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Folk music is a
music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in practice these terms are some ...
that includes
traditional folk music Folk music is a music genre that includes #Traditional folk music, traditional folk music and the Contemporary folk music, contemporary genre that evolved from the former during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be cal ...
and the contemporary genre that evolved from the former during the 20th-century
folk revival A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. Often, roots revivals include an addition of newly composed songs with socially and politically aware lyri ...
. Some types of folk music may be called
world music World music is an English phrase for styles of music from non-Western countries, including quasi-traditional, intercultural, and traditional music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some ...
. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, music that is played on traditional instruments, music about cultural or national identity, music that changes between generations (folk process), music associated with a people's
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...

folklore
, or music performed by
custom Custom may refer to: Sense: Customary * Convention (norm) A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. In a social context, a convention ma ...
over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...
and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called
contemporary folk music Contemporary folk music refers to a wide variety of genres that emerged in the mid 20th century and afterwards which were associated with traditional folk music. Starting in the mid-20th century a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditi ...
or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has typically not been applied to the new music created during those revivals. This type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as
folk rock Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U.S., folk rock emerged from the American folk music revival, folk musi ...
,
folk metal Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. It is characterised by the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles (for example, ...
, and others. While contemporary folk music is a genre generally distinct from traditional folk music, in
U.S. English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the mo ...
it shares the same name, and it often shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music.


Traditional folk music


Definitions

The terms ''folk music'', ''folk song'', and ''
folk dance A folk dance is a dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be cate ...

folk dance
'' are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term ''
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...

folklore
'', which was coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian
William Thoms William John Thoms (16 November 1803 – 15 August 1885) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and No ...
to describe "the traditions, customs, and superstitions of the uncultured classes".Percy Scholes, ''The Oxford Companion to Music'', OUP 1977, article "Folk Song". The term further derives from the German expression ''
volk The German noun ''Volk'' () translates to , both uncountable in the sense of ''people'' as in a , and countable (plural ''Völker'') in the sense of ' as in an or (compare the term '). Within an English-language context, the German word ...
'', in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by
Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (; ; 25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, ''Sturm und Drang'', and Weimar Classic ...

Johann Gottfried Herder
and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is the music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive.''The Never-Ending Revival'' by Michael F. Scully University of Illinois Press Urbana and Chicago 2008 Some do not even agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot clearly be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning often given is that of "old songs, with no known composers,"Ronald D. Cohen ''Folk music: the basics'' (CRC Press, 2006), pp. 1–2. another is that of music that has been submitted to an evolutionary "process of
oral transmission The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an orga ...
.... the fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character."International Folk Music Council definition (1954/5), given in Lloyd (1969) and Scholes (1977). Such definitions depend upon "(cultural) processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "''continuity'' and ''oral transmission''...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of which is found not only in the lower layers of feudal, capitalist and some oriental societies but also in 'primitive' societies and in parts of 'popular cultures'". One widely used definition is simply "Folk music is what the people sing."Donaldson, 2011 p. 13 For Scholes, as well as for
Cecil Sharp Cecil James Sharp (22 November 1859 – 23 June 1924) was an English-born musician and composer who was a key leader of the folk-song revival in England as a collector, archivist, teacher and promotor. He gathered thousands of tunes both from ru ...
and
Béla Bartók Béla Viktor János Bartók (; hu, Bartók Béla, ; 25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt ...
,A. L. Lloyd, ''Folk Song in England'', Panther Arts, 1969, pp. 14–15. there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was already, "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear (or in some cases, to be preserved or somehow revived)," particularly in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favor of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him, true folk music was, in
Charles Seeger Charles Louis Seeger, Jr. (December 14, 1886 – February 7, 1979) was an American musicologist, composer, teacher, and folklorist. He was the father of the American folk singers Pete Seeger Peter Seeger (May 3, 1919 – January 27, 201 ...

Charles Seeger
's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and socially stratified societies. In these terms, folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types: 'primitive' or 'tribal'; 'elite' or 'art'; 'folk'; and 'popular'."Charles Seeger (1980) quoted in Middleton (1990) p. 127. Music in this genre is also often called ''traditional music.'' Although the term is usually only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the
Grammy Award The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the US Recording Academy to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the music industry The music industry consists of the i ...
previously used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music that is not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most
indigenous music Indigenous music is a term for the of the of the world, that is, the music of an "original" that inhabits any geographic region alongside more recent immigrants who may be greater in number. The term therefore depends upon the political role an e ...

indigenous music
.


Characteristics

From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: * It was transmitted through an
oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication Human communication, or anthroposemiotics, is the field dedicated to understanding how human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of prima ...
. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were usually illiterate; they acquired songs by memorizing them. Primarily, this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or
song book A song book is a book containing lyrics for songs. Song books may be simple composition books or spiral-bound notebooks. Music publisher (popular music), Music publishers also produced printed editions for group singing. Such volumes were used in th ...
s, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh. * The music was often related to . It was culturally particular; from a particular region or culture. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion. It is particularly conspicuous in immigrant societies, where
Greek Australians Greek Australians ( el, Ελληνοαυστραλοί, ) comprise Australians Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a cou ...
,
Somali Americans Somali Americans are Americans of Somali people, Somali ancestry. The first ethnic Somalis to arrive in the U.S. were Somali maritime history, sailors who came in the 1920s from British Somaliland. They were followed by students pursuing higher stu ...
, Punjabi Canadians, and others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from. * They commemorate historical and personal events. On certain days of the year, including such holidays as Christmas, Easter, and May Day, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Birthdays, weddings, and funerals may also be noted with songs, dances and special costumes. Religious festivals often have a folk music component.
Choral music A choir (; also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans f ...
at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding that is unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music. * The songs have been performed, by
custom Custom may refer to: Sense: Customary * Convention (norm) A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. In a social context, a convention ma ...
, over a long period of time, usually several
generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not ex ...

generation
s. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: * There is no
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more ...

copyright
on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing. This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today, almost every folk song that is recorded is credited with an arranger. * Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time, traditional songs evolving over time may incorporate and reflect influences from disparate cultures. The relevant factors may include instrumentation, tunings, voicings, phrasing, subject matter, and even production methods.


Tune

In folk music, a ''tune'' is a short
instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound Voice production, made by a human being using the vocal tract, including Speech, talking, singing, ...

instrumental
piece Piece or Pieces (not to be confused with peace) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Games * Piece (chess), pieces deployed on a chessboard for playing the game of chess * Pieces (video game), ''Pieces'' (video game), a 1994 puzzle game fo ...
, a
melody A melody (from Greek language, Greek μελῳδία, ''melōidía'', "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice or line, is a Linearity#Music, linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal ...

melody
, often with repeating sections, and usually played a number of times. A collection of tunes with structural similarities is known as a tune-family. ''America's Musical Landscape'' says "the most common
form Form is the shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external Surface (mathematics), surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, Surface texture, texture, or material type. A plane shape, ...
for tunes in folk music is AABB, also known as
binary form Image:Binary form.png, 400px, Binary form in major and minor keys. Each section must be at least three phrases long. Binary form is a musical form in 2 related sections, both of which are usually repeated. Binary is also a structure used to choreog ...

binary form
." In some traditions, tunes may be strung together in medleys or " sets."


