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Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a
motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, o ...

motion picture
is produced. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commission. It then continues through
screenwriting Screenwriting or scriptwriting is the art and craft of writing scripts Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communicatio ...
,
casting Casting is a manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is th ...
, pre-production, shooting, sound recording, post-production, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a
film release An art release is the premiere of an artistic production and its presentation and marketing to the public. Film A film release is the authorization by the owner of a completed film to a public exhibition of the film. The exhibition may be in theat ...
and an exhibition. Filmmaking occurs in a variety of economic, social, and political contexts around the world. It uses a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Although filmmaking originally involved the use of
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
, most film productions are now digital. Today, filmmaking refers to the process of crafting an audio-visual story commercially for distribution or broadcast.


Production stages

Film production consists of five major stages: * Development: Ideas for the film are created, rights to existing intellectual properties are purchased, etc., and the screenplay is written.
FinancingFunding is the act of providing resources to finance a need, program, or project. While this is usually in the form of money, it can also take the form of effort or time from an organization or company. Generally, this word is used when a firm uses i ...

Financing
for the project is sought and obtained. *
Pre-production Pre-production is the process of planning some of the elements involved in a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions ...
: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and
film crew A film crew is a group of people, hired by a , for the purpose of . The crew is distinguished from the , as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or for characters in the film. The crew is also separate ...
, selecting locations and constructing sets. * Production: The raw footage and other elements of the film are recorded during the film shoot, including
principal photography Principal photography is the phase of producing a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applyi ...
. *
Post-production 275px, A video editing suite Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, audio production Sound design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs. It involves specifying, acquiring or c ...
: The images, sound, and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. *
DistributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distr ...
: The completed film is distributed, marketed, and screened in cinemas and/or released to
home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or Video rental shop, rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS and Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotapes, but has carried over to optical disc formats such as DVD and Blu-ra ...
to be viewed.


Development

The development stage contains both general and specific components. Each
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, arc ...
has a yearly retreat where their top
creative executive In film production Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film is made. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, Castin ...
s meet and interact on a variety of areas and topics they wish to explore through collaborations with producers and screenwriters, and then ultimately, directors, actors, and actresses. They choose trending topics from the media and real life, as well as many other sources, to determine their yearly agenda. For example, in a year when action is popular, they may wish to explore that topic in one or more movies. Sometimes, they purchase the rights to articles, bestselling novels,
plays Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework, a Java framework * Play ...
, the remaking of older films, stories with some basis in real life through a person or event, a
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
,
fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of European folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common ...

fairy tale
,
comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with t ...
,
graphic novel A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is, at least in the Un ...

graphic novel
. Likewise, research through surveys may inform their decisions. They may have had Blockbusters from their previous year and wish to explore a sequel. They will additionally acquire a completed and independently financed and produced film. Such notable examples are "
Little Miss Sunshine ''Little Miss Sunshine'' is a 2006 American tragicomedy road film and the directorial debut of the husband-wife team of Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris. The screenplay was written by first-time writer Michael Arndt. The film stars Greg Kinnear, ...

Little Miss Sunshine
" and "
The English Patient ''The English Patient'' is a 1992 novel by Michael Ondaatje. The book follows four dissimilar people brought together at an Italian villa during the Italian Campaign of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbre ...
" as well as "
Roma Roma or ROMA may refer to: Places Australia * Roma, Queensland, a town ** Roma Airport ** Roma Courthouse ** Electoral district of Roma Roma was an electoral district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative ...
". Studios hold general meetings with producers and screenwriters about original story ideas. "In my decade working as a writer, I knew of only a few that were sold and fewer that made it to the screen," relays writer-director-professor Wayne Powers (
The Italian Job ''The Italian Job'' is a 1969 British Comedy Comedy (from the el, wikt:κωμῳδία, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction consisting of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especi ...
). Alan Watt, writer-director and Founder of The LA Writer's Lab, confirmed that completed original screenplays, referred to as "specs", make big news when they sell, but these make up a very small portion of movies that are ultimately given the green light to be produced by the president of a studio. The executives return from the retreat with fairly well-established instructions. They spread these concepts through the industry community, especially to producers they have deals with (traditional studios will have those producers in offices on their lots). Also, agents for screenwriters are made aware. This results in a pairing of producers with
writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce different forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, books, poetry, plays, screenplays, telepl ...

writer
s, where they develop a "take", a basic story idea that utilizes the concept given by studio executives. Often it is a competition with several pairings meeting with studio executives and "pitching" their "take". Very few writing jobs are from original ideas brought to studios by producers or writers. Perhaps one movie a year will be a "spec" script that was purchased. Once the producer and writer have sold their approach to the desired subject matter, they begin to work. However, many writers and producers usually pass before a particular concept is realized in a way that is awarded a green light to production. Production of " The Unforgiven", which earned Oscars for its Director/Star
Clint Eastwood Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, film director, producer, and composer. After achieving success in the Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a to ...

