part of the Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and som ...
(1508–1516) and, more specifically, to the final stage of that war, which history refers to simply as "Francis' First Italian War" (1515–1516), when Francis routed the combined forces of the Papal States and the
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely spoke ...
at
Marignano The Battle of Marignano was the last major engagement of the War of the League of Cambrai and took place on 13–14 September 1515, near the town now called Melegnano, 16 km southeast of Milan. It pitted the French army, composed of the bes ...
on 13–15 September 1515. This victory at Marignano allowed Francis to capture the Italian city-state of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
. Later, in November 1521, during the Four Years' War (1521–1526) and facing the advancing Imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire and open revolt within Milan, Francis was forced to abandon Milan, thus, cancelling the triumph at Marignano. Much of the military activity of Francis's reign was focused on his sworn enemy, the Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V Charles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558) * Charles V of Naples (1661–1700), better known as Charles II of Spain * Charles V of France (1338–1380), called the Wise * Charles V, Duke of Lorraine (1643–1690) * Infant ...

Charles V
. Francis and Charles maintained an intense personal rivalry. Charles, in fact, brashly challenged Francis to single combat multiple times. In addition to the Holy Roman Empire, Charles personally ruled Spain, Austria, and a number of smaller possessions neighboring France. He was thus a constant threat to Francis' kingdom. Francis attempted to arrange an alliance with
Henry VIII of England Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
at the famous meeting at the
Field of Cloth of Gold The Field of the Cloth of Gold (french: Camp du Drap d'Or, ) was a royal summit meeting at a site in Balinghem equidistant between Ardres in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
on 7 June 1520, but despite a lavish fortnight of diplomacy they failed to reach an agreement. Francis and Henry were both obsessed with dreams of power and chivalric glory; their relationship featured intense personal and dynastic rivalry. Francis was driven by his intense eagerness for retaking Milan, despite the strong opposition of other Powers. Henry was likewise determined to recapture northern France, which Francis could never allow. Francis suffered his most devastating defeat at the
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Empero ...

Battle of Pavia
on 24 February 1525, during part of the continuing Italian Wars known as the Four Years' War. Francis was actually taken prisoner:
Cesare Hercolani Cesare Hercolani (1499–1534) was an Italian people, Italian Condottieri, condottiero, or mercenary leader. He was born in Forlì (Northern Italy) in 1499. The Hercolanis were a noble family, and Cesare became a venture captain under Charles V, Ho ...

Cesare Hercolani
injured his horse, and Francis was captured by Diego Dávila, Alonso Pita da Veiga, and Juan de Urbieta, from Guipúzcoa. For this reason, Hercolani was named "Victor of the battle of Pavia". '' Zuppa alla Pavese'' was supposedly invented on the spot to feed the captive king right after the battle. Francis I was held captive in Madrid. In a letter to his mother he wrote, "Of all things, nothing remains to me but honour and life, which is safe." This line has come down in history famously as "All is lost save honour." Francis made major concessions to Charles V in the
Treaty of Madrid (1526)Treaty of Madrid may refer to: * Treaty of Madrid (1339), collaboration between Aragon and Castile * Treaty of Madrid (1526), in which France renounced claims in Italy, surrendered Burgundy to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and abandoned sovereignty ...
, signed on 14 January, before he was freed on 17 March. An ultimatum from Ottoman Sultan Suleiman to Charles V also played an important role in his release. Francis I surrendered any claims to Naples and Milan in Italy.Mallet, Michael;and Shaw, Christine. ''The Italian Wars: 1494–1559'' (Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited, 2012) p. 153. Francis recognised the independence of the Duchy of Burgundy, which had been part of France since the death of
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; fren ...
in 1477. And finally, Francis was betrothed to Charles' sister Elearnor. Francis was allowed to return to France in exchange for his two sons,
Francis Francis may refer to: People *Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since ...
and
Henry Henry may refer to: People *Henry (given name) Henry is a masculine given name derived from Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century ...
, but once he was free he argued that his agreement with Charles was made under duress. He also claimed that the agreement was void because his sons were taken hostage with the implication that his word alone could not be trusted. Thus he firmly repudiated it. A renewed alliance with England enabled Francis to repudiate the treaty of Madrid. Francis persevered in his hatred of Charles V and desire to control Italy. By the mid-1520s,
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion bapt ...
wished to liberate Italy from foreign domination, especially that of Charles V, so he allied with
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...
to form the
League of Cognac The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the Hou ...
. Francis joined the League in May 1526, in the
War of the League of Cognac The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain, Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the ...
of 1526–30. Francis' allies proved weak, and the war was ended by the
Treaty of Cambrai A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other L ...
(1529; "the Peace of the Ladies", negotiated by Francis’ mother and Charles’ aunt). The two boys were released, and Francis married Eleanor. After the League of Cognac failed, Francis concluded a secret alliance with the
Landgrave of Hesse The Landgraviate of Hesse (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen) was a principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a regnant-monarch A monarch is a head o ...
on 27 January 1534. This was directed against Charles V on the pretext of assisting the
Duke of Württemberg A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor, king, and grand duke ruling over a duchy or a member of Royal family, royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank, below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...
to regain his traditional seat, from which Charles had removed him in 1519. Francis also obtained the help of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and after the death of
Francesco II Sforza Francesco II Sforza (February 4, 1495 – November 1, 1535) was Duke of Milan from 1521 until his death. He was the last member of the Sforza family to rule Milan. He was the second son of Ludovico Sforza and Beatrice d'Este. When Ludovico ...

