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The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of
filmmaking Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, fee ...
, i.e., film production companies,
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, arc ...
s,
cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek κίνημα, ''kìnema'' "movement" and γράφειν, ''gràphein'' "to write") is the art of Film, motion picture (and more recently, electronic video camera) photography. Cinematographers use a lens (o ...

cinematography
,
animation Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most an ...

animation
,
film production Filmmaking (film production) is the process by which a Film, motion picture is #Production, produced. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages, starting with an initial story, idea, or commission. It then continues through scr ...
,
screenwriting Screenwriting or scriptwriting is the art and craft of writing scripts for mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communication), media technology, technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The techno ...
,
pre-production Pre-production is the process of planning some of the elements involved in a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perc ...
,
post production 275px, A video editing suite Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a wor ...
,
film festival A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, b ...

film festival
s,
distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distr ...
and actors. Though the expense involved in making
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface ...

film
s almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable filmmaking equipment, as well as an expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed
independent film An independent film, independent movie, indie film, or indie movie is a feature film or short film that is produced outside the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies. Inde ...
production to evolve. In 2019, the global
box office A box office or ticket office is a place where ticket (admission), tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop, through a hole in a wall or window, or at a Wicket gate, wicket. B ...

box office
was worth . When including box office and home entertainment revenue, the global film industry was worth in 2018.
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood in the Central Los Angeles, central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a metonymy, shorthand reference for the Cinema of the United States, U.S. film industry and the people associated with i ...
is the world's oldest e factonational film industry. However, in 2020,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
became the largest box office territory, overtaking North America in gross total. The transition, long anticipated by analysts, was accelerated by the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of ...
. Nigerian cinema is the largest national film industry in terms of the number of films produced, with 2,599 feature films produced annually . ,
Chinese cinema The cinema of mainland China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese language, Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of Taiwan. Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 in China, 1896 and the f ...
has the highest annual ticket sales with 1,650 million tickets sold.


Modern film industry

The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of in 2019. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were: Asia-Pacific with , the U.S. and Canada with , and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with . , the largest markets by box office were, in decreasing order, the United States,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
,
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...
,
South Korea South Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Namhan'', or /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Namchosŏn'' in North Korean usage), officially the R ...
,
the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
, and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
. , the countries with the largest number of film productions were
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...
,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is the List of African countries by population, most populous country in Africa; geographically situated between the Sahel to the north, and the Gulf of ...
, and the United States. In Europe, significant centers of movie production are Italy, France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom.


United States

The
cinema of the United States The cinema of the United States, often called Hollywood, has had a large effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1913 to 19 ...
, often generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States cinema (Hollywood) is the oldest film industry in the world and also the largest film industry in terms of revenue.
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood in the Central Los Angeles, central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a metonymy, shorthand reference for the Cinema of the United States, U.S. film industry and the people associated with i ...

Hollywood
is the primary nexus of the U.S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the
American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying ...
, LA Film School and NYFA being established in the area. However, four of the six major film studios are owned by
East Coast East Coast may refer to: Entertainment * East Coast hip hop, a subgenre of hip hop * East Coast (ASAP Ferg song), "East Coast" (ASAP Ferg song), 2017 * East Coast (Saves the Day song), "East Coast" (Saves the Day song), 2004 * East Coast FM, a rad ...
companies. The
major film studios Major film studios are production and distribution companies that release a substantial number of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ...
of Hollywood including
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, initialized as MGM; often referred to as Metro; common metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of someth ...
,
20th Century Fox 20th Century Studios, Inc. (also known as 20th Century for short, and nicknamed 20th Pictures, formerly Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation) is an American film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a majo ...
, and
Paramount Pictures Paramount Pictures Corporation (common metonym: Par) is an American film and television production company, production and Distribution (marketing), distribution company and a subsidiary of ViacomCBS. It is the fifth oldest film studio in the w ...

Paramount Pictures
are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as ''
The Sound of Music ''The Sound of Music'' is a musical with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, and a book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. It is based on the 1949 memoir of Maria von Trapp, ''The Story of the Trapp Family Singers''. ...
'' (1965), ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of St ...
'' (1977), ''
Titanic RMS ''Titanic'' was a British passenger liner operated by the White Star Line that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912, after striking an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton Southampton () is a city in Hamp ...
'' (1997), and ''
Avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", is the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to an ...
'' (2009). American film studios today collectively generate several hundred films every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world. Only
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and Interest (emotion), interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It ...
— which owns
the Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), the Walt Disney Company's Studio Entertainment unit, which includes Disney's motion picture studios, mus ...
— is fully based in
Southern California Southern California (popularly known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. It includes the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second mo ...

Southern California
. And while
Sony Pictures Entertainment Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Sony Pictures or SPE, and formerly known as Columbia Pictures Entertainment Inc.) is an American entertainment company that produces, acquires, and distributes filmed entertainment (theatrica ...
is headquartered in Culver City, California, its parent company, the
Sony Corporation is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo. The company operates as one of the world's largest manufacturers of consumer and professional ...
, is headquartered in
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan. ...

Tokyo
, Japan. Most shooting now takes place in
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...
,
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
,
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard v ...

Louisiana
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
and
North Carolina North Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. North Carolina is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 28th largest and List of states and territories of the Un ...

North Carolina
. Between 2009 and 2015, Hollywood consistently grossed $10 billion (or more) annually. Hollywood's award ceremony, the
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., f ...
, officially known as The Oscars, is held by the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion ...
(AMPAS) every year and as of 2019, more than 3,000 Oscars have been awarded. On 27 October 1911,
Nestor Film Company The Nestor Film Company, originally known as the Nestor Motion Picture Company, was an American motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such a ...
established Hollywood's first permanent film studio. The California weather allowed for year-round filming. In 1912,
Universal Studios Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also known as Universal Studios, or simply Universal; common metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associat ...

Universal Studios
was formed, merging Nestor and several other motion picture companies, including
Independent Moving Pictures The Independent Moving Pictures Company (IMP) was a motion picture studio and production company founded in 1909 by Carl Laemmle. The company was based in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of Uni ...
(IMP).


France

France is the birthplace of cinema and was responsible for many of its significant contributions to the art form and the film-making process itself. Several important cinematic movements, including the
Nouvelle Vague The New Wave (french: La Nouvelle Vague) is a French art film movement which emerged in the late 1950s. The movement was characterized by its rejection of traditional filmmaking Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process ...
, began in the country. It is noted for having a particularly strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the
French government The Government of the French Republic (french: Gouvernement de la République française ) exercises executive power ''Executive Power'' is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for t ...

