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Film promotion is the practice of
promotion Promotion may refer to: Marketing * Promotion (marketing), one of the four marketing mix elements, comprising any type of marketing communication used to inform or persuade target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or i ...
specifically in the
film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a is . Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, sta ...
, and usually occurs in coordination with the process of
film distribution A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface ...
. Sometimes called the press junket or film junket, film promotion generally includes press releases, advertising campaigns, merchandising, franchising, media and interviews with the key people involved with the making of the film, like actors and directors. As with all business, it is an important part of any release because of the inherent high financial risk;
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, arc ...
s will invest in expensive
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
campaigns to maximize revenue early in the release cycle. Marketing budgets tend to equal about half the production budget. Publicity is generally handled by the distributor and exhibitors.


Techniques


In theaters

Trailers are a mainstay of film promotion, because they are delivered directly to movie-goers. They screen in theatres before movie showings. Generally they tell the story of the movie in a highly condensed fashion compressing maximum appeal into two and half minutes. *
Film poster A film poster is a poster A poster is a temporary promotion of an idea, product, or event put up in a public space for mass consumption. Typically, posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly ...

Film poster
s *
Slideshow A slide show A slide show is a presentation of a series of still images on a projection screen or electronic display device, typically in a prearranged sequence. The changes may be automatic and at regular intervals or they may be manually contro ...

Slideshow
s - stills, trivia, and trivia games from the film, shown between movie showtimes. *
Standee A standee is an wiktionary:standee, American term for a large self-standing display promoting a movie, product or event, or Point of sale display, point-of-sale advertising, often in the form of a life-size cut-out figure. They are typically made o ...
s (freestanding paperboard life-size images of figures from the film) * Cardboard 3D displays, sometimes producing sound


Television and radio

* Hollywood movie distributors spend about $4 billion a year to buy paid advertising (30-second TV commercials, magazine/newspaper ads, etc.) and over half that total is placed on broadcast and cable TV, which are the main vehicles for advertising movies to audiences. TV is effective because it is an audio-visual medium – like film – and can deliver a vast audience quickly, which is crucial because films typically don’t linger in theaters more than 4–6 weeks, according to ''Marketing to Moviegoers: Second Edition''. * Product placement: paid active or passive insertion (as on-set posters, and
action figure An action figure is a poseable character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of char ...
s) of film brand in drama or sitcom shows, or as passing mentions in dialogue. For example,
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a maj ...
commissioned an ''
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''-themed motorcycle, featured on two episodes (2:17, 2:18) of ''
American Chopper ''American Chopper'' is an American reality television Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations, often starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. ...
''. The film ''
Memoirs of a Geisha ''Memoirs of a Geisha'' is a historical fiction novel by American author Arthur Golden, published in 1997. The novel, told in first-person narrative, first person perspective, tells the story of a fictional geisha working in Kyoto, Japan, befor ...
'' was placed throughout an episode of the TV show ''
Medium Medium may refer to: Science and technology Aviation *Medium bomber, a class of war plane *Tecma Medium, a French hang glider design Communication * Media (communication), tools used to store and deliver information or data * Medium of i ...
''. * Extended placement: full episodes of television talkshows (''
Oprah Oprah Gail Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American talk show host, television producer, actress, author, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show, ''The Oprah Winfrey Show'', broadcast from Chicago, ...
''), entertainment news programs ('' ET''), or network news programs ('' 20/20''), devoted to compensated exposure of the film, stars, clips, director, etc. ** In addition, interviews with actors and directors which are filmed en masse at a hotel with local and national entertainment reporters which are featured on
local news In journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audie ...
shows, programs on cable networks, and series such as
Byron Allen Byron Allen Folks (born April 22, 1961) is an American businessman, comedian, television producer, philanthropist, and the head of the U.S. entertainment company Entertainment Studios. Early life and education Allen was born in Detroit, bu ...
's series of entertainment series like ''
Entertainment Studios Entertainment Studios, Inc. is an American media and entertainment company based in Los Angeles. Owned and founded in 1993 by African-American comedian Byron Allen, the company was initially involved in the production and distribution of first-r ...
''. * Production and paid broadcast of behind-the-scenes documentary-style shows, the type of which are mainly produced for
HBO Home Box Office (HBO) is an American pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription-based television Tel ...
,
Showtime Showtime or Show Time may refer to: Film * Showtime (film), ''Showtime'' (film), a 2002 American action/comedy film * Showtime (video), ''Showtime'' (video), a 1995 live concert video by Blur Television Networks and channels * Showtime Networks, ...
, and
Starz Starz (stylized as STARZ since 2016; pronounced "stars") is an American premium cable Cable may refer to: Mechanical * Nautical cable A nautical cable is a band of tightly woven and clamped ropes, of a defined cable length, used during the a ...
* Advance trailers, longer previews, or behind-the-scenes footage on
streaming media Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of content, rather than the content its ...
and Blu-ray/DVDs


Internet

* Virtual relationship hyperlink marketing, wherein a major search engine (like Yahoo's main page) offers articles seemingly presenting interesting news related items, but which are actually back-end loaded with a links page containing multiple "mental references" to film characters, storylines or products. Example: Bond, Transformers, etc..., are connected to scientific invention news stories about advanced weaponry or robotics discoveries, which quickly leads the reader to pages loaded with the latest 007 or Megatron movie clip or art director's fantastical ideas and designs, thus hooking readers with a "bait and switch" story. * Creation of standalone studio-sponsored per-film websites such as "example-the-movie.com". * Online digital film screeners: These digital film screeners have the benefit of letting you send individual copies of your film or a promo to the press, sales agents, distributors etc. Using them its simple to send individually controlled copies of your film to various recipients with different expiry dates. Along with the security of individual expiry dates, you can see reports of who viewed your film and track their viewing of the film. *
Viral marketing Viral marketing or viral advertising is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product mainly on various social media platforms. Its name refers to how consumers spread information about a product with other people, much ...
: free distribution of trailers on movie-oriented
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hyperte ...