Francesco II Sforza
, ruler of Milan, renewed the contest in Italy in the Italian War of 1536–1538. This round of fighting, which had little result, was ended by the
Truce of Nice A ceasefire (or truce), also spelled cease fire (the antonym of 'open fire'), is a temporary stoppage of a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governi ...
. The agreement collapsed, however, which led to Francis' final attempt on Italy in the
Italian War of 1542–1546 The Italian War of 1542–1546 was a conflict late in the Italian Wars, pitting Francis I of France and Suleiman the Magnificent, Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henr ...
. This time Francis managed to hold off the forces of Charles V and Henry VIII. Charles V was forced to sign the Treaty of Crépy because of his financial difficulties and conflicts with the Schmalkaldic League.


Relations with the New World and Asia

Francis had been much aggrieved at the papal bull ''Aeterni regis'': in June 1481 Portuguese rule over Africa and the Indies was confirmed by Pope Sixtus IV. Thirteen years later, on 7 June 1494, Portugal and the Crown of Castile, Crown of Castille signed the Treaty of Tordesillas under which the newly discovered lands would be divided between the two signatories. All this prompted King Francis to declare, "The sun shines for me as it does for others. I would very much like to see the clause of Adam’s will by which I should be denied my share of the world." In order to counterbalance the power of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Empire under Charles V, especially its control of large parts of the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia. Fleets were sent to the Americas and the Far East, and close contacts were developed with the Ottoman Empire permitting the development of French Mediterranean trade as well as the establishment of a strategic military alliance. The port city now known as Le Havre was founded in 1517 during the early years of Francis' reign. The construction of a new port was urgently needed in order to replace the ancient harbours of Honfleur and Harfleur, whose utility had decreased due to silting. Le Havre was originally named ''Franciscopolis'' after the King who founded it, but this name did not survive into later reigns.


Americas

In 1524, Francis assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America. On this expedition, Verrazzano visited the present site of New York City, naming it New Angoulême, and claimed Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland for the French crown. Verrazzano's letter to Francis of 8 July 1524 is known as the ''Cèllere Codex''. In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil. In 1534, Francis sent
Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier ( , also , , ; br, Jakez Karter; 31 December 14911 September 1557) was a French people, French-Breton people, Breton List of maritime explorers, maritime explorer for Kingdom of France, France. Jacques Cartier was the first ...

Jacques Cartier
to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find "certain islands and lands where it is said there must be great quantities of gold and other riches". In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François Roberval, Jean-François de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith."


Far East Asia

French trade with East Asia was initiated during the reign of Francis I with the help of shipowner Jean Ango. In July 1527, a French Normandy, Norman trading ship from the city of Rouen is recorded by the Portuguese João de Barros as having arrived in the Indian city of Diu, India, Diu. In 1529, Jean Parmentier (explorer), Jean Parmentier, on board the ''Sacre'' and the ''Pensée'', reached Sumatra. Upon its return, the expedition triggered the development of the Dieppe maps, influencing the work of Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, Dieppe cartographers such as Jean Rotz.