Origins

Throughout most of human prehistory and history, listening to
recorded music Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion ...
was not possible. Music was made by common people during both their work and leisure, as well as during religious activities. The work of economic production was often manual and communal.
Manual labor Manual labour (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar a ...
often included singing by the workers, which served several practical purposes. It reduced the
boredom In conventional usage, boredom is an emotion Emotions are biological states associated with all of the nerve systems brought on by neurophysiological changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree ...

boredom
of repetitive tasks, it kept the
rhythm Rhythm (from , ''rhythmos'', "any regular motion, " generally means a " marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions". This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can ap ...
during pushes and pulls, and it set the pace of many activities such as
planting Sowing is the process of planting. An area or object that has had seeds planted in it will be described as a sowed area. Plants which are usually sown Among the major field crops, oats, wheat Wheat is a grass widely Agriculture, cultiva ...

planting
,
weeding Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weed A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled se ...

weeding
, ,
threshing An animal-powered thresher Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips releas ...

threshing
,
weaving Weaving is a method of textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheti ...

weaving
, and
milling Milling may refer to: * Milling (grinding), breaking solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting in a mill * Milling (machining), a process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece * Milling (military tra ...
. In
leisure time Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible proce ...

leisure time
, singing and playing
musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person who play ...
s were common forms of entertainment and history-telling—even more common than today when electrically enabled technologies and widespread literacy make other forms of entertainment and information-sharing competitive. Some believe that folk music originated as
art music Art music (alternatively called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music considered to be of high aesthetic value. It typically implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musi ...
that was changed and probably debased by oral transmission while reflecting the character of the society that produced it. In many societies, especially preliterate ones, the cultural transmission of folk music requires learning by ear, although
notation In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
has evolved in some cultures. Different cultures may have different notions concerning a division between "folk" music on the one hand and of "art" and "court" music on the other. In the proliferation of popular music genres, some traditional folk music became also referred to as "
World music World music is an English phrase for styles of music from non-Western countries, including quasi-traditional, intercultural, and traditional music. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category pose obstacles to a universa ...
" or "Roots music." The English term "
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...

folklore
", to describe traditional folk music and dance, entered the vocabulary of many continental European nations, each of which had its folk-song collectors and revivalists. The distinction between "authentic" folk and national and
popular song Popular music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include c ...
in general has always been loose, particularly in America and Germany – for example, popular songwriters such as
Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826January 13, 1864), known also as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music. He wrote more than 200 songs, including " Oh! Susanna", " Hard Ti ...

Stephen Foster
could be termed "folk" in America. The International Folk Music Council definition allows that the term can also apply to music that, "...has originated with an individual composer and has subsequently been absorbed into the unwritten, living tradition of a community. But the term does not cover a song, dance, or tune that has been taken over ready-made and remains unchanged." The post–
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
folk revival in America and in Britain started a new genre,
Contemporary Folk Music Contemporary folk music refers to a wide variety of genres that emerged in the mid 20th century and afterwards which were associated with traditional folk music Folk music is a music genre that includes #Traditional folk music, traditional fol ...
, and brought an additional meaning to the term "folk music": newly composed songs, fixed in form and by known authors, which imitated some form of traditional music. The popularity of "contemporary folk" recordings caused the appearance of the category "Folk" in the
Grammy Award The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the US Recording Academy to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the music industry The music industry consists of the i ...
s of 1959 in 1970 the term was dropped in favor of "Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording (including Traditional Blues)", while 1987 brought a distinction between "Best Traditional Folk Recording" and "Best Contemporary Folk Recording". After that, they had a "Traditional music" category that subsequently evolved into others. The term "folk", by the start of the 21st century, could cover singer songwriters, such as
Donovan Donovan Phillips Leitch (born 10 May 1946) is a Scottish singer, songwriter and guitarist. He developed an eclectic and distinctive style that blended folk, jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities ...

Donovan
from Scotland and American
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
, who emerged in the 1960s and much more. This completed a process to where "folk music" no longer meant only traditional folk music.


Subject matter

Traditional folk music often includes sung words, although folk
instrumental music An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a big band setting. Through Semantic change, semantic widening, a broader sense of the word song may r ...
occurs commonly in
dance music Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dance, dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are Concert, live dance music an ...
traditions. Narrative verse looms large in the traditional folk music of many cultures. This encompasses such forms as traditional
epic poetry An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary people who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the mortal ...
, much of which was meant originally for oral performance, sometimes accompanied by instruments. Many epic poems of various cultures were pieced together from shorter pieces of traditional narrative verse, which explains their episodic structure, repetitive elements, and their frequent ''
in medias res A narrative work beginning ''in medias res'' (, "into the middle of things") opens in the midst of the plot (cf. ''ab ovo ''Ab ovo'' is Latin for "from the beginning, the origin, the egg (biology), egg". The term is a reference to one of the twin ...

in medias res
'' plot developments. Other forms of traditional narrative verse relate the outcomes of
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...

battle
s or lament
tragedies Tragedy (from the grc-gre, wiktionary:τραγῳδία, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a form of drama based on human suffering and, mainly, the terrible or sorrowful events that befall a tragic hero, main character. T ...
or
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationsh ...
s. Sometimes, as in the triumphant ''
Song of Deborah According to the Book of Judges, Deborah ( he, דְּבוֹרָה, ''Dəḇōrāh'', " bee"; ar, دبوراه, ''Dabūrāh'') was a prophetess of the God of the Israelites The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were ...
'' found in the
Biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...

Biblical
''
Book of Judges The Book of Judges (, ') is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost ex ...
'', these songs celebrate victory. Laments for lost battles and wars, and the lives lost in them, are equally prominent in many traditions; these laments keep alive the cause for which the battle was fought. The narratives of traditional songs often also remember
folk hero A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythology, mythological – with their name, personality and deeds embedded in the popular consciousness of a people, mentioned frequently in Folk music, folk songs, folk tales ...
es such as John Henry or
Robin Hood Robin Hood is a legendary hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face ...

Robin Hood
. Some traditional song narratives recall
supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such beings, including , , , , and . Th ...

supernatural
events or mysterious deaths.
Hymn A hymn is a type of song, usually religious and partially coincident with devotional song, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. T ...

Hymn
s and other forms of
religious music Religious music (also sacred music) is a type of music that is performed or composed for religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no schola ...
are often of traditional and unknown origin. Western
musical notation Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societ ...
was originally created to preserve the lines of
Gregorian chant Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainsong, plainchant, a form of monophony, monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song in Latin (and occasionally Greek (language), Greek) of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed m ...

Gregorian chant
, which before its invention was taught as an oral tradition in
monastic Monasticism (from Ancient Greek , , from , , 'alone'), or monkhood, is a religion, religious way of life in which one renounces world (theology), worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work. Monastic life plays an important role in ...
communities. Traditional songs such as ''
Green grow the rushes, O Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495570 Nanometre, nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by ...
'' present religious lore in a
mnemonic A mnemonic () device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory Memory is the faculty of the by which or is , stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the ...

mnemonic
form, as do Western
Christmas carol A Christmas carol is a carol (a song or hymn A hymn is a type of song, usually religious and partially coincident with devotional song, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or ...
s and similar traditional songs.
Work song A work song is a piece of music closely connected to a form of work, either sung while conducting a task (usually to coordinate timing) or a song linked to a task which might be a connected narrative, description, or protest song. Definitions and c ...
s frequently feature
call and response Call and response is a form of interaction between a speaker and an audience in which the speaker's statements ("calls") are punctuated by responses from the listeners. This form is also used in music, where it falls under the general category of A ...
structures and are designed to enable the laborers who sing them to coordinate their efforts in accordance with the rhythms of the songs. They are frequently, but not invariably, composed. In the American
armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
s, a lively oral tradition preserves jody calls ("Duckworth chants") which are sung while soldiers are on the march. Professional sailors made similar use of a large body of
sea shanties A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a genre of traditional folk song Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Tra ...
.
Love poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...
, often of a tragic or regretful nature, prominently figures in many folk traditions.
Nursery rhyme A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term dates only from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Mother Goose The figure of Mother Goose is the imaginary author ...
s and
nonsense verse Nonsense verse is a form of nonsense literature usually employing strong prosodic elements like rhythm and rhyme. It is often whimsical and humorous in tone and employs some of the techniques of nonsense literature. Limericks are probably the ...
used to amuse or quiet children also are frequent subjects of traditional songs.