website
s and video user-generated-content websites, and rapid dissemination of links to this content by email and blogs. Includes alleged leakage of supposed "rushes" and "early trailers" of film scenes. Sometimes, the efforts go further such as in the lead time to the successful premiere of the film, ''
The Muppets The Muppets are an American ensemble cast In a dramatic production, an ensemble cast is one which is composed of multiple principal actors and performers who are typically assigned roughly equal amounts of screen time.Random House: ensemble ac ...
'' which was preceded by several original
film short A short film is any motion picture that is short enough in running time not to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as "an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or ...
s on
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
over a number of years while the film was in production. * Creation of
Internet Marketing The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...
campaign using Paid Advertisement and
Social Media Marketing Social media marketing is the use of social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Cr ...


Print

* Paid
advertisement Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...
in newspapers, magazines, and inserts in books. * Cross-promotion of original book or novelization, including special printings, or new cover jackets ("Now a major motion picture.") * Comic special editions or special episodes


Merchandising

* Paid co-branding (''
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'' in ''
American Chopper ''American Chopper'' is an American reality television Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations, often starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. ...
''-two episodes), or co-advertising (
Aston Martin Aston Martin Lagonda is a British independent manufacturer of luxury Luxury may refer to: *Luxury goods In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good (economics), good for which demand (economics), demand increases more than w ...

Aston Martin
and
James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
films) of a product with the film * Promotional giveaways: branded drink cups,
toys A toy is an item that is used primarily by children though may also be marketed to adults under certain circumstances. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life experiences. Different materials like wood, c ...
, or food combinations at
fast food chain A fast food restaurant, also known as a quick service restaurant (QSR) within the industry, is a specific type of restaurant that serves fast food cuisine and has minimal Foodservice#Table service, table service. The food served in fast fo ...
s


Promotional tours and interviews

Film actors, directors, and producers appear for television, cable, radio, print, and online media
interview An interview is essentially a structured conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divi ...

interview
s, which can be conducted in person or remotely. During film production, these can take place ''on set''. After the film's premiere, key personnel make appearances in major market cities or participate remotely via satellite
videoconference Videotelephony, sometimes also referred to as video teleconference or videoconferencing, comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio signal, audio-video signals by users in different locations, for communication betwee ...
or telephone. The purpose of interviews is to encourage journalists to publish stories about their "exclusive interviews" with the film's stars, thereby creating "
marketing buzzMarketing buzz or simply buzz—a term used in viral marketing Viral marketing or viral advertising is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product mainly on various social media platforms. Its name refers to how consum ...
" around the film and stimulating audience interest in watching the film. When it comes to
feature film A feature film or feature-length film is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole presentation in a commercial entertainment program. The term ''feature film'' originall ...
s picked up by a
major film studio Major film studios are production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and ser ...
for international distribution, promotional tours are notoriously grueling. Key cast and crew are often contracted to travel to several major cities around the world to promote the film and sit for dozens of interviews. In every interview they are supposed to stay "on message" by energetically expressing their enthusiasm for the film in a way that appears candid, fun, and fresh, even though it may be their fifth or sixth interview that day. They are expected to disclose just enough juicy "behind-the-scenes" information about the filmmaking process or the filmmakers' artistic vision to make each journalist feel like he or she got a nice
scoop Scoop, Scoops or The scoop may refer to: Objects * Scoop (tool), a shovel-like tool, particularly one deep and curved, used in digging * Scoop (machine part), a component of machinery to carry things * Scoop stretcher, a device used for casualty l ...
, while at the same time tactfully avoiding disclosure of anything embarrassing, humiliating or truly negative that may be detrimental to the film's box office gross and profit or influence a critic's review as well as the public's opinion.


Audience research

There are seven distinct types of research conducted by film distributors in connection with domestic theatrical releases, according to "Marketing to Moviegoers: Second Edition." Such audience research can cost $1 million per film, especially when scores of TV advertisements are tested and re-tested. The bulk of research is done by major studios for the roughly 170 major releases they mount each year that are supported by tens of millions of advertising buys for each film. Independent film distributors, which typically spend less than $10 million in media buys per film, don’t have the budget or breadth of advertising materials to analyze, so they spend little or nothing on pre-release audience research. When audience research is conducted for domestic theatrical release, it involves these areas: *Positioning studies versus other films that will premiere at the same time. *Test screenings of finished or nearly finished films; this is the most well known. *Testing of audience response to advertising materials. *Tracking surveys of audience awareness of a film starting six weeks before premiere. *Exit surveys questioning film goers about their demographic makeup and effectiveness of marketing. *Title testing in an early stage. *Concept testing that would occur in development phase of a film before it is produced. Marketing can play a big role in whether or not a film gets the green light. Audience research is a strong factor in determining the ability of a film to sell in theaters, which is ultimately how films make their money. As part of a movie's
Marketing strategy Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage In business, a competitive advantage is the attrib ...
, audience research comes into account as producers create promotional materials. These promotional materials consistently change and evolve as a direct consequence of audience research up until the film opens in theaters.McDonald, Paul, and Janet Wasko. The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2008. 55


See also

*
Film budgeting Film budgeting refers to the process by which a line producer, unit production manager, or production accountant prepares a budget A budget is a for a defined , often one year. It may also include planned volumes and s, resource quantities, ...
*'' Junket Whore''


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Film Promotion Film and video terminology