French government
. French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Directors from nations such as
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...

Poland
(
Roman Polanski Roman Polanski ( ; pl, Roman Polański ; born Raymond Thierry Liebling on 18 August 1933) is a Polish-French film director, producer, screenwriter, and actor. His Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back from Paris to Kraków in 1937.Pau ...

Roman Polanski
, , and
Andrzej Żuławski Andrzej Żuławski (; 22 November 1940 – 17 February 2016) was a Polish film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the ...
),
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered b ...
(
Gaspar Noé Gaspar Noé (; ; born 27 December 1963) is an Argentina, Argentine filmmaker based in Paris, France. He is the son of Argentine painter, writer and intellectual Luis Felipe Noé. He has directed five feature films: ''I Stand Alone (film), I Stan ...
and
Edgardo Cozarinsky Edgardo Cozarinsky (; born 1939 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a writer and filmmaker Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film is made. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages including a ...

Edgardo Cozarinsky
),
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
( Alexandre Alexeieff,
Anatole Litvak Mikhail Anatol Litwak (russian: Михаил Анато́ль Литва́к; 21 May 1902 – 15 December 1974), better known as Anatole Litvak, was a Russian-born American filmmaker who wrote, directed, and produced films in various countries ...
), Austria (
Michael Haneke Michael Haneke (; born 23 March 1942) is an Austrian film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that G ...
), and
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
( Géla Babluani,
Otar Iosseliani Otar Iosseliani ( ka, ოთარ იოსელიანი, born 2 February 1934) is a Georgian-film maker. He was born in the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi Tbilisi ( ; ka, თბილისი ), in some languages still known by its p ...
) are prominent in the ranks of French cinema. Conversely, some French directors have had careers in other countries, such as
Luc Besson Luc Paul Maurice Besson (; born 18 March 1959) is a French film director, screenwriter, and producer. He directed or produced the films ''Subway (film), Subway'' (1985), ''The Big Blue'' (1988), and ''La Femme Nikita (film), La Femme Nikita'' (1 ...
,
Jacques Tourneur Jacques Tourneur (; November 12, 1904 – December 19, 1977) was a French film director known for the classic film noir ''Out of the Past'' and a series of low-budget horror films he made for RKO Studios, including ''Cat People (1942 film), Cat P ...
, or
Francis Veber Francis Paul Veber (born 28 July 1937) is a French film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that Goal, ...
in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
. Another element supporting this fact is that
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
has the highest density of cinemas in the world, measured by the number of
movie theaters . The picture the projector is displaying is the 1997 Universal Pictures Logo. A movie theater (American English), cinema (British English), or cinema hall (Indian English), also known as a picture house, the pictures, picture theatre, or the ...
per inhabitant, and that in most "downtown Paris" movie theaters, foreign movies which would be secluded to "art houses" cinemas in other places are shown alongside "mainstream" works. Philippe Binant realized, on 2 February 2000, the first
digital cinema Digital cinema refers to adoption of digital technology within the film industry to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film. Whereas film reels have to be ...
projection in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by
Texas Instruments Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) is an America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent ...
, in Paris.Claude Forest, « De la pellicule aux pixels : l'anomie des exploitants de salles de cinéma », in Laurent Creton, Kira Kitsopanidou (sous la direction de), ''Les salles de cinéma : enjeux, défis et perspectives'', Armand Colin / Recherche, Paris, 2013, p. 116.
Paris also boasts the Cité du cinéma, a major studio north of the city, and Disney Studio, a theme park devoted to the cinema and the third theme park near the city behind Disneyland and Parc Asterix. In 2015, France saw a record-breaking 300 feature-length films produced. US and UK films only represented 44.9% of total admissions in 2014. This is largely due to the commercial strength of domestic productions, which accounted for 44,5% of admissions in 2014 (35.5% in 2015; 35.3% in 2016). In the mid-2000s, the French film industry was described as being "closer to being entirely self-sufficient than any other country in Europe, recovering around 80 – 90% of their budget in revenues generated from the domestic market". In 2018, French films had an international box office of €237m with 40 million admissions (down 52% from 2017), with Italy being the top foreign market.


China

The
cinema of China The cinema of China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese languages, Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of Taiwan. Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 in China, 1896 and the first Chi ...
is one of three distinct historical threads of
Chinese-language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language varieties that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages Sino-Tibetan, also known as Trans-Himalayan in a few sources, is a family of more than ...
cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...

cinema
together with the
cinema of Hong Kong The cinema of Hong Kong ( zh, t=香港電影) is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China, and the cinema of Taiwan. As a former British colony, British Hong Kong, Hong Kong had a gre ...
and the
cinema of Taiwan The cinema of Taiwan ( zh, t=臺灣電影 or ) is deeply rooted in the island's History of Taiwan, unique history. Since its introduction to Taiwan in 1901 under Taiwan under Japanese rule, Japanese rule, cinema has developed in Taiwan under ROC ...
. Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, '' Dingjun Mountain'', was made in 1905, with the film industry being centered on
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sout ...

Shanghai
in the first decades. China is the home of the largest film studio in the world, the
Hengdian World Studios Hengdian World Studios () is a film studio located in Hengdian, a China, Chinese town in the city of Dongyang, Zhejiang, Zhejiang Province. It is the largest film studio in the world. The movie studio is operated by the privately owned Hengdian Gro ...
, and in 2010 it had the third largest film industry by number of feature films produced annually. For the next decade the production companies were mainly foreign-owned, and the domestic film industry was centered on Shanghai, a thriving entrepot and the largest city in the
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass point ...
. In 1913, the first independent Chinese
screenplay A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television show, television program, or video game. These screenplays can be Originality, original works or Film adaptation, adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In ...
, '' The Difficult Couple'', was filmed in
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sout ...

Shanghai
by Zheng Zhengqiu and
Zhang Shichuan Zhang Shichuan (; 1889–1953 or 1890–1954), also credited as S. C. Chang, was a Chinese entrepreneur, film director, and film producer, who is considered a founding father of Chinese cinema. He and Zheng Zhengqiu made the first Chinese feature ...

Zhang Shichuan
. As the Sixth Generation gained international exposure, many subsequent films were joint ventures and projects with international backers, but remained quite resolutely low-key and low budget. Jia's ''
Platform Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform, a framework on which applications may be run * Platform game, a genre of video games * Car platform, a set of components shared by several vehicle models * Weapons platform, a system or s ...
'' (2000) was funded in part by
Takeshi Kitano is a Japanese comedian, television presenter, actor, filmmaker, and author. While he is known primarily as a comedian and TV host in his native Japan, he is better known abroad for his work as a filmmaker, actor and TV host. With the exception o ...
's production house, while his ''Still Life'' was shot on HD video. ''Still Life'' was a surprise addition and
Golden Lion The Golden Lion ( it, Leone d'oro) is the highest prize given to a film at the Venice Film Festival. The prize was introduced in 1949 by the organizing committee and is now regarded as one of the film industry's most prestigious and distinguished ...