Folk song transformations and variations

Music transmitted by word of mouth through a community, in time, develops many variants, because this kind of transmission cannot produce word-for-word and note-for-note accuracy. Indeed, many traditional singers are quite creative and deliberately modify the material they learn. For example, the words of " I'm a Man You Don't Meet Every Day" (Roud 975) are known from a
broadside ship of the line A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed during the Age of Sail from the 17th century to the mid-19th century. The ship of the line was designed for the naval tactics in the Age of Sail, naval tactic known as ...
in the
Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housi ...

Bodleian Library
. The date is almost certainly before 1900, and it seems to be Irish. In 1958 the song was recorded in Canada (My Name is Pat and I'm Proud of That). Scottish traveler
Jeannie Robertson Jeannie Robertson (1908 – 13 March 1975) was a Scotland, Scottish folk music, folk singer. Her most celebrated song is "I'm a Man You Don't Meet Every Day", otherwise known as "Jock Stewart". It has been recorded by Archie Fisher, The Dubl ...

Jeannie Robertson
from Aberdeen, made the next recorded version in 1961. She has changed it to make reference to "Jock Stewart", one of her relatives, and there are no Irish references. In 1976 Scottish artist
Archie Fisher Archie Macdonald Fisher (born 23 October 1939) is a Scottish folk singer and songwriter. He has released several solo albums since his first, eponymous album in 1968. Fisher composed the song "The Final Trawl", recorded on the album ''Windward A ...

Archie Fisher
deliberately altered the song to remove the reference to a dog being shot. In 1985
The Pogues The Pogues were an English or Anglo-Irish Celtic punk band fronted by Shane MacGowan and others, founded in Kings Cross, London in 1982, as "Pogue Mahone" – the anglicisation of the Irish language, Irish Gaelic ''póg mo thóin'', meaning "k ...
took it full circle by restoring all the Irish references. Because variants proliferate naturally, it is naïve to believe that there is such a thing as the single "authentic" version of a
ballad A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or '' ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and ...
such as " Barbara Allen". Field researchers in traditional song (see below) have encountered countless versions of this ballad throughout the English-speaking world, and these versions often differ greatly from each other. None can reliably claim to be the original, and it is possible that the "original" version ceased to be sung centuries ago. Many versions can lay an equal claim to authenticity. The influential folklorist
Cecil Sharp Cecil James Sharp (22 November 1859 – 23 June 1924) was an English-born musician and composer who was a key leader of the folk-song revival in England as a collector, archivist, teacher and promotor. He gathered thousands of tunes both from ru ...
felt that these competing variants of a traditional song would undergo a process of improvement akin to biological
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
: only those new variants that were the most appealing to ordinary singers would be picked up by others and transmitted onward in time. Thus, over time we would expect each traditional song to become aesthetically ever more appealing — it would be collectively composed to perfection, as it were, by the community. Literary interest in the popular ballad form dates back at least to Thomas Percy and
William Wordsworth William Wordsworth (7 April 177023 April 1850) was an English Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of ...

William Wordsworth
. English Elizabethan and Stuart composers had often evolved their music from folk themes, the classical suite was based upon stylised folk-dances, and
Joseph Haydn Franz Joseph Haydn (; ; 31 March 173231 May 1809) was an Austrian composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical music in an ...
's use of folk melodies is noted. But the emergence of the term "folk" coincided with an "outburst of national feeling all over Europe" that was particularly strong at the edges of Europe, where Self-determination, national identity was most asserted. Musical nationalism, Nationalist composers emerged in Central Europe, Russia, Scandinavia, Spain and Britain: the music of Antonín Dvořák, Dvořák, Bedřich Smetana, Smetana, Edvard Grieg, Grieg, Rimsky-Korsakov, Johannes Brahms, Brahms, Franz Liszt, Liszt, Manuel de Falla, de Falla, Richard Wagner, Wagner, Jean Sibelius, Sibelius, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Vaughan Williams, Béla Bartók, Bartók, and many others drew upon folk melodies.


Regional forms

While the loss of traditional folk music in the face of the rise of popular music is a worldwide phenomenon, it is not one occurring at a uniform rate throughout the world. The process is most advanced "where industrialization and Commercialization, commercialisation of culture are most advanced" but also occurs more gradually even in settings of lower technological advancement. However, the loss of traditional music is slowed in nations or regions where traditional folk music is a badge of cultural or national identity.


Early folk music, fieldwork and scholarship

Much of what is known about folk music prior to the development of audio recording technology in the 19th century comes from Field research, fieldwork and writings of scholars, collectors and proponents.


19th-century Europe

Starting in the 19th century, academics and amateur scholars, taking note of the musical traditions being lost, initiated various efforts to preserve the music of the people. One such effort was the collection by Francis James Child in the late 19th century of the texts of over three hundred
ballad A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or '' ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and ...
s in the English and Scots traditions (called the Child Ballads), some of which predated the 16th century. Contemporaneously with Child, the Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould and later
Cecil Sharp Cecil James Sharp (22 November 1859 – 23 June 1924) was an English-born musician and composer who was a key leader of the folk-song revival in England as a collector, archivist, teacher and promotor. He gathered thousands of tunes both from ru ...
worked to preserve a great body of English rural traditional song, music and dance, under the aegis of what became and remains the English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS). Sharp campaigned with some success to have English traditional songs (in his own heavily edited and expurgated versions) to be taught to school children in hopes of reviving and prolonging the popularity of those songs. Throughout the 1960s and early to mid-1970s, American scholar Bertrand Harris Bronson published an exhaustive four-volume collection of the then-known variations of both the texts and tunes associated with what came to be known as the Child Canon. He also advanced some significant theories concerning the workings of oral-aural tradition. Similar activity was also under way in other countries. One of the most extensive was perhaps the work done in Riga by Krisjanis Barons, who between the years 1894 and 1915 published six volumes that included the texts of 217,996 Latvian folk songs, the ''Latvju dainas''. In Norway the work of collectors such as Ludvig Mathias Lindeman was extensively used by Edvard Grieg in his ''Lyric Pieces'' for piano and in other works, which became immensely popular. Around this time, composers of European classical music, classical music developed a strong interest in collecting traditional songs, and a number of composers carried out their own field work on traditional music. These included Percy Grainger and Ralph Vaughan Williams in England and
Béla Bartók Béla Viktor János Bartók (; hu, Bartók Béla, ; 25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt ...
in Hungary. These composers, like many of their predecessors, both made arrangements of folk songs and incorporated traditional material into original classical compositions.