Clint Eastwood
, as well as its screenwriter, David Webb Peoples, required fifteen years. Wayne Powers related that "The Italian Job" took approximately eight years from concept to screen, which, as Powers added, "is average." And most concepts turned into paid screenplays wind up gathering dust on some executive's shelf, never to see production. Writers have different styles and creative processes; some have stronger track records than others. Because of this, how the development process proceeds from there and how much detail a writer returns to the studio to divulge before beginning writing can vary greatly. Screenwriters are often protected by the union the
Writers Guild of America The Writers Guild of America is the joint efforts of two different US labor unions representing TV and film writers: * The Writers Guild of America, East (WGAE), headquartered in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New ...
, or WGA. The WGA allows a screenwriter to contract for One Draft, One Revision and One Polish. Bob Eisle, Writer and Member of the Guild Board states, "Additional writing requires extension of contracts and payment for additional work". They are paid 80% of their fee after the First Draft. Preliminary discussions are minimal with studio executives but might be quite detailed with the producer. Next, a
screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs and video games, are based. ...
writes a
screenplay A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and technique ...
over a period of several months, or however long it takes. Deadlines are in their contracts but there is no pressure to adhere to them. Again, every writer's process and speed varies. The screenwriter may rewrite the script several times to improve dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialogue, and overall style. Script Coverage, a freelance job held by recent university graduates, does not feed scripts into the system that are ready for production nor already produced. "Coverage" is a way for young screenwriters to be read and their ideas might make their way up to an executive or famous producer and result in "meet and greets" where relations with up and comers can be formed. But it has not historically yielded ideas studios pursue into production. The studio is the
film distributor A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film. The distribution company may be the same with, or different from, the production company A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a business th ...
who at an early stage attempts to choose a slate of concepts that are likely to have market appeal and find potential financial success.
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
distributors consider factors such as the
film genre A film genre is a stylistic or thematic category for motion pictures A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the pra ...
, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, and potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, however, the studio mainly targets the opening weekend and the second weekend to make most domestic profits. Occasionally, a film called a "word of mouth film" does not market strongly but its success spreads by word of mouth. It slowly gains its audience. These are special circumstances and these films may remain in theaters for 5 months while a typical film run is closer to 5 weekends. Further earnings result from
pay television Pay television, also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer must pay a ...
purchases, foreign market purchases and
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electr ...

DVD
sales to establish worldwide distribution Gross of a Film. Once a screenplay is "green-lit" directors and actors are attached and the film proceeds into the pre-production stage. Although very often the Development stage and the Pre-Production stage will overlap. Analogous to almost any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of
investments To invest is to allocate money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner, 17 ...
. It includes the dynamics of
asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the field of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity, economic entities such a ...
s that are required to fund the filmmaking and
liabilities Liability may refer to: Law * Legal liability, in both civil and criminal law ** Public liability, part of the law of tort which focuses on civil wrongs ** Product liability, the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, re ...
incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk. The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can also be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected
rate of return In finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in t ...
based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses.


Pre-production

In pre-production, every step of actually creating the film is carefully designed and planned. This is the phase where one would narrow down all the options of the production. It is where all the planning takes place before the
camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and t ...

camera
rolls and sets the overall vision of the project. The
production company A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a business that provides the physical basis for works in the fields of performing arts, new media art, film, television show, television, radio, comics, interactive ...
is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director and may be
storyboard A storyboard is a graphic organizer that consists of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as pos ...

storyboard
ed with the help of
illustrator An illustrator is an artist who specializes in enhancing writing or elucidating concepts by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text or idea. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated c ...
s and
concept artist Concept art is a form of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as posters, flyers, magazines, books, ...
s. A
production budgetProduction budget is a term used specifically in film production Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a Film, motion picture is #Production, produced. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an i ...
is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions,
insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. ...