Golden Lion
winner of the 2006 Venice International Film Festival. ''Still Life'', which concerns provincial workers around the
Three Gorges The Three Gorges () are three adjacent gorges along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, in the hinterland of the People's Republic of China. With a subtropical monsoon climate, they are known for their scenery. The "Three Gorges Scenic Ar ...
region, sharply contrasts with the works of Fifth
Generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not ex ...

Generation
Chinese directors like
Zhang Yimou Zhang Yimou (; born 14 November 1951) is a Chinese film director, producer, writer and actor, and former cinematographer.Tasker, Yvonne (2002). "Zhang Yimou" i''Fifty Contemporary Filmmakers'' Routledge Publishing, p. 412. . Google Book Search. ...
and
Chen Kaige Chen Kaige (Chinese characters, Chinese: 陈凯歌; born 12 August 1952) is a Chinese people, Chinese film director and a leading figure of the fifth generation of Cinema of China, Chinese cinema.Berry, Michael (2002). "Chen Kaige: Historical Re ...
who were at the time producing ''
House of Flying Daggers ''House of Flying Daggers'' ( Chinese: 十面埋伏) is a 2004 ''wuxia ( ), which literally means "martial heroes", is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China. Although is traditionally ...
'' (2004) and ''The Promise'' (2005). It featured no star of international renown and was acted mostly by non-professionals. In 2012 the country became the second-largest market in the world by box office receipts. In 2014, the gross box office in China was ¥29.6 billion ( US$4.82 billion), with domestic films having a share of 55%. China has also become a major hub of business for Hollywood studios. In 2018, China's gross box office was US$8.9 Billion In 2013, China's gross box office was ¥21.8 billion (US$3.6 billion), the second-largest film market in the world by box office receipts It increased to $4.8 Billion in 2014
box office A box office or ticket office is a place where ticket (admission), tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop, through a hole in a wall or window, or at a Wicket gate, wicket. B ...

box office
grosser in film industry. In 2020,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
overtook North America as world's biggest box office, being the first country achieved this status.


India

India is the largest producer of films in the world and second oldest film industry in the world.Khanna, "The Business of Hindi Films", 140 The country is home of the one of the most important cities in the global film industry, Mumbai (previously called Bombay). In 2009 India produced a total of 2,961 films on celluloid; this figure includes 1,288 feature films. Besides being the largest producer of films in the world, India also has the largest number of admissions. Indian film industry is multi-lingual and the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales but 3rd largest in terms of revenue mainly due to having among the lowest ticket prices in the world. The industry is viewed mainly by a vast film-going Indian public, and Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world—notably in countries with large numbers of expatriate Indians. Indian film industry is also the dominant source of films and entertainment in its neighboring countries of
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lan ...

South Asia
. The largest film and most popular industry in India is the
Hindi film industry Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...
, followed by
Telugu cinema Telugu cinema, also known as Tollywood, is the segment of Cinema of India, Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, widely spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Telugu cinema is based ...
and
Tamil cinema Tamil cinema, also known as Kollywood, is the Indian filmmaking industry of Tamil language, Tamil-language Film, motion pictures. It is based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood, leading to the industry's nickname Kollywood ...
. The Hindi film industry mostly concentrated in
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United Nat ...

Mumbai
(Bombay), and is commonly referred to as
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
, a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood. Sandalwood industry (Kannada cinema) concentrated in
Bengaluru Bangalore , officially known as Bengaluru (), is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries ...

Bengaluru
. The Mollywood industry concentrating in the state of
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
refers to the
Malayalam cinema } Malayalam cinema } Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala Kerala (; ) is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India ( ...
. Both Kollywood (Tamil cinema) and Tollywood (Telugu cinema) mostly concentrated in
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...

Chennai
and
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous co ...

Hyderabad
. Besides the mainstream commercial movies, India also offers a different approach to cinema- the
parallel cinema Parallel cinema, or New Indian Cinema, was a film movement in Indian cinema that originated in the state of West Bengal West Bengal (, Bengali language, Bengali: ''Paschim Banga'' ) is a States and union territories of India, state in t ...
.The parallel cinema movement originated in West Bengal around the 1950s. Parallel cinema is a blanket term designated to a certain type of films that stray away from the conventions of popular mainstream cinema.Parallel cinema has assumed various forms throughout the years. Filmmakers associated with parallel cinema are
Satyajit Ray Satyajit Ray (; 2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian film director, scriptwriter, documentary filmmaker, author, lyricist, magazine editor, illustrator, calligrapher, and music composer. Widely regarded as one of the greatest filmm ...

Satyajit Ray
,
Mrinal Sen Mrinal Sen (also spelled ''Mrinal Shen''; 14 May 1923 – 30 December 2018) was an Indian film director and a nominated Member of the Indian parliament. Sen directed films primarily in Bengali language, Bengali and Hindi. Along with his contem ...
,
Ritwik Ghatak Ritwik Kumar Ghatak (; 4 November 19256 February 1976) was a noted Indian film director, screenwriter, and playwright. Along with prominent contemporary Bengali filmmakers Satyajit Ray, Tapan Sinha and Mrinal Sen, his cinema is primarily remember ...
. Parallel films are characterized by their rejection of popular forms like the songs and fight sequences, their affinity for rural settings, use of method actors and toned down colour palettes. Some examples of such movies are ''
Raincoat upA child wearing a yellow raincoat with hood A raincoat or also known as rain suit. In most fashion market including America, France, Asia etc, raincoat refers to both the top and bottom including trousers. It is a waterproof or water-resistant ...
'', ''
Dhobi Ghat Mahalaxmi Dhobi Ghat is an open air laundry place in Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union ter ...
'', ''Mithya''. Indian films have garnered popularity not only in the domestic market but also in the international markets with ''Dangal (film), Dangal'' having an overseas gross revenue of $260 million, ''Secret Superstar'', and ''Bajrangi Bhaijaan'' with a gross revenue of $80.4 million, and ''Baahubali: The Beginning and Baahubali 2: The Conclusion'' a List of Telugu films of 2017, recent blockbuster from the Telugu industry known as Tollywood. The other largest film industries are
Malayalam cinema } Malayalam cinema } Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala Kerala (; ) is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India ( ...
, Bangla cinema (cinema of West Bengal) and Marathi cinema, which are located in Kochi, Kolkata and
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United Nat ...

