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Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino) are the people who are citizens of or native to the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. The majority of Filipinos today come from various
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attr ...
s and non-native admixed
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

immigrant
groups, all typically speaking either
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
(
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
) and/or
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
and/or other
Philippine languages The Philippine languages are a proposed group by R. David Paul Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust Robert A. Blust (born 1940, ) is a prominent linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system ...
. Currently, there are more than 185
ethnolinguistic groups An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity and language. Most ethnic groups share a first language. However, the term is often used to emphasise that language is a major basis for th ...
in the Philippines; each with its own
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
, identity, culture and history.


Names

The name ''Filipino'', as a
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
, was derived from the term ''Las Islas Filipinas'' ("the Philippine Islands"), the name given to the archipelago in 1543 by the Spanish explorer and
Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the C ...
priest
Ruy López de Villalobos Ruy López de Villalobos (; ca. 1500 – April 4, 1544) was a Spain, Spanish List of explorers, explorer who sailed the Pacific from Mexico to establish a permanent foothold for Spain in the East Indies, which was near the Line of Demarcation bet ...
, in honor of
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
(Spanish: ''Felipe II''). During the Spanish colonial period, natives of the Philippine islands were usually known by the generic terms ''indio'' ("
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
") or ''indigenta'' ("indigents"). However, during the early Spanish colonial period the term ''Filipinos'' or ''Philipinos'' was sometimes used by Spanish writers to distinguish the ''indio'' natives of the Philippine archipelago from the ''indios'' of the Spanish colonies in other parts of the world. The term ''Indio Filipino'' appears as a term of self-identification beginning in the 18th century. In 1955,
Agnes Newton Keith Agnes Newton Keith (July 4, 1901 – March 30, 1982) was an American author best known for her three autobiographical accounts of life in North Borneo (now Sabah Sabah () is a States and federal territories of Malaysia, state of Malaysia lo ...
wrote that a 19th-century edict prohibited the use of the word "Filipino" to refer to indios. This reflected popular belief, although no such edict has been found. The idea that the term ''Filipino'' was not used to refer to ''indios'' until the 19th century has also been mentioned by historians such as Salah Jubair and
Renato Constantino Renato Constantino (March 10, 1919 – September 15, 1999) was a Filipino historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
. However, in a 1994 publication the historian William Henry Scott identified instances in Spanish writing where "Filipino" did refer to "indio" natives. Instances of such usage include the ''Relación de las Islas Filipinas'' (1604) of Pedro Chirino, in which he wrote chapters entitled "Of the civilities, terms of courtesy, and good breeding among the Filipinos" (Chapter XVI), "Of the Letters of the Filipinos" (Chapter XVII), "Concerning the false heathen religion, idolatries, and superstitions of the Filipinos" (Chapter XXI), "Of marriages, dowries, and divorces among the Filipinos" (Chapter XXX), while also using the term "Filipino" to refer unequivocally to the non-Spaniard natives of the archipelago like in the following sentence: In the ''Crónicas'' (1738) of Juan Francisco de San Antonio, the author devoted a chapter to "The Letters, languages and politeness of the Philippinos", while Francisco Antolín argued in 1789 that "the ancient wealth of the Philippinos is much like that which the Igorots have at present". These examples prompted the historian William Henry Scott to conclude that during the Spanish colonial period: While the Philippine-born Spaniards during the 19th century began to be called ''españoles filipinos'', logically contracted to just ''Filipino'', to distinguish them from the Spaniards born in Spain, they themselves resented the term, preferring to identify themselves as ''"hijo/s del país"'' ("sons of the country"). In the latter half of the 19th century, '' illustrados'', an educated class of ''
mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
'' (both
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
and
Sangley Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe a person of mixed Chinese people, Chinese and Ethnic groups i ...
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
, especially Chinese mestizos) and ''indios'' arose whose writings are credited with building Philippine nationalism. These writings are also credited with transforming the term ''Filipino'' to one which refers to everyone born in the Philippines, especially during the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
and
American Colonial Era The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 17th century (e.g., 1600s) until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. In the late 16th century, Kin ...
and the term shifting from a geographic designation to a national one as a citizenship nationality by law. Historian
Ambeth Ocampo Ambeth R. Ocampo (born 1961) is a Filipino public historian, cultural administrator, journalist, author and curator. A professor teaching courses of history at the Ateneo de Manila University The Ateneo de Manila University (Filipino language, Fi ...

Ambeth Ocampo
has suggested that the first documented use of the word ''Filipino'' to refer to Indios was the
Spanish-language Spanish () or Castilian (, ) is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a sub ...

