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A fishing net is a
net Net or net may refer to: Mathematics and physics * Net (mathematics) In mathematics, more specifically in general topology and related branches, a net or Moore–Smith sequence is a generalization of the notion of a sequence. In essence, ...
used for
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
. Nets are devices made from fibers woven in a grid-like structure. Some fishing nets are also called
fish trap A fish trap is a trapping, trap used for fishing. Fish traps include fishing weir, fishing weirs, lobster trap, lobster traps, and some fishing nets such as fyke nets. Traps are culturally almost universal and seem to have been independently inv ...
s, for example fyke nets. Fishing nets are usually
mesh A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearan ...

mesh
es formed by
knot A knot is an intentional complication in cordage which may be practical or decorative, or both. Practical knots are classified by function, including hitches, bend Bend or bends may refer to: Materials * Bend, a curvature in a pipe, tube, o ...

knot
ting a relatively thin thread. Early nets were woven from grasses, flaxes and other fibrous plant material. Later cotton was used. Modern nets are usually made of artificial
polyamide A polyamide is a polymer with repeating units linked by amide bonds. Polyamides occur both naturally and artificially. Examples of naturally occurring polyamides are proteins, such as wool and silk. Artificially made polyamides can be made through ...

polyamide
s like
nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of s composed of s ( linked by links).The polyamides may be or . Nylon is a -like , generally made from , that can be melt-processed into fibers, , or shapes. Nylon polymers can be mixed with a w ...

nylon
, although nets of organic polyamides such as
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
or
silk Silk is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all o ...

silk
thread were common until recently and are still used. __TOC__


History

Fishing nets have been used widely in the past, including by stone age societies. The oldest known fishing net is the
net of Antrea The Antrea Net is one of the oldest known fishing net, fishing nets in the world, found from Karelian Isthmus, Karelian isthmus in Antrea, in Korpilahti village in 1913. It is dated to 8540 BCE. The net was found by farmer Antti Virolainen in Ant ...
, found with other fishing equipment in the
Karelia Karelia (Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Karjala, ; rus, Каре́лия, links=y, r=Karélija, p=kɐˈrʲelʲɪjə, historically ''Korjela''; sv, Karelen), the land of the Karelians, Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe o ...

Karelia
n town of Antrea,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, in 1913. The net was made from
willow Willows, also called sallows and osiers, from the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining ( ...

willow
, and dates back to 8300 BC. Recently, fishing net sinkers from 27,000 BC were discovered in Korea, making them the oldest fishing implements discovered, to date, in the world. The remnants of another fishing net dates back to the late
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
, and were found together with sinkers at the bottom of a former sea. Some of the oldest
rock carvings at Alta The Rock art of Alta (''Helleristningene i Alta'') are located in and around the municipality of Alta in the county of Finnmark in northern Norway Northern Norway ( nb, Nord-Norge, , nn, Nord-Noreg; se, Davvi-Norga) is a geographical region ...
(4200–500 BC) have mysterious images, including intricate patterns of horizontal and vertical lines sometimes explained as fishing nets. American Native Indians on the
Columbia River The Columbia River (Upper Chinook Upper Chinook, endonym Kiksht, also known as Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of w ...

Columbia River
wove
seine net Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing; ) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net, called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats. Seine nets can be deployed ...
s from spruce root fibers or wild grass, again using stones as weights. For floats they used sticks made of cedar which moved in a way which frightened the fish and helped keep them together.Smith, Courtland
Seine fishing
''Oregon Encyclopedia''. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
With the help of large canoes, pre-European Maori deployed seine nets which could be over one thousand metres long. The nets were woven from green flax, with stone weights and light wood or gourd floats, and could require hundreds of men to haul. Fishing nets are well documented in antiquity. They appear in Egyptian tomb paintings from 3000 BC. In ancient Roman literature,
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
makes many references to fishing nets, including the use of cork floats and lead weights.Johnson WM and Lavigne DM (1999
''Monk Seals in Antiquity''
Fisheries, pp. 48–54. Netherlands Commission for International Nature Protection.
Pictorial evidence of
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
fishing comes from
mosaic A mosaic is a pattern or image made of small regular or irregular pieces of colored stone, glass or ceramic, held in place by plaster/mortar, and covering a surface. Mosaics are often used as floor and wall decoration, and were particularly pop ...