Mumbai
respectively. The remaining majority portion is spread across northern, western, eastern and southern India (with Gujarati cinema, Gujarati, Cinema of Punjab, Punjabi, Oriya cinema, Odia, Bhojpuri cinema, Bhojpuri, Assamese Cinema). However, there are several smaller centres of Indian film industries in regional languages centred in the states where those languages are spoken. Indian cinema encloses a number of several artforms like Indian classical music, folk music of different regions throughout the country, Indian classical dance, folk dance and much more. Bollywood, Kollywood and Tollywood is the largest portion of the Indian film industry and is viewed all over the Indian Subcontinent, and is increasingly popular in UK, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Gulf countries, Europe, European countries, East Asia and China. The largest film studio complex in the world is Ramoji Film City located at
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous co ...

Hyderabad
, India, which opened in 1996 and measures 674 ha (1,666 acres). Comprising 47 sound stages, it has permanent sets ranging from railway stations to temples. By 1986, India's annual film output had increased from 741 films produced annually to 833 films annually, making India the world's largest film producer. , Bollywood represents 45℅ of Indian net box office revenue, while Tollywood represent 36%, and the rest of the regional film industries constitute 21% of Indian cinema.


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has had a significant film industry for over a century. While film production reached an all-time high in 1936, the "golden age" of British cinema is usually thought to have occurred in the 1940s, during which the directors David Lean, Michael Powell, (with Emeric Pressburger) and Carol Reed produced their most highly acclaimed work. Many British actors have achieved worldwide fame and critical success, such as Maggie Smith, Roger Moore, Michael Caine, Sean Connery, Daniel Day-Lewis, Gary Oldman, and Kate Winslet. Some of the films with the largest ever box office returns have been made in the United Kingdom, including the third and fourth List of highest-grossing films#Highest-grossing franchises and film series, highest-grossing film series (''Harry Potter (film series), Harry Potter'' and ''Production of the James Bond films, James Bond''). The first moving picture was shot in Leeds by Louis Le Prince in 1888 and the first moving pictures developed on Nitrate film, celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 1889 by British inventor William Friese Greene, who patented the process in 1890. Two of the top eight List of highest-grossing films, highest-grossing films worldwide of all time have some British historical, cultural or creative dimensions: ''
Titanic RMS ''Titanic'' was a British passenger liner operated by the White Star Line that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912, after striking an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton Southampton () is a city in Hamp ...
'' (1997), ''Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2'' (2011), ''The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King'' (2003), made in New Zealand, and ''Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest'' (2005). Adding four more ''Harry Potter'' films and one more ''Lord of the Rings'' movie, plus the Tim Burton version of ''Alice in Wonderland (2010 film), Alice in Wonderland'' (2010), and more than half of the top twenty most financially successful films, had a substantial British dimension. British influence can also be seen with the List of Disney theatrical animated features#Walt Disney Animation Studios, 'English Cycle' of Disney animated films, which include ''Alice in Wonderland (1951 film), Alice in Wonderland'' (1951), ''Peter Pan (1953 film), Peter Pan'' (1953), ''One Hundred and One Dalmatians'' (1961), ''The Sword in the Stone (1963 film), The Sword in the Stone'' (1963), and ''The Jungle Book (1967 film), The Jungle Book'' (1967). Disney first became interested in live-action films as a means of using financial reserves which had built up in Britain, and could not be repatriated owing to exchange controls, by making two films from Scottish and English sources. These were ''Treasure Island (1950 film), Treasure Island'' (1950) and ''The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men'' (1952), which were both successes at the box office. The studio continued to draw on British source material for its animated films after Walt Disney's death in 1967, with the cartoon feature films ''Robin Hood (1973 film), Robin Hood'' (1973), ''The Rescuers'' (1976) and ''The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh'' (1977), one of many Disney to draw on A. A. Milne's characters. In the 1970s and 1980s, British studios established a reputation for great special effects in films such as ''Superman (1978 film), Superman'' (1978), ''Alien (film), Alien'' (1979), and ''Batman (1989 film), Batman'' (1989). Some of this reputation was founded on the core of talent brought together for the filming of ''2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 2001: A Space Odyssey'' (1968) who subsequently worked together on series and feature films for Gerry Anderson. The Bristol-based Aardman Animations is known for its stop-motion animation. In late 1998, Channel 4 launched their free-to-air film channel Film4 – a channel specifically designed to show films. It broadcasts from 11:00am BST and competes with pay television film network Sky Cinema. The London-based visual effects company Framestore, with Tim Webber the visual effects supervisor, have worked on the films ''The Dark Knight (film), The Dark Knight'' (2008) and ''Gravity (2013 film), Gravity'' (2013), with new techniques involved in ''Gravity'' taking three years to complete.


Poland

The history of Cinema of Poland is almost as long as the history of
cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek κίνημα, ''kìnema'' "movement" and γράφειν, ''gràphein'' "to write") is the art of Film, motion picture (and more recently, electronic video camera) photography. Cinematographers use a lens (o ...

cinematography
, and it has universally recognized achievements, even though Polish films tend to be less commercially available than films from several other European nations. After World War II, the communist government built an auteur-based national cinema, trained hundreds of new directors and empowered them to make films. Filmmakers like Roman Polański, , Agnieszka Holland, Andrzej Wajda,
Andrzej Żuławski Andrzej Żuławski (; 22 November 1940 – 17 February 2016) was a Polish film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the ...
, Andrzej Munk, and Jerzy Skolimowski impacted the development of Polish film-making. In more recent years, the industry has been producer-led with finance being the key to a film being made, and with many independent filmmakers of all genres, Polish productions tend to be more inspired by American film. The Polish Film School was under heavy influence of Italian neorealism, Italian neorealists. It took advantage of the liberal changes in Poland after 1956 Polish October to portray the complexity of Polish history during World War II and German occupation. Among the most important topics were the generation of former Home Army soldiers and their role in post-war Poland and the national tragedies like the German concentration camps and the Warsaw Uprising. The political changes allowed the group to speak more openly of the recent history of Poland. However, the rule of censorship was still strong when it comes to history after 1945 and there were very few films on the contemporary events. This marked the major difference between the members of the Polish Film School and Italian neorealists. The Polish Film School was the first to underline the national character of Poles and one of the first artistic movements in Central Europe to openly oppose the official guidelines of Socialist realism. The members of the movement tend to underline the role of individual as opposed to collectivity. There were two trends within the movement: young directors such as Andrzej Wajda generally studied the idea of heroism, while another group (the most notable being Andrzej Munk) analysed the Polish character via irony, humor and a dissection of national myths.