Spanish-language
poem '' A la juventud filipina'', published in 1879 by
José Rizal José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalism, Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the History of the Philippines (1521–1898), Spanish colonial period o ...
. Writer and publisher
Nick Joaquin Nicomedes "Nick" Márquez Joaquín (; May 4, 1917 – April 29, 2004) was a Filipino writer and journalist best known for his short stories and novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account ...
has asserted that Luis Rodríguez Varela was the first to describe himself as ''Filipino'' in print. Apolinario Mabini (1896) used the term ''Filipino'' to refer to all inhabitants of the Philippines. Father Jose Burgos earlier called all natives of the archipelago as ''Filipinos''. In Wenceslao Retaña's ''Diccionario de filipinismos'', he defined ''Filipinos'' as follows, American authorities during the
American Colonial Era The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 17th century (e.g., 1600s) until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. In the late 16th century, Kin ...
also started to colloquially use the term ''Filipino'' to refer to the native inhabitants of the archipelago, but despite this, it became the official term for all
citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...

citizens
of the sovereign independent
Republic of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republi ...
, including non-native inhabitants of the country as per the
Philippine Nationality Law The Philippine nationality law is based upon the principles of ''jus sanguinis ( , , ; 'right of blood') is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a coun ...
. However, the term has been rejected as an identification in some instances by minorities who did not come under Spanish control, such as the
Igorot The indigenous peoples of the Cordillera Mountain Range of northern , are often referred to using the Igorot people, or more recently, as the Cordilleran peoples. There are nine main ethnolinguistic groups whose domains are in the , altogether ...
and
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
Moros In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of t ...
. The lack of the letter "''F''" in the pre-1987
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
alphabet (
Abakada The Abakada alphabet was an "indigenized" Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to th ...
) caused the letter "''P''" to be substituted for "''F''", though the alphabets and/or writing scripts of some non-Tagalog ethnic groups included the letter "F". Upon official adoption of the modern, 28-letter
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
alphabet in 1987, the term ''Filipino'' was preferred over ''Pilipino''. Locally, some still use "Pilipino" to refer to the people and "Filipino" to refer to the language, but in international use "Filipino" is the usual form for both. A number of Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "''
Pinoy ''Pinoy'' ( ) is an informal demonym referring to the Filipinos, Filipino people in the Philippines and their culture as well as to overseas Filipinos in the Filipino diaspora. A Pinoy with mix of foreign ancestry is called ''Tisoy'', a shortened ...
''" (feminine: "''Pinay''"), which is a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "''Filipino''" and adding the
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
"''-y''". In 2020, the neologism ''Filipinx'' appeared; a demonym applied only to those of Filipino heritage in the diaspora and specifically referring to and coined by Filipino-Americans imitating ''
Latinx ''Latinx'' is a gender-neutral neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering comm ...

Latinx
'', itself a recently coined gender-inclusive alternative to ''Latino'' or ''Latina''. An online dictionary made an entry of the term, applying it to all Filipinos within the Philippines or in the diaspora. In actual practice, however, the term is unknown among and not applied to Filipinos living in the Philippines, and ''Filipino'' itself is already treated as gender-neutral. The inaccurate statement entry in the dictionary resulted in confusion, backlash and ridicule from Filipinos residing in the Philippines who have never identified themselves with the foreign term. Native Filipinos were also called Manilamen (or Manila men) or Tagalas by English-speaking regions during the colonial era. They were mostly sailors and pearl-divers and established communities in various ports around the world. One of the notable settlements of Manilamen is the community of Saint Malo, Louisiana, founded at around 1763 to 1765 by escaped slaves and deserters from the
Spanish Navy The Spanish Navy ( es, link=no, Armada Española) is the Navy, maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Spanish navy was responsible for a number of major historic achievements in na ...
. There were also significant numbers of Manilamen in
Northern Australia The unofficial geographic term Northern Australia includes those parts of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Aust ...

Northern Australia
and the
Torres Strait Islands The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands in the Torres Strait, a waterway separating far northern continental Australia's Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea. They span an area of , but their total land ...
in the late 1800s who were employed in the
pearl hunting Pearl hunting, also known as pearling, is the activity of recovering pearls from wild molluscs Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate animals after the Arthropoda. The members are known as molluscs or mollusks (). Around 85,000 ...
industries. In
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
(especially in the
Mexican Mexican may refer to: Mexico and its culture *Being related to, from, or connected to the country of Mexico, in North America ** Being related to the State of Mexico, one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico ** Culture of Mexico *** Mexican cuisi ...

Mexican
states of
Guerrero Guerrero (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 32 states that comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List ...