Ottoman Empire

Under the reign of Francis I, France became the first country in Europe to establish formal relations with the Ottoman Empire and to set up instruction in the Arabic language under the guidance of Guillaume Postel at the Collège de France. In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis came to an understanding with the Ottoman Empire that developed into a
Franco-Ottoman alliance The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located i ...
. The alliance has been called "the first nonideological diplomatic alliance of its kind between a Christian and non-Christian empire". It did, however, cause quite a scandal in the Christian worldMiller, p. 2 and was designated "the impious alliance", or "the sacrilegious union of the [French] Fleur-de-lis, Lily and the [Ottoman] Star and crescent, Crescent." Nevertheless, it endured for many years, since it served the objective interests of both parties. The two powers colluded against Charles V, and in 1543 they even combined for a joint naval assault in the Siege of Nice. In 1533, Francis I sent colonel Pierre de Piton as ambassador to Morocco, initiating official France-Morocco relations. In a letter to Francis I dated 13 August 1533, the Wattassid ruler of Fes, Fez, Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad, Ahmed ben Mohammed, welcomed French overtures and granted freedom of shipping and protection of French traders.


Bureaucratic reform and language policy

Francis took several steps to eradicate the monopoly of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
as the language of knowledge. In 1530, he declared French the national language of the kingdom, and that same year opened the Collège des trois langues, or Collège de France, Collège Royal, following the recommendation of humanist
Guillaume Budé Guillaume Budé (; Onomastic Latinisation, Latinized as Guilielmus Budaeus; 26 January 1467 – 23 August 1540) was a French scholar and humanist. He was involved in the founding of Collegium Trilingue, which later became the Collège de France. ...

Guillaume Budé
. Students at the Collège could study Greek language, Greek,
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
and Aramaic, then Arabic under Guillaume Postel beginning in 1539. In 1539, in his castle in Villers-Cotterêts, Francis signed the important edict known as Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, which, among other reforms, made French the administrative language of the kingdom as a replacement for Latin language, Latin. This same edict required priests to register births, marriages, and deaths, and to establish a registry office in every parish. This initiated the first records of vital statistics with filiations available in Europe.


Religious policies

Divisions in Christianity in Western Europe during Francis' reign created lasting international rifts. Martin Luther's preaching and writing sparked the Protestant Reformation, which spread through much of Europe, including France. Initially Francis was relatively tolerant of the new movement, despite burning several heretics at the Place Maubert in 1523. He was influenced by his beloved sister Marguerite de Navarre, who was genuinely attracted by Luther's theology. Francis even considered it politically useful, as it caused many German princes to turn against his enemy Charles V. Francis' attitude towards
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose comin ...
changed for the worse following the "Affair of the Placards", on the night of 17 October 1534, in which notices appeared on the streets of Paris and other major cities denouncing the Catholic Mass (Catholicism), mass. The most fervent Catholics were outraged by the notice's allegations. Francis himself came to view the movement as a plot against him and began to persecute its followers. Protestants were jailed and executed. In some areas whole villages were destroyed. In Paris, after 1540, Francis had heretics such as Etienne Dolet tortured and burned. Printing was censored and leading Protestant reformers such as John Calvin were forced into exile. The persecutions soon numbered thousands of dead and tens of thousands of homeless. Persecutions against Protestants were codified in the Edict of Fontainebleau (1540) issued by Francis. Major acts of violence continued, as when Francis ordered the execution of one of the historical pre-Lutheran groups, the Waldensians, at the Massacre of Mérindol in 1545.


Death

Francis died at the Château de Rambouillet on 31 March 1547, on his son and successor's 28th birthday. It is said that "he died complaining about the weight of a crown that he had first perceived as a gift from God". He was interred with his first wife, Claude, Duchess of Brittany, in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Henry II of France, Henry II. Francis' tomb and that of his wife and mother, along with the tombs of other French kings and members of the royal family, were desecrated on 20 October 1793 during the Reign of Terror at the height of the French Revolution.


Image and reputation

Francis I has a poor reputation in France—his 500th anniversary was little noted in 1994. Popular and scholarly historical memory ignores his building of so many fine chateaux, his stunning art collection, his lavish patronage of scholars and artists. He is seen as a playboy who disgraced France by allowing himself to be defeated and taken prisoner at Pavia. The historian Jules Michelet set the negative image. Francis' personal emblem was the Salamander (legendary creature), salamander and his Latin motto was ''Nutrisco et extinguo'' ("I nourish [the good] and extinguish [the bad]"). His long nose earned him the nickname ''François du Grand Nez'' ("Francis of the Big Nose"), he was also colloquially known as the "Grand Colas" or "Bonhomme Colas". For his personal involvement in battles, he was known as ''le Roi-Chevalier'' ("the Knight-King") or ''le Roi-Guerrier'' ("the Warrior-King"). British historian Glenn Richardson considers Francis a success: :He was a king who ruled as well as reigned. He knew the importance of war and a high international profile in staking his claim to be a great warrior-king of France. In battle he was brave, if impetuous, which led equally to triumph and disaster. Domestically, Francis exercised the spirit and letter of the royal prerogative to its fullest extent. He bargained hard over taxation and other issues with interest groups, often by appearing not to bargain at all. He enhanced royal power and concentrated decision-making in a tight personal executive but used a wide range of offices, gifts and his own personal charisma to build up an elective personal affinity among the ranks of the nobility upon whom his reign depended .... Under Francis, the court of France was at the height of its prestige and international influence during the 16th century. Although opinion has varied considerably over the centuries since his death, his cultural legacy to France, to its Renaissance, was immense and ought to secure his reputation as among the greatest of its kings.