North America

The advent of audio recording technology provided folklorists with a revolutionary tool to preserve vanishing musical forms. The earliest American folk music scholars were with the American Folklore Society (AFS), which emerged in the late 1800s. Their studies expanded to include Indigenous music of North America, Native American music, but still treated folk music as a historical item preserved in isolated societies as well. In North America, during the 1930s and 1940s, the Library of Congress worked through the offices of traditional music collectors Robert Winslow Gordon, Alan Lomax and others to capture as much North American field material as possible. John Lomax (the father of Alan Lomax) was the first prominent scholar to study distinctly American folk music such as that of cowboys and southern blacks. His first major published work was in 1911, ''Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads''. and was arguably the most prominent US folk music scholar of his time, notably during the beginnings of the folk music revival in the 1930s and early 1940s. Cecil Sharp also worked in America, recording the traditional songs of the Appalachian Mountains in 1916–1918 in collaboration with Maud Karpeles and Olive Dame Campbell and is considered the first major scholar covering American folk music. Campbell and Sharp are represented under other names by actors in the modern movie ''Songcatcher''. One strong theme amongst folk scholars in the early decades of the 20th century was Regionalism (art), regionalism, the analysis of the diversity of folk music (and related cultures) based on regions of the US rather than based on a given song's historical roots. Later, a dynamic of class and circumstances was added to this. The most prominent regionalists were literary figures with a particular interest in folklore. Carl Sandburg often traveled the U.S. as a writer and a poet. He also collected songs in his travels and, in 1927, published them in the book ''The American Songbag''. Rachel Donaldson, a historian who worked for Vanderbilt, later stated this about The American Songbird in her analysis of the folk music revival. "In his collections of folk songs, Sandburg added a class dynamic to popular understandings of American folk music. This was the final element of the foundation upon which the early folk music revivalists constructed their own view of Americanism. Sandburg's working class Americans joined with the Ethnic group, ethnically, Race (human categorization), racially, and regionally diverse citizens that other scholars, public intellectuals, and folklorists celebrated their own definitions of the American folk, definitions that the folk revivalists used in constructing their own understanding of American folk music, and an overarching American identity". Prior to the 1930s, the study of folk music was primarily the province of scholars and collectors. The 1930s saw the beginnings of larger scale themes, commonalities, themes, and linkages in folk music developing in the populace and practitioners as well, often related to the Great Depression.Donaldson, 2011, pp. 39–55 Regionalism and cultural pluralism grew as influences and themes. During this time folk music began to become enmeshed with political and social activism themes and movements. Two related developments were the U.S. Communist Party's interest in folk music as a way to reach and influence Americans, and politically active prominent folk musicians and scholars seeing communism as a possible better system, through the lens of the Great Depression. Woody Guthrie exemplifies songwriters and artists with such an outlook. Folk music festivals proliferated during the 1930s. President Franklin Roosevelt was a fan of folk music, hosted folk concerts at the White House, and often patronized folk festivals. One prominent festival was Sarah Gertrude Knott's National Folk Festival (United States), National Folk Festival, established in St. Louis, Missouri in 1934. Under the sponsorship of the Washington Post, the festival was held in Washington, DC at Constitution Hall from 1937 to 1942. The folk music movement, festivals, and the wartime effort were seen as forces for social goods such as democracy, cultural pluralism, and the removal of culture and race-based barriers. The American folk music revivalists of the 1930s approached folk music in different ways. Three primary schools of thought emerged: "Traditionalists" (e.g. Sarah Gertrude Knott and John Lomax) emphasized the preservation of songs as artifacts of deceased cultures. "Functional" folklorists (e.g. Botkin and Alan Lomax) maintained that songs only retain relevance when used by those cultures which retain the traditions which birthed those songs. "Left-wing" folk revivalists (e.g. Charles Seeger and Lawrence Gellert) emphasized music's role "in 'people's' struggles for social and political rights".Donaldson, 2011, p. 87 By the end of the 1930s these and others had turned American folk music into a social movement. Sometimes folk musicians became scholars and advocates themselves. For example, Jean Ritchie (1922–2015) was the youngest child of a large family from Viper, Kentucky that had preserved many of the old Appalachian traditional songs. Ritchie, living in a time when the Appalachian Mountains, Appalachians had opened up to outside influence, was university educated and ultimately moved to New York City, where she made a number of classic recordings of the family repertoire and published an important compilation of these songs. In January 2012, the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, with the Association for Cultural Equity, announced that they would release Lomax's vast archive of 1946 and later recording in digital form. Lomax spent the last 20 years of his life working on an Interactive Multimedia educational computer project he called the Cantometrics#Cantometrics as an educational tool, Global Jukebox, which included 5,000 hours of sound recordings, 400,000 feet of film, 3,000 videotapes, and 5,000 photographs. As of March 2012, this has been accomplished. Approximately 17,400 of Lomax's recordings from 1946 and later have been made available free online. This material from Alan Lomax's independent archive, begun in 1946, which has been digitized and offered by the Association for Cultural Equity, is "distinct from the thousands of earlier recordings on acetate and aluminum discs he made from 1933 to 1942 under the auspices of the Library of Congress. This earlier collection—which includes the famous Jelly Roll Morton, Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, and Muddy Waters sessions, as well as Lomax's prodigious collections made in Haiti and Eastern Kentucky (1937) — is the provenance of the American Folklife Center" at the library of Congress.


National and regional forms


Africa

Africa is a vast continent and its Regions of Africa, regions and List of African countries, nations have distinct musical traditions. The List of Middle Eastern and North African folk music traditions, music of North Africa for the most part has a different history from Sub-Saharan African music traditions. The music and dance forms of the African diaspora, including African American music and many Caribbean music, Caribbean genres like soca music, soca, calypso music, calypso and Zouk (musical movement), Zouk; and Latin American music genres like the Samba (music), samba, Cuban rumba, Salsa music, salsa; and other clave (rhythm)-based genres, were founded to varying degrees on the music of Slavery in Africa, African slaves, which has in turn influenced African popular music.


Asia

Many Asian civilizations distinguish between Art music, art/court/classical styles and "folk" music. For example, the late Alam Lohar is an example of a South Asian singer who was classified as a folk singer. Khunung Eshei/Khuland Eshei is an ancient folk song from India, a country of Asia, of Meitei people, Meiteis of Manipur, that is an example of Asian folk music, and how they put it into its own genre.


= Folk music of China

= Archaeological discoveries date Culture of China, Chinese folk music back 7000 years; it is largely based on the pentatonic scale. Han dynasty, Han traditional weddings and funerals usually include a form of oboe called a suona, and apercussive ensembles called a chuigushou. Ensembles consisting of mouth organs (Sheng (instrument), sheng), shawms (suona), flutes (dizi (instrument), dizi) and percussion instruments (especially yunluo gongs) are popular in northern villages; their music is descended from the imperial temple music of Beijing, Xi'an, Wutai shan and Tianjin. Xi'an drum music, consisting of wind and percussive instruments, is popular around Xi'an, and has received some commercial popularity outside of China. Another important instrument is the sheng (instrument), sheng, a type of Chinese Chinese flute, pipe, an ancient instrument that is ancestor of all Western free reed instruments, such as the accordion. Parades led by Western-type brass bands are common, often competing in volume with a shawm/chuigushou band. In southern Fujian and Taiwan, Nanyin or Nanguan music, Nanguan is a genre of traditional ballads. They are sung by a woman accompanied by a Xiao (flute), xiao and a pipa, as well as other traditional instruments. The music is generally sorrowful and typically deals with love-stricken people. Further south, in Shantou, Hakka people, Hakka and Chaozhou, Guzheng, zheng ensembles are popular. Sizhu ensembles use flutes and bowed or plucked string instruments to make harmonious and melodious music that has become popular in the West among some listeners. These are popular in Nanjing and Hangzhou, as well as elsewhere along the southern Yangtze River, Yangtze area. Jiangnan Sizhu (silk and bamboo music from Jiangnan) is a style of instrumental music, often played by amateur musicians in tea houses in Shanghai. Guangdong music (genre), Guangdong Music or Guangdong music (genre), Cantonese Music is instrumental music from Guangzhou and surrounding areas. The music from this region influenced Cantonese Opera, Yueju (Cantonese Opera) music, which would later grow popular during the self-described "Golden Age" of China under the People's Republic of China, PRC.