mosaic
s which show nets. In a parody of fishing, a type of
gladiator A gladiator ( la, gladiator, "swordsman", from , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run thr ...

gladiator
called
retiarius A ''retiarius'' (plural ''retiarii''; literally, "net-man" in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...
was armed with a
trident A trident is a three-tine (structural), pronged spear. It is used for spear fishing and historically as a polearm. The trident is the weapon of Poseidon, or Neptune (mythology), Neptune, the God of the Sea in classical mythology. The trident ma ...

trident
and a cast net. He would fight against a
secutor or "net fighter", with a trident and cast net, fighting a secutor Image:Gladiator-Elfenbeinklappmessergriff.jpg, Knife handle in the form of a secutor, showing the distinctive shield, helmet, and sword A secutor (''pl.'' secutores) was a class ...
or the
murmillo The murmillo (also sometimes spelled "mirmillo" or "myrmillo", pl. murmillones) was a type of gladiator A gladiator ( la, gladiator, "swordsman", from , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman ...
, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. Between 177 and 180 the Greek author
Oppian Oppian ( grc, Ὀππιανός, ; la, Oppianus), also known as Oppian of Anazarbus, of Corycus, or of Cilicia, was a 2nd-century Greco-Roman File:Merida Roman Theatre2.jpg, Roman Theatre of Mérida, Spain. The term "Greco-Roman world" (also " ...
wrote the ''Halieutica'', a didactic poem about fishing. He described various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". Here is Oppian's description of fishing with a "motionless" net:
The fishers set up very light nets of buoyant flax and wheel in a circle round about while they violently strike the surface of the sea with their oars and make a din with sweeping blow of poles. At the flashing of the swift oars and the noise the fish bound in terror and rush into the bosom of the net which stands at rest, thinking it to be a shelter: foolish fishes which, frightened by a noise, enter the gates of doom. Then the fishers on either side hasten with the ropes to draw the net ashore.
In
Norse mythology Norse or Scandinavian mythology is the body of myths Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. ...
the sea giantess
Rán Rán uses her net to pull a seafarer into the depths in an illustration by Johannes Gehrts, 1901 In Norse mythology, Rán (Old Norse: ) is a goddess and a personification of the sea. Rán and her husband Ægir, a jötunn who also personifies the se ...
uses a fishing net to trap lost sailors. References to fishing nets can also be found in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
. Jesus Christ was reputedly a master in the use of fishing nets. The tough, fibrous inner bark of the pawpaw was used by
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
and
settler A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or ...
s in the
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four Census Bureau Region, census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of ...
for making
rope A rope is a group of yarns, Plying, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than simil ...

rope
s and fishing nets. The archaeological site at León Viejo (1524–1610) has fishing net artifacts including fragments of pottery used as weights for fishing nets. Fishing nets have not evolved greatly, and many contemporary fishing nets would be recognized for what they are in Neolithic times. However, the
fishing line Fishing line with hooks attached A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing lines generally resemble a long, thin string, and vary in material. Important attributes of a fishing line include length, material, weight, and thickness. ...
s from which the nets are constructed have hugely evolved.
Fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, inc ...

Fossil
ised fragments of "probably two-ply laid rope of about 7 mm diameter" have been found in one of the caves at
Lascaux Lascaux ( , ; french: Grotte de Lascaux , "Lascaux Cave") is a network of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific respo ...

Lascaux
, dated about 15,000 BC.J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.), ''The History and Science of Knots'' (Singapore: World Scientific, 1996), 14. Egyptian rope dates back to 4000 to 3500 BC and was generally made of water reed fibers. Other rope in antiquity was made from the fibers of
date palm ''Phoenix dactylifera'', commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae The Arecaceae is a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birt ...

date palm
s,
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may ...

flax
,
grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain ...

grass
,
papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a do ...

papyrus
,
leather Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin **Indoor tanning, the use of arti ...

leather
, or animal hair. Rope made of
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa ''Cannabis sativa'' is an annual indigenous to , but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout , used as a source ...
fibres was in use in China from about 2800 BC.