Nigeria

The cinema of Nigeria, often referred to informally as Nollywood Cinema of Nigeria, The Nigerian Film Industry Is The Largest Movie Industry Globally – In Terms Of Output, Producing Films Annually, Is the third largest, in terms of overall revenues generated, in 2013. Cinema of Nigeria Its history dates back to as early as the late 19th century and into the Colonial Nigeria, colonial era in the early 20th century. The history and development of the Nigerian motion picture industry is sometimes generally classified in four main eras: the Filmmaking in Colonial Nigeria, Colonial era, Golden Age of Nigerian cinema, Golden Age, Video film era and the emerging New Nigerian cinema. Film as a medium first arrived in Nigeria in the late 19th century, in the form of Kinetoscope, peephole viewing of motion picture devices. These were soon replaced in the early 20th century with improved motion picture exhibition devices, with the first set of films screened at the Glover Memorial Hall in Lagos from 12 to 22 August 1903. The earliest feature film made in Nigeria is 1926's ''Palaver (1926 film), Palaver'' produced by Geoffrey Barkas; the film was also the first film ever to feature Nigerian actors in a speaking role. As of 1954, mobile cinema vans played to at least 3.5 million people in Nigeria, and films being produced by the Nigerian Film Unit were screened for free at the 44 available cinemas. The first film entirely copyrighted to the Nigerian Film unit is ''Fincho'' (1957) by Sam Zebba; which is also the first Nigerian film to be Color motion picture film, shot in colour. After Nigeria's independence in 1960, the cinema business rapidly expanded, with new cinema houses being established. As a result, Nigerian films in theatres increased in the late 1960s into the 1970s, especially productions from Western Nigeria, owing to former theatre practitioners such as Hubert Ogunde and Moses Olaiya transitioning into the big screen. In 1972, the ''Yakubu Gowon#Indigenization Decree, Indigenization Decree'' was issued by Yakubu Gowon, which demands the transfer of ownership of about a total of 300 film theatres from their foreign owners to Nigerians, which resulted in more Nigerians playing active roles in the cinema and film. The oil boom of 1973 through 1978 also contributed immensely to the spontaneous boost of the cinema culture in Nigeria, as the increased purchasing power in Nigeria made a wide range of citizens to have disposable income to spend on cinema going and on home television sets. After several moderate performing films, ''Papa Ajasco'' (1984) by Wale Adenuga became the first blockbuster, grossing approximately ₦61,000 (approx. 2015 ₦21,552,673) in three days. A year later, ''Mosebolatan'' (1985) by Moses Olaiya also went ahead to gross ₦107,000 (approx. 2015 ₦44,180,499) in five days.


Egypt

Since 1976, Cairo has held the annual Cairo International Film Festival (CIFF), which is accredited by the International Federation of Film Producers Association. In 1996, the Egyptian Media Production City (EMPC) was inaugurated in 6th of October (city), 6th of October City south of Cairo, although by 2001, only one of 29 planned studios was operational. Censorship, formerly an obstacle to freedom of expression, has decreased remarkably by 2012, when the Egyptian cinema had begun to tackle boldly issues ranging from sexual issues to heavy government criticism. The 1940s, 1950s and the 1960s are generally considered the golden age of Egyptian cinema. As in the West, films responded to the popular imagination, with most falling into predictable Film genre, genres (happy endings being the norm), and many actors making careers out of playing strongly typed parts. In the words of one critic, "If an Egyptian film intended for popular audiences lacked any of these prerequisites, it constituted a betrayal of the unwritten contract with the spectator, the results of which would manifest themselves in the box office."Farid, Samir
"Lights, camera...retrospection"
, ''Al-Ahram Weekly'', 30 December 1999
Since the 1990s, Egypt's cinema has gone in separate directions. Smaller art films attract some international attention but sparse attendance at home. Popular films, often broad comedies such as ''What A Lie! (film), What A Lie!'', and the extremely profitable works of comedian Mohamed Saad (actor), Mohamed Saad, battle to hold audiences either drawn to Western films or, increasingly, wary of the perceived immorality of film.Farid, Samir
"An Egyptian Story"
, ''Al-Ahram Weekly'', 23–29 November 2006


Iran

The cinema of Iran (Persian language, Persian: ''سینمای ایران'') or cinema of Persia refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety of commercial films annually. Iranian art films have garnered international fame and now enjoy a global following.The Iranian Cinema
Along with China, Iran has been lauded as one of the best exporters of cinema in the 1990s, according to Jamsheed Akrami. Some critics now rank Iran as the world's most important national cinema, artistically, with a significance that invites comparison to Italian neorealism and similar movements in past decades. German filmmaker Werner Herzog has praised Iranian cinema as one of the world's most important artistic cinemas.


Japan

Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries in the world; as of 2010, it was the fourth largest by number of feature films produced. Movies have been produced in Japan since 1897, when the first foreign cameramen arrived. In a ''Sight & Sound'' list of the Cinema of Asia, best films produced in Asia, Japanese works made up eight of the top 12, with ''Tokyo Story'' (1953) ranked number one. ''Tokyo Story'' also topped the 2012 ''Sight & Sound'' directors' poll of The Sight & Sound Top 50 Greatest Films of All Time, The Top 50 Greatest Films of All Time, dethroning ''Citizen Kane'', while Akira Kurosawa's ''Seven Samurai'' (1954) was voted the List of films considered the best, greatest foreign-language film of all time in BBC's 2018 poll of 209 critics in 43 countries. Japan has won the Academy Awards, Academy Award for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Best Foreign Language Film four times (''Rashomon'', ''Gate of Hell (film), Gate of Hell'', ''Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto'', and ''Departures (2008 film), Departures''), more than any other Asian country.


Korea

The term cinema of Korea (or Korean cinema) encompasses the motion picture industries of North Korea, North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life during the past century, the film industry has often been at the mercy of political events, from the late Joseon dynasty to Korean War, the Korean War to domestic governmental interference. While both countries have relatively robust film industries today, only South Korean films have achieved wide international acclaim. North Korean films tend to portray their communist or revolutionary themes. South Korean films enjoyed a "Golden age" during the late 1950s, and 1960s. By 2005 South Korea had become one of few nations to watch more domestic than imported films in theatres due largely to laws placing limits on the number of foreign films able to be shown per theatre per year. In the theaters, Korean films must be played for 73 days per year since 2006. On cable TV 25% domestic film quota will be reduced to 20% after KOR-US FTA. The cinema of South Korea had a total box office gross in the country in 2015 of South Korean won, ₩ and had 113,000,000 admissions, 52% of the total admissions.