= Traditional folk music of Sri Lanka

= The art, music and dances of Sri Lanka derive from the elements of nature, and have been enjoyed and developed in the Buddhism, Buddhist environment. The music is of several types and uses only a few types of instruments. The folk songs and poems were used in social gatherings to work together. The Indian influenced classical music has grown to be unique. The traditional drama, music and songs of Sinhala Light Music are typically Sri Lankan. The temple paintings and carvings used birds, elephants, wild animals, flowers and trees, and the List of Indian folk dances, Traditional 18 Dances display the dancing of birds and animals. For example: * Mayura Wannama – The dance of the peacock * Hanuma Wannama – The dance of the monkey * Gajaga Wannama – The dance of the elephant Musical types include: * Local drama music includes Kolam and Nadagam types. Kolam music is based on low country tunes primarily to accompany mask dance in exorcism rituals. It is considered less developed/evolved, true to the folk tradition and a preserving of a more ancient artform. It is limited to approximately 3–4 notes and is used by the ordinary people for pleasure and entertainment. * Nadagam music is a more developed form of drama influenced from South Indian street drama which was introduced by some south Indian Artists. Phillippu Singho from Negombo in 1824 Performed "Harishchandra Nadagama" in Hanguranketha Divisional Secretariat, Hnguranketha which was originally written in Telugu language, Telingu language. Later "Maname", "Sanda kinduru" and few others were introduced. Don Bastian of Dehiwala introduced Noorthy firstly by looking at Indian dramas and then John de Silva developed it as did Ramayanaya in 1886. * Sinhala light music is currently the most popular type of music in Sri Lanka and enriched with the influence of folk music, kolam music, nadagam music, noorthy music, film music, classical music, western music, and others. Some artists visited India to learn music and later started introducing light music. Ananda Samarakoon, Ananda Samarakone was the pioneer of this and also composed the national anthem. The classical Sinhalese orchestra consists of five categories of instruments, but among the percussion instruments, the drum is essential for dance. The vibrant beat of the rhythm of the drums form the basic of the dance. The dancers' feet bounce off the floor and they leap and swirl in patterns that reflect the complex rhythms of the drum beat. This drum beat may seem simple on the first hearing but it takes a long time to master the intricate rhythms and variations, which the drummer sometimes can bring to a crescendo of intensity. There are six common types of drums falling within 3 styles (one-faced, two-faced, and flat-faced): * The typical Sinhala Dance is identified as the Kandyan dance and the Geta Bera, Gatabera drum is indispensable to this dance. * Yak-bera is the demon drum or the, drum used in low country dance in which the dancers wear masks and perform devil dancing, which has become a highly developed form of art. * The Daula is a barrel-shaped drum, and it was used as a companion drum with a Thammattama in the past, to keep strict time with the beat. * The Thammattama is a flat, two-faced drum. The drummer strikes the drum on the two surfaces on top with sticks, unlike the others where you drum on the sides. This is a companion drum to the aforementioned Dawula. * A small double-headed hand drum, used to accompany songs. It is mostly heard in the poetry dances like vannam. * The Rabana is a flat-faced circular drum and comes in several sizes. The large Rabana - called the Banku Rabana - has to be placed on the floor like a circular short-legged Table (furniture), table and several people (especially the womenfolk) can sit around it and beat on it with both hands. This is used in festivals such as the Sinhalese New Year and ceremonies such as weddings. The resounding beat of the Rabana symbolizes the joyous moods of the occasion. The small Rabana is a form of mobile drum beat since the player carries it wherever the person goes. Other instruments include: * The Thalampata – 2 small cymbals joined by a string. * The wind section, is dominated by an instrument akin to the clarinet. This is not normally used for dances. This is important to note because the Sinhalese dance is not set to music as the western world knows it; rhythm is king. * The flutes of metal such as silver & brass produce Shrillness, shrill music to accompany Kandyan Dances, while the plaintive strains of music of the reed flute may pierce the air in devil-dancing. The conch-shell (Hakgediya) is another form of a natural instrument, and the player blows it to announce the opening of ceremonies of grandeur. * The Ravanahatha (ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron or ravana hasta veena) is a bowed fiddle that was once popular in Western India. It is believed to have originated among the Hela civilisation of Sri Lanka in the time of King Ravana. The bowl is made of cut coconut shell, the mouth of which is covered with goat hide. A dandi, made of bamboo, is attached to this shell. The principal strings are two: one of steel and the other of a set of horsehair. The long bow has jingle bells


Australia

Folk song traditions were taken to Australia by early settlers from England, Scotland and Ireland and gained particular foothold in the rural outback. The rhyming songs, poems and tales written in the form of bush ballads often relate to the itinerant and rebellious spirit of Australia in The Bush, and the authors and performers are often referred to as bush bards.Kerry O'Brien (journalist), Kerry O'Brien, December 10, 2003 ''7:30 Report''
abc.net.au
/ref> The 19th century was the golden age of bush ballads. Several collectors have catalogued the songs including John Meredith (folklorist), John Meredith whose recording in the 1950s became the basis of the collection in the National Library of Australia. The songs tell personal stories of life in the wide open country of Australia. Typical subjects include mining, raising and droving cattle, sheep shearing, wanderings, war stories, the 1891 Australian shearers' strike, class conflicts between the landless working class and the Squatting (pastoral), squatters (landowners), and outlaws such as Ned Kelly, as well as love interests and more modern fare such as Truck driver, trucking. The most famous bush ballad is "Waltzing Matilda", which has been called "the unofficial national anthem of Australia". Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians; it incorporates a variety of distinctive traditional music styles practiced by Indigenous Australian peoples, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles of and fusion (music), fusion with European traditions as interpreted and performed by indigenous Australian artists. Music has formed an integral part of the society, social, culture, cultural and ceremonial observances of these peoples, down through the millennia of their individual and collective histories to the present day. The traditional forms include many aspects of performance and
musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person who play ...
s unique to particular regions or List of Indigenous Australian group names, Indigenous Australian groups. Equal elements of musical tradition are common through much of the Australian continent, and even beyond. The culture of the Torres Strait Islanders is related to that of adjacent parts of New Guinea and so their music is also related. Music is a vital part of Indigenous Australians' cultural maintenance.


Europe


= Celtic traditional music

= Celtic music is a term used by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples. These traditions include Folk music of Ireland, Irish, Music of Scotland, Scottish, Music of the Isle of Man, Manx, Music of Cornwall, Cornish, Music of Wales, Welsh, and Breton music, Breton traditions. Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, Asturian and Galician music is often included, though there is no significant research showing that this has any close musical relationship. Music of Brittany, Brittany's Folk revival began in the 1950s with the "bagadoù" and the "kan-ha-diskan" before growing to world fame through Alan Stivell's work since the mid-1960s. In Ireland, The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem (although its members were all Irish-born, the group became famous while based in New York's Greenwich Village), The Dubliners, Clannad (musical group), Clannad, Planxty, The Chieftains,
The Pogues The Pogues were an English or Anglo-Irish Celtic punk band fronted by Shane MacGowan and others, founded in Kings Cross, London in 1982, as "Pogue Mahone" – the anglicisation of the Irish language, Irish Gaelic ''póg mo thóin'', meaning "k ...
, The Corrs, The Irish Rovers, and a variety of other folk bands have done much over the past few decades to revitalise and re-popularise Folk music of Ireland, Irish traditional music. These bands were rooted, to a greater or lesser extent, in a tradition of Irish music and benefited from the efforts of artists such as Seamus Ennis and Peter Douglas Kennedy, Peter Kennedy. In Scotland, The Corries, Silly Wizard, Capercaillie (band), Capercaillie, Runrig, Jackie Leven, Julie Fowlis, Karine Polwart, Alasdair Roberts (musician), Alasdair Roberts, Dick Gaughan, Wolfstone, Boys of the Lough, and The Silencers (band), The Silencers have kept Scottish folk vibrant and fresh by mixing traditional Scottish and Gaelic folk songs with more contemporary genres. These artists have also been commercially successful in continental Europe and North America. There is an emerging wealth of talent in the Scottish traditional music scene, with bands such as Mànran, Skipinnish, Barluath and Breabach and solo artists such as Patsy Reid, Robyn Stapleton and Mischa MacPherson gaining a lot of success in recent years.