Marriage and issue

On 18 May 1514, Francis married his second cousin , the daughter of Louis XII of France, King Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany, Duchess Anne of Brittany. The couple had seven children: * Louise (19 August 1515 – 21 September 1518): died young; engaged to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I of Spain almost from birth until death. * Charlotte of Valois, Charlotte (23 October 1516 – 8 September 1524): died young; engaged to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I of Spain from 1518 until death. *
Francis Francis may refer to: People *Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since ...
(28 February 1518 – 10 August 1536), who succeeded his mother Claude as Duke of Brittany, but died aged 18, unmarried and childless. * Henry II of France, Henry II (31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559). Succeeded Francis I as King of France. Married Catherine de' Medici, had issue. * Madeleine of France (1520-1537), Madeleine (10 August 1520 – 2 July 1537), who married James V of Scotland and had no issue. * Charles de Valois, Duc d'Orléans, Charles (22 January 1522 – 9 September 1545), who died unmarried and childless. * Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, Margaret (5 June 1523 – 14 September 1574), who married Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, in 1559 and had issue. On 7 July 1530, Francis I married his second wife Eleanor of Austria, a sister of the Emperor Charles V. The couple had no children. During his reign, Francis kept two official mistresses at court. The first was Françoise de Foix, Countess of Châteaubriant. In 1526, she was replaced by the blonde-haired, cultured Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly, Duchess of Étampes, who with the death of Queen Claude two years earlier, wielded far more political power at court than her predecessor had done. Another of his earlier mistresses was allegedly Mary Boleyn, mistress of King Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and sister of Henry's future wife, Anne Boleyn.Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, X, no.450


Francis I in films, stage and literature

The amorous exploits of Francis inspired the 1832 play by Fanny Kemble, ''Francis the First'', and the 1832 play by Victor Hugo, ''Le Roi s'amuse'' ("The King's Amusement"), which featured the jester Triboulet, the inspiration for the 1851 opera ''Rigoletto (opera), Rigoletto'' by Giuseppe Verdi. Francis was first played in a George Méliès movie by an unknown actor in 1907, and has also been played by Claude Garry (1910), Aimé Simon-Girard (1937), Sacha Guitry (1937), Gérard Oury (1953), Jean Marais (1955), Pedro Armendáriz (1956), Claude Titre (1962), Bernard Pierre Donnadieu (1990). Timothy West (1998) and Emmanuel Leconte (2007– 2010). Francis was portrayed by Peter Gilmore in the comedy film ''Carry On Henry'' charting the fictitious two extra wives of Henry VIII (including Marie cousin of King Francis). Francis receives a mention in a minor story in Laurence Sterne's novel ''Tristram Shandy''. The narrator claims that the king, wishing to win the favour of Switzerland, offers to make the country the godmother of his son. When, however, their choice of name conflicts, he declares war. He is also mentioned in Jean de la Brète's novel ''Reine – Mon oncle et mon curé'', where the main character Reine de Lavalle idolises him after reading his biography, much to the dismay of the local priest. He often receives mentions in novels on the lives of either of the Boleyn sisters – Mary Boleyn (d. 1543) and her sister, Queen Anne Boleyn (executed 1536), both of whom were for a time educated at his court. Mary had, according to several accounts, been Francis' one-time mistress and Anne had been a favourite of his sister: the novels ''The Lady in the Tower'', ''The Other Boleyn Girl,'' ''The Last Boleyn'', ''Dear Heart, How Like You This?'' and ''Mademoiselle Boleyn'' feature Francis in their story. He appears in Hilary Mantel's ''Wolf Hall'' about Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell and is often referred to in its sequel, ''Bring Up the Bodies''. Francis is portrayed in Diane Haeger's novel ''Courtesan'' about Diane de Poitiers and Henri II. Francis appears as the patron of
Benvenuto Cellini Benvenuto Cellini (, ; 3 November 150013 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote poetry and a famous autobiography. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism Man ...