Hong Kong

Image:LaiMan-Wai.jpg, 200px, ''Zhuangzi Tests His Wife'' (1913) is credited as the first Hong Kong feature film Hong Kong is a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world (including the worldwide diaspora) and East Asia in general. For decades it was the third largest motion picture industry in the world (after Bollywood and Hollywood) and the second largest exporter of films. Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid-1990s and Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997 Hong Kong film has retained much of its distinctive identity and continues to play a prominent part on the world cinema stage. Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing film genre, genres, like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes. Typically of commercial cinemas, its heart is a highly developed star system (film), star system, which in this case also features substantial overlap with the Cantopop, pop music industry.


Turkey

The Turkish film market stands out in the pan-European landscape as the only market where national films regularly outperform United States, US films. In 2013, it had 1.2 million number of admissions and 87 feature films were released. Between 2004 and 2014, the estimated 12.9 million admissions generated on non-national
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
an markets only accounted for 7% of total admissions to Turkish films in Europe (including Turkey). This was the third lowest share among the 30 European markets for which such data are available and clearly illustrates the strong dependence of Turkey, Turkish films on the domestic market, a feature which is shared by Poland, Polish and Russian films. In 2014, Winter Sleep (film), Kış Uykusu (Winter's Sleep) won the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Film. In 2013, Turkey still ranked behind the Netherlands in terms of box office with just over EUR 200 million as Europe's eight largest box office market ahead of Sweden men's national ice hockey team, Sweden and Switzerland with a clear gap to the top 6 markets all of which registered GBO between EUR 504 million (Spain) up to over EUR 1 billion in France, the United Kingdom, UK, Germany and the Russian Federation. Cinema going is comparatively cheap in Turkey. In 2013 a Movie theater, cinema ticket cost on average EUR 4.0 in Turkey, and this was estimated to be the lowest average ticket price – measured in Euro – in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
, marginally cheaper than in several Central and Eastern European markets like Croatia, Romania, Lithuania or Bulgaria (subject to exchange rates).


Pakistan

The cinema of Pakistan, or simply Pakistani cinema ( ur, ), refers to Pakistan's film industry. Most of the feature films shot in Pakistan are in Urdu, the national language, but may also include films in English, the official language, and regional languages such as Punjabi language, Punjabi, Pashto language, Pashto, Balochi language, Balochi, and Sindhi language, Sindhi. Lahore has been described as the epicentre of Pakistani cinema, giving rise to the term "Lollywood"as portmanteau of Lahore and Hollywood. Before the separation of Bangladesh, Pakistan had three main film production centres: Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka. The regime of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Video cassette recorder, VCRs, film piracy, the introduction of entertainment taxes, strict laws based upon ultra-conservative jurisprudence, was an obstacle to the industry's growth. Once thriving, the cinema in Pakistan had a sudden collapse in the 1980s and by the 2000s "an industry that once produced an average of 80 films annually was now struggling to even churn out few movies." However, with the boom in the Television Industry in Karachi which gave rise to bigger privately owned media houses led to revival of Pakistan Film Industry. Karachi, now is the biggest production center of Film Industry in Pakistan which produces Urdu, English and Sindhi language Pakistani Cinema. Lahore is the second big film producer now (mostly Urdu and Punjabi movies) followed by Peshawer where mostly Pashto films are produced. Films are also being produced on a very small scale from Islamabad (Urdu and English movies) and Quetta (Balochi movies).Pakistani films are gaining its market in the local cticuit and international markets like Gulf countries, UK-Europe, US-North America and Far-East. Many Pakistani movies made their ways to Oscars' foreign language film category i.e. Jaago Hua Sawera-The Day Shall Dawn (1953), The Veil (Ghoonghat) (1963), Zinda Bhaag (2013), Dukhtar (2014), Moor (2015), Mah-e-Mir (2016), Saawan (2017), Cake (2018), Lal Kabootar (2019). Two Pakistani documentary films won the Oscars' for the best documentary film, these are, Saving Face (2012) and A Girl in the River (2016). Pakistani movies especially Urdu movies revolve around family drama, romance, love stories, comedy, thriller, social matters, political issues. In contemporary era some Pakistani films have gained international acclaim, these include, Khuda Kay Liye (In the name of God), Bol, Verna, Zinda Bhaag, Load-Wedding, Wrong Number, Cake, Teefa in Trouble, Lal Kabootar, Mah-e-Meer, Moor, Baaji. Punjabi cinema is mostly themed on romance, family drama and action while Pashto cinema revolves around action and tribal feuds. Major Film Awards include Lux Style Awards, ARY Film Awards, Nigar Awards and National Film Awards.


Bangladesh

The cinema of Bangladesh is the Bengali language film industry based in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The industry often has been a significant film industry since the early 1970s. The word "Dhallywood" is a portmanteau of the words Dhaka and
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood in the Central Los Angeles, central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a metonymy, shorthand reference for the Cinema of the United States, U.S. film industry and the people associated with i ...

Hollywood
. The dominant style of Bangladeshi cinema is Melodrama, Melodramatic cinema, which developed from 1947 to 1990 and characterizes most films to this day. Cinema was introduced in Bangladesh in 1898 by Bradford Bioscope Company, credited to have arranged the first film release in Bangladesh. Between 1913 and 1914, the first production company named Picture House was opened. A short silent film titled ''Sukumari'' (''The Good Girl'') was the first produced film in the region during 1928. The first full-length film ''The Last Kiss'', was released in 1931. From the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, Dhaka is the center of Bangladeshi film industry, and generated the majority share of revenue, production and audiences. The 1960s, 1970s, 1980s and the first half of the 1990s were the golden years for Bangladeshi films as the industry produced many successful films. ''Mukh O Mukhosh, The Face and the Mask'', the first Bengali language Bangladeshi full-length feature film was produced in 1956. Matir Moina, a 2002 film by Tarek Masud, became the first Bangladeshi film to be honored at Cannes Film Festival.


Indonesia

The biggest film studios in Southeast Asia has been soft opened on 5 November 2011 on 10 hectares of land in Nongsa, Batam Island, Indonesia. Infinite Frameworks (IFW) is a Singapore-based company (closed to Batam Island) which is owned by a consortium with 90 percent of it hold by Indonesian businessman and film producer, Mike Wiluan. In 2010–2011, due to the substantial increase in value added tax applied to foreign films, cinemas no longer had access to many foreign films, including Oscar-winning films. Foreign films include major box offices from the west, and other major film producers of the world. This caused a massive ripple effect on the country's economy. It is assumed that this increased the purchase of unlicensed DVDs. However, even copyright violating DVDs took longer to obtain. The minimum cost to view a foreign film not screened locally, was 1 million Rupiah. This was equivalent to US$100, as it includes a plane ticket to Singapore.