= Central and Eastern Europe

= During the Communist era national folk dancing in the Eastern Bloc was actively promoted by the state. Dance troupes from Russia and Poland toured non-communist Europe from about 1937 to 1990. The Alexandrov Ensemble, Red Army Choir recorded many albums, becoming the most popular military band. Eastern Europe is also the origin of the Jewish Klezmer tradition. The polka is a central European dance and also a musical genre, genre of
dance music Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dance, dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are Concert, live dance music an ...
familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia. Polka is still a popular genre of folk music in many European countries and is performed by folk artists in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and Slovakia. Local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Latin America (especially Mexico), and in the United States. German Lied, Volkslieder perpetuated by Liederhandschriften manuscripts like ''Carmina Burana'' date back to medieval Minnesang and Meistersinger traditions. Those folk songs revived in the late 18th century period of German Romanticism, first promoted by
Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (; ; 25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, ''Sturm und Drang'', and Weimar Classic ...

Johann Gottfried Herder
and other advocates of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment, later compiled by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano (''Des Knaben Wunderhorn'') as well as by Ludwig Uhland. The Volksmusik and
folk dance A folk dance is a dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be cate ...

folk dance
s genre, especially in the Alps, Alpine regions of Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland (''Ranz des Vaches, Kuhreihen'') and South Tyrol, up to today has lingered in rustic communities against the backdrop of industrialisation—Low German sea shanty, shanties or the Wienerlied (''Schrammelmusik'') being notable exceptions. Music of Slovenia, Slovene folk music in Upper Carniola and Styria (Slovenia), Styria also originated from the Alpine traditions, like the prolific Lojze Slak Ensemble. Traditional ''Volksmusik'' is not to be confused with commercial ''Volkstümliche Musik'', which is a derivation of that. The Hungarian group Muzsikás played numerous American tours and participated in the Hollywood movie ''The English Patient (film), The English Patient'' while the singer Márta Sebestyén worked with the band Deep Forest. The Hungarian ''táncház'' movement, started in the 1970s, involves strong cooperation between musicology experts and enthusiastic amateurs. However, traditional Hungarian folk music and folk culture barely survived in some rural areas of Hungary, and it has also begun to disappear among the Hungarians in Romania, ethnic Hungarians in Transylvania. The táncház movement revived broader folk traditions of music, dance, and costume together and created a new kind of music club. The movement spread to ethnic Hungarian communities elsewhere in the world.


= Balkan music

= Balkan folk music was influenced by the mingling of Balkan ethnic groups in the period of Ottoman Empire. It comprises the music of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Music of Bulgaria, Bulgaria, Music of Croatia, Croatia, Music of Greece, Greece, Music of Montenegro, Montenegro, Music of Serbia, Serbia, Music of Romania, Romania, Music of the Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia, Music of Albania, Albania, some of the historical states of Music of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia or the Music of Serbia and Montenegro, State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and geographical regions such as Music of Thrace, Thrace. Some music is characterised by complex rhythm. A notable act is Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir, The Mystery of the Bulgarian Voices, which won a
Grammy Award The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the US Recording Academy to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the music industry The music industry consists of the i ...
in 1989. An important part of the whole Balkan folk music is the music of the local Romani music, Romani ethnic minority, which is called Tallava and Brass band music.


= Nordic folk music

= Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European, especially Scandinavian, countries. The Nordic countries are generally taken to include Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden,Denmark and Greenland. Sometimes it is taken to include the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The many regions of the Nordic countries share certain traditions, many of which have diverged significantly, like Psalmodicon of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. It is possible to group together the Baltic states (or, sometimes, only Estonia) and parts of northwest Russia as sharing cultural similarities, although the relationship has gone cold in recent years. Contrast with Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Atlantic islands of, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, which share virtually no similarities of that kind. Greenland's Inuit culture has its own unique musical traditions. Finland shares many cultural similarities with both the Baltic nations and the Scandinavian nations. The Sami of Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia have their own unique culture, with ties to the neighboring cultures. Swedish folk music is a musical genre, genre of music based largely on folkloristics, folkloric collection work that began in the early 19th century in Sweden. The primary instrument of Swedish folk music is the fiddle. Another common musical instrument, instrument, unique to Swedish traditions, is the nyckelharpa. Most Swedish instrumental folk music is dance music; the signature music and dance form within Swedish folk music is the polska (dance), polska. Vocal and instrumental traditions in Sweden have tended to share #Tune, tunes historically, though they have been performed separately. Beginning with the folk music revival of the 1970s, vocalists and instrumentalists have also begun to perform together in folk music musical ensemble, ensembles.


Latin and South America

The folk music of the Americas consists of the encounter and union of three main musical types: European traditional music, traditional music of the American natives, and tribal African music that arrived with slaves from that continent. The particular case of Latin and South American music points to Andean music among other native musical styles (such as Caribbean and pampean), Iberian music of Music of Spain, Spain and Music of Portugal, Portugal, and generally speaking Music of Africa, African tribal music, the three of which fused together evolving in differentiated musical forms in Central and South America. Andean music comes from the region of the Quechua people, Quechuas, Aymara people, Aymaras, and other peoples that inhabit the general area of the Inca Empire prior to European contact. It includes folklore music of parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Andean music is popular to different degrees across Latin America, having its core public in rural areas and among indigenous populations. The Nueva Canción movement of the 1970s revived the genre across Latin America and brought it to places where it was unknown or forgotten. Nueva canción (Spanish for 'new song') is a movement and genre within Latin American music, Latin American and Iberian folk music, folk-inspired music, and socially committed music. In some respects its development and role is similar to the second folk music revival in North America. This includes evolution of this new genre from traditional folk music, essentially contemporary folk music except that that English genre term is not commonly applied to it. Nueva cancion is recognized as having played a powerful role in the social upheavals in Portugal, Spain and Latin America during the 1970s and 1980s. Nueva cancion first surfaced during the 1960s as "The Chilean New Song" in Chile. The musical style emerged shortly afterwards in Spain and areas of Latin America where it came to be known under similar names. Nueva canción renewed traditional Latin American folk music, and with its political lyrics it was soon associated with revolutionary movements, the Latin American New Left, Liberation Theology, hippie and human rights movements. It would gain great popularity throughout Latin America, and it is regarded as a precursor to Rock en español. Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Trova and Son (music), Son are styles of traditional Cuban music originating in the province of Oriente that includes influences from Spanish song and dance, such as Bolero and contradanza as well as Afro-Cuban rhythm and percussion elements. Moda de viola is the name designated to Brazilian folk music. It is often performed with a 6-string nylon acoustic guitar, but the most traditional instrument is the viola caipira. The songs basically detailed the difficulties of life of those who work in the country. The themes are usually associated with the land, animals, folklore, impossible love and separation. Although there are some upbeat songs, most of them are nostalgic and melancholic.


North America


= Canada

= Canada's traditional folk music is particularly diverse. Even prior to liberalizing its immigration laws in the 1960s, Canada was ethnically diverse with dozens of different Indigenous and European groups present. In terms of music, academics do not speak of a Canadian tradition, but rather ethnic traditions (Acadian music, Irish-Canadian music, Blackfoot music, Innu music, Inuit music, Métis fiddle, etc.) and later in Eastern Canada regional traditions (Music of Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland music, Cape Breton fiddling, Quebecois music, etc.) "Knowledge of the history of Canada", wrote Isabelle Mills in 1974, "is essential in understanding the mosaic of Canadian folk song. Part of this mosaic is supplied by the folk songs of Canada brought by European and Anglo-Saxon settlers to the new land." She describes how the French colony at Québec brought French immigrants, followed before long by waves of immigrants from Great Britain, Germany, and other European countries, all bringing music from their homelands, some of which survives into the present day. Ethnographer and folklorist Marius Barbeau estimated that well over ten thousand French folk songs and their variants had been collected in Canada. Many of the older ones had by then died out in France. Music as professionalized paid entertainment grew relatively slowly in Canada, especially remote rural areas, through the 19th and early 20th centuries. While in urban music clubs of the dance hall/vaudeville variety became popular, followed by jazz, rural Canada remained mostly a land of traditional music. Yet when American radio networks began broadcasting into Canada in the 1920s and 1930s, the audience for Canadian traditional music progressively declined in favour of Nashville sound, American Nashville-style country music and urban styles like jazz. The Americanization of Canadian music led the Canadian Radio League to lobby for a national public broadcaster in the 1930s, eventually leading to the creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in 1936. The CBC promoted Canadian music, including traditional music, on its radio and later television services, but the modernism, mid-century craze for all things "modern" led to the decline of folk music relative to rock and pop. Canada was however influenced by the folk music revival of the 1960s, when local venues such as the Montreal Folk Workshop, and other folk clubs and coffee houses across the country, became crucibles for emerging songwriters and performers as well as for interchange with artists visiting from abroad.