Benvenuto Cellini
in the 1843 French novel ''L'Orfèvre du roi, ou Ascanio'' by Alexandre Dumas, père. Samuel Shellabarger's novel ''The King's Cavalier'' describes Francis the man, and the cultural and political circumstances of his reign, in some detail. He was a recurring character in the highly inaccurate Showtime series ''The Tudors'', opposite Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII and Natalie Dormer as Anne Boleyn. Francis is played by French actor, Emmanuel Leconte. He and his court set the scene for Friedrich Schiller's ballad ''Der Handschuh'' (''The Glove''). Francis I (played by Timothy West) and Francis's son Henry II (played by Dougray Scott) are central figures in the 1998 movie ''Ever After'', a retelling of the Cinderella story. The plot includes
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
(played by Patrick Godfrey) arriving at Francis's court with the ''
Mona Lisa The ''Mona Lisa'' (; it, Gioconda or ''Monna Lisa'' ; french: Joconde ) is a half-length portrait painting by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance, it has been described as "the b ...

Mona Lisa
''. He is played by Alfonso Bassave in the Televisión Española, TVE series ''Carlos, rey emperador'', opposite Álvaro Cervantes as
Charles V Charles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558) * Charles V of Naples (1661–1700), better known as Charles II of Spain * Charles V of France (1338–1380), called the Wise * Charles V, Duke of Lorraine (1643–1690) * Infant ...

Charles V
.


Ancestors


See also

* Castell del Patriarca *
Franco-Ottoman alliance The Franco-Ottoman alliance, also Franco-Turkish alliance, was an alliance established in 1536 between the king of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located i ...


References


Further reading

* Clough, C.H., "Francis I and the Courtiers of Castiglione’s Courtier." ''European Studies Review.'' vol 8, 1978. * Denieul-Cormier, Anne. ''The Renaissance in France.'' trans. Anne Fremantle and Christopher Fremantle. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1969. * Grant, A.J. ''The French Monarchy, Volume I.'' New York: Howard Fertig, 1970. * Guy, John. ''Tudor England.'' Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. * Isom-Verhaaren, Christine. "'Barbarossa and His Army Who Came to Succor All of Us': Ottoman and French Views of Their Joint Campaign of 1543–1544." ''French Historical Studies'' 30:3 (2007): 395-42
online
* Jensen, De Lamar. “The Ottoman Turks in Sixteenth Century French Diplomacy” ''Sixteenth Century Journal'' 16:4 (1985): 451–470
online
* Jensen, De Lamar, ed. ''Renaissance Europe.'' Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992. * Knecht, R.J. ''Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994
online
* Knecht, Robert J. "A Battle of Giants." ''History Today'' (2016) 88#1 pp 49–54 on Battle of Marignano, Italy in 1515. * Knecht, R.J. ''Francis I'' (Cambridge University Press, 1982
online
* Knecht, R.J. ''French Renaissance Monarchy: Francis I and Henry II'' (2nd ed. 1997), historiograph
excerpt
* Knecht, R. J. "An Update on the Reign of Francis I." ''History Compass'' 1.1 (2003) pp 1–9. * Knecht, R. J. "Francis and Paris" ''History'' 66#216 (1981
onl;ine
* Knecht, Robert J. "'Born between two women...'Jules Michelet and Francis I." ''Renaissance Studies'' (2000) 14#3: 329-34
online
* Major, J. Russell. ''From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy.'' (Johns Hopkins UP, 1994). * Mansfield, Lisa. '' Representations of Renaissance monarchy: Francis I and the image-makers'' (2016). * Parker, Geoffrey. ''Emperor: A New Life of Charles V'' (Yale UP, 2019). * Potter, D. L. ''Renaissance France at War – Armies, Culture and Society, c.1480–1560.'' (Boydell Press., 2008). * Reston Jr, James. ''Defenders of the Faith: Christianity and Islam Battle for the Soul of Europe, 1520-1536'' (Penguin, 2009), popular history. * Richardson, Glenn. "Le roi-chevalier." ''History Today'' (May 2015) 65#5 pp 39–45 short biography of Francis I by a scholar * Richardson, Glenn. "Field of the Cloth of Gold" ''History Today'' (July 2020) 70#7 pp 28–39. * Richardson, Glenn. "Good friends and brothers?" ''History Today'' (1994) 44#9 pp 20–26, his relations with Henry VIII. * Seward, Desmond. ''Franco-Ottoman Alliance of Francis I Prince of the Renaissance.'' New York: MacMillan, 1973
online


External links

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