Malaysia

The cinema of Malaysia consists of feature films produced in Malaysia, shot in the languages English language, English, Tamil language, Tamil, Malay language, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin and Cantonese. Malaysia produces about 60 feature films annually, and between 300–400 television dramas and serials a year apart from the in-house productions by the individual television stations. The country also holds its own annual national level film awards, known as the Malaysia Film Festival. There are about 150 cinemas and cineplexes in Malaysia, showing not only local films but also foreign films.


Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago's film sector began emerging in the late fifties to early sixties and by the late seventies, there were a handful of local productions, both feature film and television. The first full-length feature film to be produced in Trinidad and Tobago was “The Right and the Wrong” (1970) by Indian director/writer/producer, Harbance Kumar. The screenplay was written by the Trinidadian playwright, Freddie Kissoon. The rest of the 20th century saw a couple more feature films being made in the country, with “Bim” (1974), being singled out by Bruce Paddington as "one of the most important films to be produced in Trinidad and Tobago….and one of the classics of Caribbean cinema.” It was one of the first films to feature an almost entirely Trinidadian cast and crew. There was a rise in Trinidadian film production in the 2000s. Films such as “Ivan the Terrible” (2004), “SistaGod” (2006), “I’m Santana: The Movie” (2012) and “God Loves the Fighter” (2013) were released both locally and internationally. “SistaGod” had its world premiere at the 2006 Toronto International Film Festival. The Trinidad and Tobago Film Company is the national agency that was established in 2006 to further development of the film industry. Trinidad and Tobago puts on a number of film festivals which are organized by different committees and organizations. These include the Secondary Schools Short Film Festival and Smartphone Film Festival organized by Trinidad and Tobago Film Company. There is also an annual Trinidad and Tobago Film Festival which runs for two weeks in the latter half of September.


Nepal

Nepali film does not have a very long film history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country. It is often referred to as 'Nepali Chalchitra' (which translates to "Nepali films" in English). The terms Kollywood and Kallywood are also used, as a portmanteau of "Kathmandu" and "Hollywood"; "Kollywood" however is more frequently used to refer to Tamil cinema. Chhakka Panja has been considered the highest-grossing film of all time in Nepali film industry and Kohinoor the second highest. The Nepali films The Black Hen (2015) and Kagbeni (film), Kagbeni (2006) received international acclaim. The Nepali feature film White Sun (Seto Surya) received the Best Film award at the 27th Singapore International Film Festival (SGIFF) in 2016.


History

Les frères Lumière released the first projection with the Cinematograph, in Paris on 28 December 1895. The French film industry in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the world's most important. Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinématographe and their L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat in Paris in 1895 is considered by many historians as the official birth of cinematography. The first feature film to be made was the 1906 Australian silent ''The Story of the Kelly Gang'', an account of the notorious gang led by Ned Kelly that was directed and produced by the Melbourne, Melburnians Dan Barry and Charles Tait (film director), Charles Tait. It ran, continuously, for eighty minutes. In the early 1910s, the film industry had fully emerged with D.W. Griffith's ''The Birth of a Nation''. Also in the early 1900s motion picture production companies from New York and New Jersey started moving to California because of the good weather and longer days. Although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight. Besides the moderate, dry climate, they were also drawn to the state because of its open spaces and wide variety of natural scenery.


Hollywood

The first movie studio in Hollywood area, Nestor Studios, was founded in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. Other
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studios had already moved production to Los Angeles. Over time, Hollywood came to be so strongly associated with the film industry that the word "Hollywood" is now used colloquially to refer to the entire American film industry. In 1913 Cecil B. DeMille, in association with Jesse Lasky, leased a barn with studio facilities in Hollywood where ''The Squaw Man (1914 film), The Squaw Man'' (1914) was made. It is now the location of the Hollywood Heritage Museum. The Charlie Chaplin Studios were built in 1917. The site was also used by Kling Studios, for the Adventures of Superman (TV series), ''Superman'' TV series; Red Skelton, who used the sound stages for his CBS TV variety show; and CBS, which filmed the TV series ''Perry Mason (1957 TV series), Perry Mason'' there. It has also been owned by Herb Alpert's A&M Records and Tijuana Brass Enterprises. It is currently The Jim Henson Company, home of the Muppets. In 1969 The Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board named it a historical cultural monument. The noted Hollywood Sign originally read "Hollywoodland." It was erected in 1923 to advertise a new housing development in the hills above Hollywood. In 1949 the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce stepped in and removed the last four letters and repaired the others. It is a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. The first
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., f ...
presentation ceremony took place on May 16, 1929. The period between the years 1927 (the effective end of the silent era) to 1948 is considered the age of the "Hollywood studio system", or the ''History of cinema#The Golden Age of Hollywood, Golden Age of Hollywood''. In a United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., landmark 1948 court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that movie studios could not own theaters and play only the movies of their studio and movie stars; thus an era of Hollywood history ended.


Bollywood

Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Cinema of the United States, Hollywood". The ...

Bollywood
is the Hindi-language film industry based in
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay , List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United Nat ...