= United States

= American traditional music is also called roots music. Roots music is a broad category of music including bluegrass music, bluegrass, country music, gospel music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk music, Appalachian folk, blues, Cajun music, Cajun and Indigenous music of North America, Native American music. The music is considered American either because it is native to the United States or because it developed there, out of foreign origins, to such a degree that it struck musicologists as something distinctly new. It is considered "roots music" because it served as the basis of music later developed in the United States, including rock and roll, contemporary folk music, rhythm and blues, and jazz. Some of these genres are considered to be traditional folk music. * Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Acadians of Canada. Cajun music is often mentioned in tandem with the Louisiana Creole people, Creole-based, Cajun-influenced zydeco form, both of Acadiana origin. These French Louisiana#Modern French Louisiana, French Louisiana sounds have influenced American popular music for many decades, especially country music, and have influenced pop culture through mass media, such as television commercials. * Appalachian music is the traditional music of the region of Appalachia in the Eastern United States. It derives from various European and African influences, including English
ballad A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or '' ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and ...
s, Irish and Scottish traditional music (especially fiddle music), hymns, and African-American blues. First recorded in the 1920s, Appalachian musicians were a key influence on the early development of Old-time music, country music, and bluegrass music, bluegrass, and were an important part of the American folk music revival. Instruments typically used to perform Appalachian music include the banjo, American fiddle, Appalachian dulcimer, fretted dulcimer, and guitar.Ted Olson, "Music – Introduction". ''Encyclopedia of Appalachia'' (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 2006), pp. 1109–20. Early recorded Appalachian musicians include Fiddlin' John Carson, Henry Whitter, Bascom Lamar Lunsford, the Carter Family, Clarence Ashley, Frank Proffitt, and Dock Boggs, all of whom were initially recorded in the 1920s and 1930s. Several Appalachian musicians obtained renown during the folk revival of the 1950s and 1960s, including Jean Ritchie, Roscoe Holcomb, Ola Belle Reed, Lily May Ledford, and Doc Watson. Country and bluegrass artists such as Loretta Lynn, Roy Acuff, Dolly Parton, Earl Scruggs, Chet Atkins, and Don Reno were heavily influenced by traditional Appalachian music. Artists such as
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
, Dave Van Ronk, Jerry Garcia, and Bruce Springsteen have performed Appalachian songs or rewritten versions of Appalachian songs. * The Carter Family was a American folk music, traditional American folk music group that recorded between 1927 and 1956. Their music had a profound impact on bluegrass music, bluegrass, country music, country, Southern gospel, popular music, pop and rock musicians. They were the first vocal group to become country music stars; a beginning of the divergence of country music from traditional folk music. Their recordings of such songs as "Wabash Cannonball" (1932), "Can the Circle Be Unbroken (By and By), Will the Circle Be Unbroken" (1935), "Wildwood Flower" (1928), and "Keep On the Sunny Side" (1928) made them country standards. * Oklahoma and southern US plains: Before recorded history American Indians (U.S. Census), American Indians in this area used songs and instrumentation; music and dance remain the core of ceremonial and social activities. "Stomp dance" remains at its core, a Call and response (music), call and response form; instrumentation is provided by Rattle (percussion beater), rattles or shackles worn on the legs of women. "Other southeastern nations have their own complexes of sacred and social songs, including those for animal dances and friendship dances, and songs that accompany stickball games. Central to the music of the southern Plains Indians is the drum, which has been called the heartbeat of Plains Indian music. Most of that genre can be traced back to activities of hunting and warfare, upon which plains culture was based." The drum is central to the music of the southern plains Indians. During the reservation period, they used music to relieve boredom. Neighbors gathered, exchanged and created songs and dances; this is a part of the roots of the modern intertribal Pow wow, powwow. Another common instrument is the courting flute. * African-American folk music in the area has roots in Slavery in the United States, slavery and emancipation. Sacred music—A cappella, a capella and instrumentally-accompanied—is at the heart of the tradition. Early spirituals framed Christian beliefs within native practices and were heavily influenced by the music and rhythms of Africa." Spiritual (music), Spirituals are prominent, and often use a call and response pattern. "Gospel music, Gospel developed after the Civil War (1861–1865). It relied on biblical text for much of its direction, and the use of metaphors and imagery was common. Gospel is a "joyful noise", sometimes accompanied by instrumentation and almost always punctuated by hand clapping, toe tapping, and body movement." "Shape note, Shape-note or Sacred Harp singing developed in the early 19th century as a way for itinerant singing instructors to teach church songs in rural communities. They taught using song books in which
musical notation Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societ ...
s of tones were represented by geometric shapes that were designed to associate a shape with its pitch. Sacred harp singing became popular in many Oklahoma rural communities, regardless of ethnicity." Later the blues tradition developed, with roots in and parallels to sacred music. Then jazz developed, born from a blend of "blend of ragtime, gospel, and blues" * Anglo-Scots-Irish music traditions gained a place in Oklahoma after the Land Rush of 1889, Land Run of 1889. Because of its size and portability, the fiddle was the core of early Oklahoma Anglo-Saxons, Anglo music, but other instruments such as the guitar, mandolin, banjo, and steel guitar were added later. Various Oklahoma music traditions trace their roots to the British Isles, including Cowboy Music, cowboy ballads, western swing, and contemporary country and western." Mexican immigrants began to reach Oklahoma in the 1870s, bringing beautiful Canción, canciones and corridos love songs, waltzes, and ballads along with them. Like American Indian communities, each rite of passage in Hispanic communities is accompanied by traditional music. The acoustic guitar, string bass, and violin provide the basic instrumentation for Mexican music, with maracas, flute, Horn (instrument), horns, or sometimes accordion filling out the sound. Other Europeans (such as Bohemians (tribe), Bohemians and Germans) settled in the late 19th century. Their social activities centered on community halls, "where local musicians played polkas and waltzes on the accordion, piano, and brass instruments". Later, Asians contributed to the musical mix. "Ancient music and dance traditions from the temples and Chinese court music, courts of China, India, and Indonesia are preserved in Asian communities throughout the state, and popular song genres are continually layered on to these classical music forms"


Folk music revivals

"Folk music revival" refers to either a period of renewed interest in traditional folk music, or to an event or period which transforms it; the latter usually includes a social activism component. A prominent example of the former is the British folk revival of approximately 1890–1920. The most prominent and influential example of the latter (to the extent that it is usually called "''the'' folk music revival") is the folk revival of the mid 20th century, centered in the English-speaking world which gave birth to contemporary folk music. See the "Contemporary folk music" article for a description of this revival. One earlier revival influenced western classical music. Such composers as Percy Grainger, Ralph Vaughan Williams and
Béla Bartók Béla Viktor János Bartók (; hu, Bartók Béla, ; 25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt ...
, made field recordings or transcriptions of folk singers and musicians. In Spain, Isaac Albéniz (1860–1909) produced piano works reflect his Spanish heritage, including the ''Suite Iberia'' (1906–1909). Enrique Granados (1867–1918) composed ''zarzuela'', Spanish light opera, and ''Danzas Españolas'' – Spanish Dances. Manuel de Falla (1876–1946) became interested in the cante jondo of Andalusian flamenco, the influence of which can be strongly felt in many of his works, which include ''Nights in the Gardens of Spain'' and ''Siete canciones populares españolas'' ("Seven Spanish Folksongs", for voice and piano). Composers such as Fernando Sor and Francisco Tarrega established the guitar as Spain's national instrument. Modern Spanish folk artists abound (Mil i Maria, Russian Red, et al.) modernizing while respecting the traditions of their forebears. Flamenco grew in popularity through the 20th century, as did northern styles such as the Celtic music of Galicia (Spain), Galicia. French classical composers, from Georges Bizet, Bizet to Maurice Ravel, Ravel, also drew upon Spanish themes, and distinctive Spanish genres became universally recognized. Folk music revivals or roots revivals also encompass a range of phenomena around the world where there is a renewed interest in traditional music. This is often by the young, often in the traditional music of their own country, and often included new incorporation of social awareness, causes, and evolutions of new music in the same style. Nueva canción, a similar evolution of a new form of socially committed music occurred in several Spanish-speaking countries.