insurance
is procured to protect against accidents. Pre-production also includes working out the shoot location and casting process. The Producer hires a Line Manager or a Production Manager to create the schedule and budget for the film. The nature of the film, and the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget,
independent film An independent film, independent movie, indie film, or indie movie is a feature film A feature film, or feature-length film, is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole ...
may be made by a "skeleton crew" of eight or nine (or fewer). These are typical crew positions: *
Storyboard artistA storyboard artist (sometimes called a story artist or visualizer) creates storyboards for advertising agencies and film productions. Work A storyboard artist visualizes stories and sketches frames of the story. Quick pencil drawings and mark ...
: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team. * Director: is primarily responsible for the storytelling, creative decisions and acting of the film. **
Assistant directorThe role of an assistant director on a filmmaking, film includes tracking daily progress against the filming production schedule, arranging logistics, preparing daily call sheets, checking cast and crew, and maintaining order on the Set construction, ...

Assistant director
(AD): manages the
shooting schedule A shooting schedule is a project plan of ''each'' day's shooting for a film production. It is normally created and managed by the assistant directorThe role of an assistant director on a filmmaking, film includes tracking daily progress against the ...
and logistics of the production, among other tasks. There are several types of AD, each with different responsibilities. *
Film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, independently, producers plan and coordinate various aspects of film production, such as selecting the script; coordinat ...
: hires the film's crew. **
Unit production manager In the cinema of the United States, a unit production manager (UPM) is the Directors Guild of America–approved title for the top below-the-line staff position, responsible for the administration of a feature film or television production. Non ...
: manages the
production budgetProduction budget is a term used specifically in film production Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a Film, motion picture is #Production, produced. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an i ...
and
production schedule The production schedule is a project plan of how the production budget will be spent over a given timescale, for every phase of a business project. The scheduling process starts with the script, which is analysed and broken down, scene by scene, ...
. They also report, on behalf of the production office, to the studio executives or financiers of the film. ***
Location manager 300px, Film shooting on location in Downtown Los Angeles The location manager is a member of the film crew A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of Filmmaking, producing a film or motion picture. Th ...
: finds and manages film locations. Nearly all pictures feature segments that are shot in the controllable environment of a studio
sound stage A sound stage (also written soundstage) is a soundproof, large structure, building, or room with large doors and high ceilings, used for the production of theatrical film-making and television productions, usually located on a secured movie ...
, while outdoor sequences call for filming
on locationOn location can refer to: *Location shooting *Filming location, a place where a movie is filmed, separate from a sound stage or studio back lot *On Location (TV series), ''On Location'' (TV series), an HBO stand-up comedy series *On Location Vacatio ...
. * Production designer: the one who creates the visual conception of the film, working with the
art director Art director is the title for a variety of similar job functions in theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or im ...
, who manages the art department which makes production sets. **
Costume designer A costume designer is a person who designs costume Costume is the distinctive style of dress or cosmetic of an individual or group that reflects class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. In short costume is a cultura ...
: creates the clothing for the characters in the film working closely with the actors, as well as other departments. ** Makeup and hair designer: works closely with the costume designer in order to create a certain look for a character. *
Casting director In the performing arts The performing arts are arts such as music, dance, and drama which are performed for an audience. It is different from visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of a ...
: finds actors to fill the parts in the script. This normally requires that actors partake in an
audition An audition is a sample performance by an , , , or other performer. It typically involves the performer displaying their talent through a previously memorized and rehearsed solo piece or by performing a work or piece given to the performer at t ...
, either live in front of the casting director or in front of one or more cameras. **
Choreographer Choreography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of ...
: creates and coordinates the movement and dance – typically for musicals. Some films also credit a
fight choreographer Stage combat, fight craft or fight choreography is a specialised technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. It is employed in live stage plays as well as operatic and ballet pro ...
. * : the head of the
photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...

photography
of the entire film, supervises all
cinematographer A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the person responsible for the photographing or recording of a , television production, music video or other live action piece. The cinematographer is the chief of ...

cinematographer
s and
camera operator A camera operator, or depending on the context cameraman or camerawoman, is a professional operator of a film camera A movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an ...

camera operator
s. *
Production sound mixer 225px, Sound mixer at work.A production sound mixer, location sound recordist, location sound engineer, or simply sound mixer is the member of a film crew A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of Fil ...