Mumbai
(formerly known as Bombay), Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; however, it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centres producing films in multiple languages. Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centres of film production in the world. Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinema. Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use vernacular Hindustani language, Hindustani, mutually intelligible to self-identified speakers of both Hindi and Urdu, while modern Bollywood films also increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish. ''The Wrestlers'' (1899) and ''The Man and His Monkeys'' (1899), directed and produced by Harischandra Sakharam Bhatawdekar (H. S. Bhatavdekar), were the first two films made by Indian filmmakers, which were both short films. He was also the first Indian filmmaker to direct and produce the first documentary and news related film, titled ''The Landing of Sir M.M. Bhownuggree''. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition of India, Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapism, escapist, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937 Ardeshir Irani, of ''Alam Ara'' fame, made the first colour film in Hindi, ''Kisan Kanya (1937 film), Kisan Kanya''. The next year, he made another colour film, a version of ''Mother India''. Following Indian independence movement, India's independence, the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. Defining key figures during this time included Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt, Mehboob Khan, and Dilip Kumar.Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar
The Quint, 11 December 2015
The 1970s was when the name "Bollywood" was coined, and when the quintessential conventions of commercial Bollywood films were established. Key to this was the emergence of the masala film genre, which combines elements of multiple genres (Action film, action, Comedy film, comedy, Romance film, romance, Drama film, drama, melodrama, Musical film, musical). The masala film was pioneered in the early 1970s by filmmaker Nasir Hussain, along with screenwriter duo Salim–Javed, pioneering the Bollywood Blockbuster (entertainment), blockbuster format. Tollywood is the Telugu language Film Industry of India. Started by Royal Bioscope Company in 1898 by Hiralal Sen, along with Matilal Sen, Deboki Lal Sen, and Bholanath Gupta. Combining live theatre performances of actors, the Bengali industry was notable for using sound as an important part of the drama in its Bioscope format whose cinematic language was extremely different from Western silent films. This was followed by Jamshedji Framji Madan of the Elphinstone Bioscope Company who also controlled Madan Theatre Company. J J Madan became managing director of Madan Theatres after the death of his father in 1923 and Madan Theatres reached a peak in late 1920s when it owned 127 theatres and controlled half of the country's box office. Madan Theatres produced a number of popular and landmark films till 1937, parallel to works of '20s Bengali stars like Dhirendra Nath Ganguly who started the Indo British Film Co. – the first Bengali-owned production company in 1918. The rise of the industry followed in 1930s to 1940s when a diversity of films were made. Many prints were destroyed by fire. The prints and records of films from 1937 to 1947 films were majorly destroyed but this period in Bengal served as the age of political films in India which was supremely influential for the struggle for Indian Independence. After 1947, The industry saw a new era of creative studio-system collaborators who made films under the name of Agradoot. This saw a renaissance of commercial films and musicals where stars like Uttam Kumar and Suchitra Sen mesmerized the audience with their captivating screen presence and subdued performances. Ritwick Ghatak, Satyajit Ray, Tapan Sinha, Mrinal Sen and Rituparno Ghosh were the other notable directors whose works influenced world cinema beyond an incomparable degree. The name of the industry was coined after the place Tollygunge, which also served as a cheeky tribute to Hollywood.


Nollywood

Nollywood is a sobriquet that originally referred to the Cinema of Nigeria, Nigerian film industry. The origin of the term dates back to the early 2000s, traced to an article in ''The New York Times''. Due to the history of evolving meanings and contexts, there is no clear or agreed-upon definition for the term, which has made it a subject of several controversies. The origin of the term "Nollywood" remains unclear; Jonathan Haynes traced the earliest usage of the word to a 2002 article by Matt Steinglass in ''the New York Times'', where it was used to describe Nigerian cinema. Charles Igwe noted that Norimitsu Onishi also used the name in a September 2002 article he wrote for ''the New York Times''. The term continues to be used in the media to refer to the Nigerian film industry, with its definition later assumed to be a portmanteau of the words "Nigeria" and "
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood in the Central Los Angeles, central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a metonymy, shorthand reference for the Cinema of the United States, U.S. film industry and the people associated with i ...

Hollywood
", the American major film hub. Definition of which films are considered Nollywood has always been a subject of debate. Alex Eyengho defined Nollywood as "the totality of activities taking place in the Nigerian film industry, be it in English, Yoruba language, Yoruba, Hausa language, Hausa, Igbo language, Igbo, Itsekiri language, Itsekiri, Edo language, Edo, Efik language, Efik, Ijaw languages, Ijaw, Urhobo language, Urhobo or any other of the Languages of Nigeria, over 300 Nigerian languages". He further stated that "the historical trajectory of Nollywood started since the Filmmaking in Colonial Nigeria, pre and Golden Age of Nigerian cinema, post independent Nigeria, with the Theatre, theatrical (stage) and cinematic (celluloid) efforts of the likes of Chief Hubert Ogunde, Chief Amata, Moses Olaiya, Baba Sala, Ade Love, Eddie Ugbomah and a few others". The Influence of the Nigerian movie industry often referred to informally as Nollywood has influence all Africa countries. By the end of 2013, the film industry reportedly hit a record-breaking revenue of ₦1.72 trillion (US$4.1 billion). As of 2014, the industry was worth ₦853.9 billion (US$5.1 billion) Nollywood, Making It The Third Most Valuable Film Industry In The World behind the United States and India. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods.


Economics

Profitability of a
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, arc ...
is crucially dependent on picking the right film projects and involving the right management and creative teams (cast, direction, visual design, score, photography, costume, set design, editing, and many additional specialties), but it also depends heavily on choosing the right scale and approach to film promotion, control over receipts through technologies such as digital rights management (DRM), Hollywood accounting, sophisticated accounting practices, and management of tie-in, ancillary revenue streams; in the extreme, for a major media franchise centered on film, the film might itself be only one large component of many large contributions to total franchise revenue. The film industry is a brutally competitive winner-take-all market driven by wildly fluctuating "Nonlinear system, nonlinear processes". Box office revenue is highly concentrated in a small number of very successful films, and film industry market share is also highly concentrated in the film studios lucky enough to make such films. But the market is "extremely volatile" and it is impossible to predict in advance who will become the market winner at any given moment "or how long their domination will last". The dominant films and film studios "change places dramatically and often."


Statistics


Largest industries by number of film productions

The following is a list of the top 15 countries by the number of feature films (fiction, animation and documentary) produced, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, unless otherwise noted.


Largest markets by box office revenue

The following countries are the largest box office markets in terms of the gross box office revenue, according to the THEME Report 2020 by the Motion Picture Association, MPA (Motion Picture Association).


Largest markets by number of box office admissions

The following countries are the largest box office markets in terms of the number of tickets sold in 2019.Leading film markets worldwide by number of tickets sold 2019
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See also

* :Cinema by country, Cinema by country * List of cinema of the world * Independent film * Outline of film * Television


Footnotes


Bibliography

* Allen J. Scott (2005) ''On Hollywood: The Place The Industry'', Princeton University Press * Robertson, Patrick (1988) ''The Guinness Book of Movie Facts & Feats''. London: Guinness Publishing Limited * Arnab Jan Deka (27 Oct 1996) ''Fathers of Indian Cinema Bhatawdekar and Torney'', Dainik Asam * Sanjit Narwekar (1995) ''Marathi Cinema : In Retrospect'', Maharashtra Film, Stage & Cultural Development Corporation Ltd * Firoze Rangoonwalla (1979) ''A Pictorial History of Indian Cinema'', The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited * Barkin, Jordan. April 25, 2021. "When you enjoy Oscar Night, America Wins". USA Today online.


External links

*b:Movie making manual, Movie Making Manual wikibook
European Audiovisual Observatory


{{Authority control Film industry, Economics of the arts and literature Industries (economics)