Types


Fishing lines

Rope A rope is a group of yarns, Plying, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than simil ...

Rope
s and lines are made of
fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including ...

fibre
lengths, twisted or
braid A braid (also referred to as a plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing two or more strands of flexible material such as textile yarns, wire, or hair. Historically, the materials used have depended on the indigenous plant ...

braid
ed together to provide
tensile In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spa ...
strength. They are used for pulling, but not for pushing. The availability of reliable and durable ropes and lines has had many consequences for the development and utility of fishing nets, and influences particularly the scale at which the nets can be deployed. *
Twine Twine is a strong thread Thread or threads may refer to: Objects * Thread (yarn), a kind of thin yarn used for sewing ** Thread (unit of measurement), a cotton yarn measure * Screw thread, a helical ridge on a cylindrical fastener Arts and enter ...

Twine
*
Braided fishing lineBraided line was one of the earliest types of fishing line, and in its modern incarnations it is still very popular in some situations because of its high knot strength, lack of stretch, and great overall power in relation to its diameter. Braids wer ...
*
Multifilament fishing line Multifilament line, also referred to as ''The Super Lines'', is a type of fishing line. It is a braided line which is made up of a type of polyethylene Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(methylene)) is the ...
*
Monofilament fishing line A monofilament may be: * Monofilament fishing line, a type of thread * A monofilament as used in a monofilament test A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in ...
*
Fishing line Fishing line with hooks attached A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing lines generally resemble a long, thin string, and vary in material. Important attributes of a fishing line include length, material, weight, and thickness. ...
*
Manila rope Manila rope is a type of rope A rope is a group of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread (yar ...
*
Abacá Abacá ( ; fil, Abaka ), binomial name ''Musa textilis'', is a species of banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry (botany), berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in t ...
rope


Floats

Some types of fishing nets, like seine and trammel, need to be kept hanging vertically in the water by means of
floats
floats
at the top. Various light "corkwood"-type woods have been used around the world as fishing floats. Floats come in different sizes and shapes. These days they are often brightly coloured so they are easy to see. * Small floats were usually made of
cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
, but fishermen in places where cork was not available used other materials, like
birch A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus ''Betula'' (), in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus ''Betula'' contains 30 ...

birch
bark in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, as well as the
pneumatophores '')'s pneumatophorous aerial roots tree of undetermined species in Fort Myers, Florida Image:Beech Aerial Roots.JPG, thumbnail, 200px, European Beech with aerial roots in a wet Scottish Glen. Aerial roots are roots above the ground. They are a ...

pneumatophores
of mangrove apple in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
.Wild Singapore - Berembang ''Sonneratia caseolaris''
/ref> These materials have now largely been replaced by plastic foam. * Subsistence fishermen in some areas of
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
make corks for fishing nets by shaping the
pneumatophore '')'s pneumatophorous aerial roots tree of undetermined species in Fort Myers, Florida Fort Myers or Ft. Myers, is the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrat ...

pneumatophore
s of mangrove apple into small floats. *Across the Indo-Pacific ocean, many Subsistence fishermen utilise discarded
flip-flops Flip-flops are a type of light sandal Sandals are an open type of footwear Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which typically serves the purpose of protective clothing, protection against adversities of the environment such as ...

flip-flops
as floats. This is especially common in the on drag nets made from
mosquito nets A mosquito net is a type of mesh A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or ...