Production sound mixer
: the head of the sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. They record and mix the audio on set – dialogue, presence and
sound effects Voice saying "Ja", followed by the same recording with a massive digital reverb A sound effect (or audio effect) is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television s ...
in
monaural Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened to mono) is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. This contrasts with stereophonic sound File:Carsoundstereoshift.png, Time difference in a stereoph ...

monaural
and ambience in stereo. They work with the boom operator, Director, DA, DP, and First AD. **
Sound designer In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and forc ...
: creates the aural conception of the film,Sound-On-Film by Vincent LoBrutto (1994) working with the
supervising sound editor A sound editor is a creative professional responsible for selecting and assembling sound recordings in preparation for the final Audio mixing (film and television), sound mixing or Audio mastering, mastering of a television program, motion pictur ...
. On
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
-style Indian productions the sound designer plays the role of a
director of audiography The director of audiography (DA), within Indian-style filmmaking, known elsewhere as a sound director, is the head of the sound department and the person responsible for planning the audiography and managing the audiographers of a film. Overview ...
.''Film Sound: Theory and Practice'', Edited by Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, Columbia University Press (1985). p. 361 **
Composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical music in any form, including vocal music (for a Singing, singer or choir), instrumental mus ...

Composer
: creates new music for the film. (usually not until post-production)


Production

In production, the film is created and shot. In this phase, it is key to keep planning ahead of the daily shoot. The primary aim is to stick to the budget and schedule, this requires constant vigilance. More crew will be recruited at this stage, such as the
property masterThe property master, often called the prop(s) master, is an artistic and organizational employee in a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ...
,
script supervisor A script supervisor (also called continuity supervisor or script) is a member of a film crew who oversees the continuity of the motion picture including wardrobe, props, set dressing, hair, makeup and the actions of the actors during a scene. The n ...
, assistant directors, stills
photographer A photographer (the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...

photographer
,
picture editor:''For software for editing pictures, see Graphics software'' A Picture Editor, also known as a Photo Editor, is a professional who collects, reviews, and chooses photographs and/or photo illustrations for publication in alignment with preset guidel ...

picture editor
, and sound editors. These are the most common roles in filmmaking; the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit the various responsibilities needed during the production of a film. Communication is key between the location, set, office, production company, distributors and all other parties involved. A typical day shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location by their call time.
Actors An actor is a person who portrays a character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set ...

Actors
usually have their own separate call times. Since set construction, dressing and
lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usua ...

lighting
can take many hours or even days, they are often set up in advance. The
grip Grip may refer to: Common uses * Grip (job), a job in the film industry * Grip strength, a measure of hand strength Places * Grip, Norway, an archipelago, former municipality, and deserted fishing village in Norway People * Jouko Grip (born 194 ...
, electric and production design crews are typically a step ahead of the camera and sound departments: for efficiency's sake, while a scene is being filmed, they are already preparing the next one. While the crew prepares their equipment, the actors do their costumes and attend the hair and make-up departments. The actors rehearse the
script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of handwriting) * Script (Unicode), historical and modern scripts as organise ...
and
blocking Blocking may refer to: Science, technology, and mathematics Computing and telecommunications *Blacklist (computing) *Blocking (computing), holding up a task until an event occurs *Blocking probability, for calls in a telecommunications system *H ...
with the director, and the camera and sound crews rehearse with them and make final tweaks. Finally, the action is shot in as many
take A take is a single continuous recorded performance. The term is used in film and music to denote and track the stages of production. Film In cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of t ...

take
s as the director wishes. Most American productions follow a specific procedure: The assistant director (AD) calls "picture is up!" to inform everyone that a take is about to be recorded, and then "quiet, everyone!" Once everyone is ready to shoot, the AD calls "roll sound" (if the take involves sound), and the
production sound mixer 225px, Sound mixer at work.A production sound mixer, location sound recordist, location sound engineer, or simply sound mixer is the member of a film crew A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of Fil ...

production sound mixer
will start their equipment, record a verbal slate of the take's information, and announce "sound speed", or just "speed", when they are ready. The AD follows with "roll camera", answered by "speed!" by the camera operator once the camera is recording. The
clapper loader A clapper loader or second assistant camera (2nd AC) is part of a whose main functions are that of loading the raw into s, operating the (slate) at the beginning of each take, marking the actors as necessary, and maintaining all records and pa ...
, who is already in front of the camera with the
clapperboard A clapperboard is a device used in filmmaking and video production to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. It is operated by the clapper lo ...