Contemporary folk music


Festivals


United States

It is sometimes claimed that the earliest United States folk music festival was the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, 1928, in Asheville, North Carolina, founded by Bascom Lamar Lunsford. The National Folk Festival (USA) is an itinerant folk festival in the United States. Since 1934, it has been run by the National Council for the Traditional Arts (NCTA) and has been presented in 26 communities around the nation. After leaving some of these communities, the National Folk Festival has Spin-off (media), spun off several locally run folk festivals in its wake including the Lowell Folk Festival, the Richmond Folk Festival, the American Folk Festival and, most recently, the Montana Folk Festival. The Newport Folk Festival is an annual folk festival held near Newport, Rhode Island. It ran most years from 1959 to 1970 and from 1985 to the present, with an attendance of approximately 10,000 people each year. The four-day Philadelphia Folk Festival began in 1962. It is sponsored by the non-profit Philadelphia Folksong Society. The event hosts contemporary and traditional artists in genres including World/Fusion, Celtic, Singer-Songwriter, Folk Rock, Country, Klezmer, and Dance. It is held annually on the third weekend in August. The event now hosts approximately 12,000 visitors, presenting bands on 6 stages. The Feast of the Hunters' Moon in Indiana draws approximately 60,000 visitors per year.


United Kingdom

Sidmouth Festival began in 1954, and Cambridge Folk Festival began in 1965. The Cambridge Folk Festival in Cambridge, England is noted for having a very wide definition of who can be invited as folk musicians. The "club tents" allow attendees to discover large numbers of unknown artists, who, for ten or 15 minutes each, present their work to the festival audience.


Australia

The National Folk Festival (Australia), National Folk Festival is Australia's premier folk festival event and is attended by over 50,000 people. The Woodford Folk Festival and Port Fairy Folk Festival are similarly amongst Australia's largest major annual events, attracting top international folk performers as well as many local artists.


Canada

Stan Rogers is a lasting fixture of the Canadian folk festival Summerfolk Music and Crafts Festival, Summerfolk, held annually in Owen Sound, Ontario, where the main stage and amphitheater are dedicated as the "Stan Rogers Memorial Canopy". The festival is firmly fixed in tradition, with Rogers' song "The Mary Ellen Carter" being sung by all involved, including the audience and a medley of acts at the festival. The Canmore Folk Music Festival is Alberta's longest running folk music festival.


Other

Urkult Näsåker, Ångermanland held August each year is purportedly Sweden's largest world-music festival.


See also

* Contemporary folk music * Anthology of American Folk Music * Canadian Folk Music Awards * Country music * Folk process * List of classical and art music traditions * List of folk festivals * Roud Folk Song Index * ''The Voice of the People'' anthology of UK folk songs


References


Citations


Sources

: ''These sources are cited above with multiple abbreviated cites with varying locations.'' * Donaldson, Rachel Clare, 201
''Music for the People: the Folk Music Revival And American Identity, 1930–1970''
PhD Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, May 2011, Nashville, TN *


Further reading

(does not include those used as references) * Reprinted in McAllester, David Park (ed.) (1971) ''Readings in ethnomusicology'' New York: Johnson Reprint. * * Bevil, Jack Marshall (1984). ''Centonization and Concordance in the American Southern Uplands Folksong Melody: A Study of the Musical Generative and Transmittive Processes of an Oral Tradition''. PhD Thesis, North Texas University, Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International. * * Bevil, Jack Marshall (1987). "A Paradigm of Folktune Preservation and Change Within the Oral Tradition of a Southern Appalachian Community, 1916–1986." Unpublished. Read at the 1987 National Convention of the American Musicological Society, New Orleans. * Bronson, Bertrand Harris. ''The Ballad As Song'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969). * Bronson, Bertrand Harris. ''The Singing Tradition of Child's Popular Ballads'' (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976). * Bronson, Bertrand Harris. ''The Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads, with Their Texts, According to the Extant Records of Great Britain and North America'', 4 volumes (Princeton and Berkeley: Princeton University Press, Princeton University and University of California Presses, 1959, ff.). * Cartwright, Garth (2005). ''Princes Amongst Men: Journeys with Gypsy Musicians''. London: Serpent's Tail. * Carson, Ciaran (1997). ''Last Night's Fun: In and Out of Time with Irish Music''. North Point Press. * Cooley, Timothy J. ''Making Music in the Polish Tatras: Tourists, Ethnographers, and Mountain Musicians''. Indiana University Press, 2005 (Hardcover with CD). * Cowdery, James R. (1990). ''The Melodic Tradition of Ireland''. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. * Czekanowska, Anna. ''Polish Folk Music: Slavonic Heritage – Polish Tradition – Contemporary Trends''. Cambridge Studies in Ethnomusicology, Reissue 2006 (Paperback). * Farsani, Mohsen (2003) ''Lamentations chez les nomades bakhtiari d'Iran''. Paris: Université Sorbonne Nouvelle. * Harker, David (1985). ''Fakesong: The Manufacture of British 'Folksong', 1700 to the Present Day''. Milton Keynes [Buckinghamshire]; Philadelphia: Open University Press. * Jackson, George Pullen (1933). ''White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands: The Story of the Fasola Folk, Their Songs, Singings, and "Buckwheat Notes"''. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing (2008) * * Karpeles, Maud. ''An Introduction to English Folk Song''. 1973. Oxford. Oxford University Press. * Nelson, David Taylor (2012) "Béla Bartók: The Father of Ethnomusicology", ''Musical Offerings'': vol. 3: no. 2, article 2
Béla Bartók: The Father of Ethnomusicology
* Pegg, Carole (2001). "Folk Music". ''The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians'', edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan. * * * Rooksby, Rikky, Dr Vic Gammon et al. ''The Folk Handbook''. (2007). Backbeat * Sorce Keller, Marcello (2014) "What Can Be Old and What Can Be New in 'Folk Music'", in Thomas Nussbaumer (Ed.), ''Das Neue in der Volksmusik in der Alpen''. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner, 2014. * Sorce Keller, Marcello (1984). "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: A Short History". ''Folklore''. 95 (1): 100–04. . JSTOR 1259763 * Sharp, Cecil. ''Folk Song: Some Conclusions''. 1907. Charles River Books * Sharp, Cecil ''English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians''. Collected by Cecil J. Sharp. Ed. Maud Karpeles. 1932. London. Oxford University Press. * * Peter van der Merwe (musicologist), van der Merwe, Peter (1989). ''Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music''. Oxford: Clarendon Press. .


External links


Folk Alliance International
Prominent folk music organization

Howard B. Waltz Music Library, University of Colorado Boulder * *
The Traditional Music in England project, World and Traditional Music section at the British Library Sound Archive

The Folk File: A Folkie's Dictionary
by Bill Markwick (1945–2017) – musical definitions and short biographies for American and U.K. Folk musicians and groups. Retrieved September 21, 2017. {{Authority control Articles containing video clips Folk music,