mosquito nets
. * '' Entelea'': The wood was used by Māori for the floats of fishing nets *
Native Hawaiians Native Hawaiians, or simply Hawaiians ( haw, kānaka ʻōiwi, , and ), are the Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonou ...
made fishing net floats from low density
wiliwili Wiliwili (''Erythrina sandwicensis'') is a species of flowering plant, flowering tree in the pea Family (biology), family, Fabaceae, that is Endemism, endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. It is the only species of ''Erythrina'' that Indigenous (ecolog ...
wood. *
Glass float Glass floats, glass fishing floats, or Japanese glass fishing floats are popular collectors' items. They were once used by Fisherman, fishermen in many parts of the world to keep their fishing nets, as well as longline fishing, longlines or droplin ...
s were large glass balls for long oceanic nets, now substituted by hard plastic. They are used not only to keep fishing nets afloat, but also for dropline and
longline fishingLong line or longline may refer to: *''Long Line ''Long Line'' is the fourth solo album by Peter Wolf, released in 1996 in music, 1996. The album marked a shift in Wolf's music from pop rock to a bluesier rock with more personal, introspective lyr ...
. Often larger floats have marker
flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crochetin ...

flag
s for easier spotting. * Glass floats are popular collectors’ items. They were once used by fishermen in many parts of the world to keep fishing nets, as well as longlines or droplines afloat. File:Birch bark fishing net weights.jpg, Finnish fishing net corks made out of birch bark and stones File:Pentagram float.jpg, Cork float of a fisher net engraved with a protective
pentagram A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha, pentangle, pentacle A pentacle (also spelled and pronounced as ''pantacle'' in Thelema, following Aleister Crowley, though that spelling ultimately derived from Éliphas Lévi) "The Pantacle of Fra ...

pentagram
,
Hvide Sande Hvide Sande is a small town in the middle of the Holmsland Dunes and placed around the artificial canal which connects Ringkøbing Fjord to the North Sea, in the western part of Central Denmark Region, formerly (until 1 January 2007) Ringkjøbing Co ...
, Denmark Strombus canarium.shelll004.jpg, Dog conches are used to weigh down fishing nets File:Providing a safety 'net' for Syrian women in Lebanon (11173910046).jpg, A plastic float being sewn onto a net


Weights and anchors

The
Cucuteni–Trypillia culture 300px, Chalcolithic cultures of Southeastern Europe, with major archaeological sites (including typesites) The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture ( and ), also known as the Tripolye culture (), is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final divi ...
, BC to 2750 BC in Eastern Europe, created ceramic weights in various shapes and sizes which were used as loom weights when weaving, and also were attached to fishing nets. Despite their ornamental value, dog conches are traditionally used by local fishermen as sinkers for their fishing nets.


Production

Fishing nets are usually manufactured on industrial
loom A loom is a device used to weaving, weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the Warp (weaving), warp threads under tension (mechanics), tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape o ...

loom
s, though traditional methods are still used where the nets are and assembled in home or cottage industries.


Environmental impact

Fisheries Fishery is the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish and other aquatic life. Commercial fisheries include wild fisheries and Fish farming, fish farms, both in fresh water (about 10% of all catch) and the oceans (about 90%). About 500 million pe ...
often use large-scale nets that are indiscriminate and catch whatever comes along; sea turtle, dolphin, or shark.
Bycatch Bycatch (or by-catch), in the fishing industry The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by ...
is a large contributor to sea turtle deaths. Longline,
trawl Trawling is a method of fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Aroun ...
, and
gillnet Gillnetting is a fishing method that uses gillnets: vertical panels of netting that hang from a line with regularly spaced floaters that hold the line on the surface of the water. The floats are sometimes called "corks" and the line with corks is g ...
fishing are three types of fishing with the most sea turtle accidents. Deaths occur often because of
drowning Drowning is a type of suffocation Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Grou ...

drowning
, where the sea turtle was ensnared and could not come up for air. Cubs of endangered
Saimaa ringed seal The Saimaa ringed seal (''Pusa hispida saimensis'', Finnish language, Finnish: ''Saimaannorppa'') is a subspecies of ringed seal (''Pusa hispida''). They are among the most endangered seals in the world, having a total population of only about 400 ...
also drown to fishing nets. Fishing nets, usually made of
plastic Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both "combination" and "artificial" * Synthetic chemical or s ...