clapperboard
, calls "marker!" and slaps it shut. If the take involves extras or background action, the AD will cue them ("action background!"), and last is the director, telling the actors "action!". The AD may echo "action" louder on large sets. A take is over when the director calls "Cut!" and the camera and sound stop recording. The script supervisor will note any continuity issues, and the sound and camera teams log technical notes for the take on their respective report sheets. If the director decides additional takes are required, the whole process repeats. Once satisfied, the crew moves on to the next camera angle or "setup," until the whole scene is "covered." When shooting is finished for the scene, the assistant director declares a "wrap" or "moving on," and the crew will "strike," or dismantle, the set for that scene. At the end of the day, the director approves the next day's shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. This includes the report sheets from continuity, sound, and camera teams. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn up the next shooting day. Later on, the director, producer, other department heads, and, sometimes, the cast, may gather to watch that day or yesterday's footage, called ''
dailies In filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting ...
'', and review their work. With workdays often lasting fourteen or eighteen hours in remote locations, film production tends to create a
team spirit Team Spirit was a joint military training exercise of United States Forces Korea and the Military of South Korea held between 1974 and 1993. The exercise was also scheduled from 1994 to 1996 but cancelled during this time period as part of diplomat ...

team spirit
. When the entire film is "in the can", or in the completion of the production phase, it is customary for the production office to arrange a
wrap party Wrap was a phrase used by the director in the early days of the film industry to signal the end of filming. Since the 1920s, filmmakers have been using this phrase when principal photography is concluded and the film is ready to go into post-pr ...
, to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts. For the production phase on live-action films, synchronizing work schedules of key cast and crew members is very important, since for many scenes, several cast members and most of the crew, must be physically present at the same place at the same time (and bankable stars may need to rush from one project to another). Animated films have different workflow at the production phase, in that voice actors can record their takes in the
recording studio A recording studio is a specialized facility for Sound recording and reproduction, sound recording, Audio mixing (recorded music), mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds. T ...

recording studio
at different times and may not see one another until the film's premiere, as most physical live-action tasks are either unnecessary or are simulated by various types of
animator An animator is an artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of prima ...

animator
s.


Post-production

This stage starts when principal film production ends, but they may overlap. The bulk of post-production consists of reviewing the footage and assembling the movie and taking it to the next step that is editing. Here the video/film is assembled by the
film editor Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production 275px, A video editing suite Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, audio production Sound design is the art and practice of cre ...

film editor
. The shot film material is edited. The production sound (dialogue) is also edited; music tracks and songs are composed and recorded if a film is sought to have a score; sound effects are designed and recorded. Any computer-graphic visual effects are digitally added by an
artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipeda ...

artist
. Finally, all sound elements are mixed into "stems", which are then joined to the pictures, and the film is fully completed ("locked").


Distribution

Distribution is the last stage, where the film is released to
cinemas A movie theater (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...
or, occasionally, directly to consumer media (
VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a for consumer-level on tape . From the 1950s, video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized s (VTRs). At that time, the expensive devices were used only i ...

VHS
,
VCD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...

VCD
,
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electr ...

DVD
,
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray
) or direct download from a
digital media Digital media means any communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data Machine-readable data, or computer-readable data, is data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informa ...
provider. The film is duplicated as required (either onto film or
hard disk drive A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device On a reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), the recorder is data storage equipment and the magnetic tape is a data stora ...

hard disk drive
s) and distributed to cinemas for exhibition (screening). Press kits, posters, and other advertising materials are published, and the film is advertised and
promoted Promotion may refer to: Marketing * Promotion (marketing), one of the four marketing mix elements, comprising any type of marketing communication used to inform or persuade target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or is ...
. A
B-roll In film and television production, B-roll, B roll, B-reel or B reel is supplemental or alternative footage In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a (Digital mo ...
clip may be released to the press based on raw footage shot for a "making of" documentary, which may include making-of clips as well as on-set interviews separate from those of the production company or distributor. For major films, key personnel are often contractually required to participate in promotional tours in which they appear at premieres and festivals and sit for interviews with many TV, print, and online journalists. The largest productions may require more than one promotional tour, in order to rejuvenate audience demand at each release window. Since the advent of
home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or Video rental shop, rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS and Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotapes, but has carried over to optical disc formats such as DVD and Blu-ra ...
in the early 1980s, most major films have followed a pattern of having several distinct release windows. A film may first be released to a few select cinemas, or if it tests well enough, may go directly into
wide release In the American motion picture industry, a wide release (short for nationwide release) is a film playing at the same time at cinemas in most markets across the country. This is in contrast to the formerly common practice of a roadshow theatrical rel ...
. Next, it is released, normally at different times several weeks (or months) apart, into different market segments like
rental Renting, also known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to ...
,
retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption ( ...

retail
,
pay-per-view Pay-per-view (PPV) is a type of or service that enables a viewer to pay to watch individual events via private telecast. Events can be purchased through a platform using their , an automated telephone system, or through a live . There has been ...
,
in-flight entertainment In-flight entertainment (IFE) refers to the entertainment available to aircraft passengers during a flight. In 1936, the airship ''Hindenburg'' offered passengers a piano, lounge, dining room, smoking room A smoking room (or smoking lounge) ...
,
cable television Cable television is a system of delivering television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, ...
,
satellite television Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals v ...
, or
free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3 ...
broadcast television. The distribution rights for the film are also usually sold for worldwide distribution. The distributor and the production company share profits and manage losses.


Independent filmmaking

Filmmaking also takes place outside of the mainstream and is commonly called
independent filmmaking An independent film, independent movie, indie film, or indie movie is a feature film or short film that is film production, produced outside the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment co ...
. Since the introduction of technology, the means of production have become more democratized and economically viable. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a film, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, traditional distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. In the past, most independent filmmakers have relied on
film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or ...

film festival
s (such as
Sundance Film Festival The Sundance Film Festival (formerly Utah/US Film Festival, then US Film and Video Festival) is an annual film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or m ...

Sundance Film Festival
,
Venice Film Festival The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival ( it, Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the world's oldest film fes ...
,
Cannes Film Festival The Cannes Festival (; french: link=no, Festival de Cannes), until 2003 called the International Film Festival (') and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presen ...

Cannes Film Festival
, and
Toronto International Film Festival The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF, often stylized as tiff) is one of the largest publicly attended film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion pictur ...
s) to get their films noticed and sold for distribution and production. However, the
internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

internet
has allowed for the relatively inexpensive distribution of independent films on websites such as
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
. As a result, several companies have emerged to assist filmmakers in getting independent movies seen and sold via mainstream internet marketplaces, often adjacent to popular Hollywood titles. With internet movie distribution, independent filmmakers who choose to forgo a traditional distribution deal now have the ability to reach global audiences.


See also

* *
3D film 3D films are motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pi ...

3D film
* 35 mm film *
Audiography Audiography ("writing sound") within Indian-style filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulat ...
*
Cinematic techniques This article contains a list of cinematic techniques that are divided into categories and briefly described. Basic definitions of terms ;180-degree rule In filmmaking, the 180-degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial ...
*
Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Gre ...

Cinematography
*
Digital cinema Digital cinema refers to adoption of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics c ...
* Experimental filmmaking *
Film colorization Film colorization (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American ...
*
Film title design Film title design is a term describing the craft and design of motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is th ...
*
Film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, sta ...
*
Film poster A film poster is a poster A poster is a temporary promotion of an idea, product, or event put up in a public space for mass consumption. Typically, posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly ...

Film poster
*
Film school A film school is an educational institution dedicated to teaching aspects of filmmaking, including such subjects as film production, film theory, digital media production, and screenwriting. Film history courses and hands-on technical training are ...
*
Film studies Film studies is an academic discipline that deals with various theoretical A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of conscio ...
*
Film trailer A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface ...
* Filmmaking technique of Luis Buñuel * Filmmaking technique in Kurosawa *
First-look deal A first-look deal is any contract containing a clause granting, usually for a fee or other consideration that covers a specified period of time, a pre-emption rightA pre-emption right, right of pre-emption, or first option to buy is a contractual ri ...
* Glossary of motion picture terms * List of film topics *
Motion Picture Association of America The Motion Picture Association (MPA) is an American trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by business ...
*
Motion picture content rating system A motion picture content rating system is an organization designated to Content rating, classify films based on their suitability for audiences due to their treatment of issues such as sex, violence, or substance abuse; their use of profanity; or o ...
* Movie production incentives in the United States *
Movie theater A movie theater (American English), cinema (British English), or cinema hall (Indian English), also known as a picture house, the pictures, picture theater, the silver screen, or the movies, is a building that contains auditoria for viewing ...

Movie theater
* Outline of film *
Television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

Television


References


External links

* {{Authority control Cinematic techniques Cinematography