plastic
, can be left or lost in the ocean by fishermen. Known as
ghost net Ghost nets are fishing net A fishing net is a net Net or net may refer to: Mathematics and physics * Net (mathematics), a filter-like topological generalization of a sequence * Net, a linear system of divisors of dimension 2 * Net (pol ...
s, these entangle
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...

fish
,
whales Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully Aquatic ecosystem, aquatic placental mammal, placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea, which usually excludes dolphins and porpoises. W ...

whales
,
dolphin Dolphin is the common name of aquatic mammal Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mam ...

dolphin
s,
sea turtle Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines Turtles are reptile Reptiles are tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-limbed animals constitut ...

sea turtle
s,
shark Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a Chondrichthyes#Skeleton, cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified withi ...

shark
s,
dugong The dugong (; ''Dugong dugon'') is a marine mammal Marine mammals are aquatic mammals Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animal ...

dugong
s,
crocodile Crocodiles (family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. I ...

crocodile
s,
seabird Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are bird Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high rate, a four-chambered , and a strong yet lightweight . Birds live worl ...

seabird
s,
crab Crabs are decapod crustacean Crustaceans (Crustacea ) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, Caridea, shrimp, krill, Dendrobranchiata, prawns, woodlice, barnacles, copepods, amphipoda ...

crab
s, and other creatures, restricting movement, causing
starvation Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates t ...

starvation
,
laceration A wound is a type of injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degrades it away from its initial state. It can broadly be defined as "changes introduced into a ...

laceration
and infection, and, in those that need to return to the surface to breathe, suffocation. File:Turtle excluder device.jpg, A
turtle excluder device A turtle excluder device or TED is a specialized device that allows a captured sea turtle Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines and of the suborder Cryptodira. The seven ...

turtle excluder device
(TED) File:Sea turtle entangled in a ghost net.jpg, Sea turtle entangled in a net File:logger ted 01.jpg,
Loggerhead sea turtle The loggerhead sea turtle (''Caretta caretta''), is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often d ...

Loggerhead sea turtle
exits from fishing net through a turtle excluder device


Miscellany

Divers may become trapped in fishing nets; monofilament is almost invisible underwater. Divers often carry a net cutter. This is a small handheld tool carried by scuba divers to extricate themselves if trapped by a fishing net or
fishing line Fishing line with hooks attached A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing lines generally resemble a long, thin string, and vary in material. Important attributes of a fishing line include length, material, weight, and thickness. ...
. It has a small sharp blade such as a replaceable
scalpel A scalpel, or lancet, or bistoury, is a small and extremely sharp bladed instrument used for surgery, anatomical dissection, podiatry and various handicraft, arts and crafts (called a hobby knife). Scalpels may be disposable product, single-use ...

scalpel
blade inside the small notch. There is a small hole at the other end to for a lanyard to tether the cutter to the diver.


Gallery


See also

*
Fish trap A fish trap is a trap A trap is a Trapping#Trap_types, mechanical device used to capture or restrain an animal for purposes such as hunting, pest control, or ecological research. Trap or TRAP may also refer to: Art and entertainment Films a ...
*
Fishnet (material) In the field of textiles, fishnet is hosiery with an open, diamond-shaped knit; it is most often used as a material for stockings, tights, gloves or bodystockings. Fishnet is available in a multitude of colors, although it is most often sported i ...
*
Miraculous catch of fish The Miraculous catch of fish or more traditionally the Miraculous Draught of Fish(es), is either of two miracles attributed to Jesus in the canonical gospels Gospel originally meant the Christianity, Christian message, but in the 2nd century it ...
*


Notes


References

* Fridman AL and Carrothers PJG (1986
''Calculations for fishing gear designs"
(FAO fishing manual), Fishing News Books. * Klust, Gerhard (1982
''Netting materials for fishing gear''
FAO The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...

FAO
Fishing Manuals, Fishing News Books.
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* Prado J and Dremière PY (eds.) (1990

FAO, Rome. . * von Brandt A (1984
''Fish catching methods of the world''
Wiley-Blackwell. .


External links


Basic net design: Gill nets
{{DEFAULTSORT:Fishing Net !