Guerrero
and
Colima Colima (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Colima ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Colima), is one of the 31 states that make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the Unite ...
), Filipino immigrants arriving to
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
during the 16th and 17th centuries via the
Manila galleon fil, Galyon ng Maynila , english_name = Manila Galleon , duration = From 1565 to 1815 (250 years) , venue = Between Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( f ...
s were called ''chino'', which led to the confusion of early Filipino immigrants with that of the much later Chinese immigrants to Mexico from the 1880s to the 1940s. A genetic study in 2018 has also revealed that around one-third of the population of Guerrero have 10% Filipino ancestry.


History


Prehistory

In 2010, a
metatarsal The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes. Lacking individual names, the metatarsal bones are numbered from the me ...
from "
Callao Man ''Homo luzonensis'', also locally called "Ubag" after a mythical caveman, is an extinct, possibly pygmy peoples, pygmy, species of archaic human from the Late Pleistocene of Luzon, the Philippines. Their remains, teeth and phalanges, are known onl ...
", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a
skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North A ...

skull
and
jawbone In anatomy, the mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human facial skeleton. It forms the lower jaw and holds the lower tooth, teeth in place. The mandible sits beneath the maxilla. It is the only movable ...

jawbone
, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B. Fox, an
anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the norm ...

anthropologist
from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed that they belonged to modern human beings. These include the
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread of , characterized by and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced , , and . Humans are highly social and tend to live in complex s composed of many ...

Homo sapiens
as distinguished from the mid-
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread s ...

Homo erectus
species. The "
Tabon Man Tabon Man refers to remains discovered in the Tabon Caves in Lipuun Point in Quezon, Palawan Palawan (pronounced ), officially the Province of Palawan ( cyo, Probinsya i'ang Palawan; tl, Lalawigan ng Palawan; hil, Kapuoran sang Palawan; ...
" fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent
Upper Pleistocene The Late Pleistocene is an unofficial Age (geology), age in the international geologic timescale in chronostratigraphy, also known as Upper Pleistocene from a Stratigraphy, stratigraphic perspective. It is intended to be the fourth division of t ...
dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago.
Mongoloid Mongoloid () is an Historical race concepts, obsolete racial grouping of various people indigenous to large parts of Asia, the Americas, and some regions in Oceania. The term is derived from a now-disproven theory of biological race. In the past, ...
is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the
Austronesian people The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
(associated with the Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)
genetic marker A genetic marker is a gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word gene to describe the Mendelian_inheritance#History, Mendelian units of heredity..." (Greek language, Greek) meaning ''generation'' or ''birth ...
), a group of
Malayo-Polynesian The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are spoken by the Austronesian peoples outside of Taiwan, in the island nations of Southeast A ...
-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals or Rhea's. Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 150,000 BC and 17,000 BC connected the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( ceb, Kapupud-ang Malay, ms, Kepulauan Melayu, tgl, Kapuluang Malay, jv, Nusantara) is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of ...

Malay Archipelago
region with
Maritime Southeast Asia Maritime Southeast Asia comprises the countries of Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Singapore. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as Island Southeast Asia, Insular Southeast Asia ...
and the Philippines. This may have enabled ancient migrations into the Philippines from Maritime Southeast Asia approximately 50,000 BC to 13,000 BC. A January 2009 study of language phylogenies by R. D. Gray at the
University of California, Los Angeles The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Los Angeles, California. UCLA’s academic roots were established in 1882 as a teachers college then known ...
published in the journal ''
Science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...
'', suggests that the population expansion of
Austronesian peoples The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eas ...
was triggered by rising sea levels of the
Sunda shelf Geologically Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into t ...

Sunda shelf
at the end of the last ice age. This was a two-pronged expansion, which moved north through the Philippines and into Taiwan, while a second expansion prong spread east along the
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
coast and into Oceania and Polynesia. The
Negrito The term Negrito () refers to several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical so ...

Negrito
s are likely descendants of the
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
populations of the Sunda landmass and New Guinea, pre-dating the
Mongoloid Mongoloid () is an Historical race concepts, obsolete racial grouping of various people indigenous to large parts of Asia, the Americas, and some regions in Oceania. The term is derived from a now-disproven theory of biological race. In the past, ...
peoples who later entered Southeast Asia. Multiple studies also show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with
Australo-Melanesians Australo-Melanesians (also known as Australasians or Australomelanesoid race or Australoid race) is an outdated historical grouping of various people indigenous to Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific ...
. They were the ancestors of such tribes of the Philippines as the
Aeta The Aeta (Ayta ), Agta, or Dumagat, are collective terms for several Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
, Agta, Ayta, Ati, Dumagat and other similar groups. Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total Philippine population. The majority of present-day Filipinos are a product of the long process of evolution and movement of people. After the mass migrations through land bridges, migrations continued by boat during the maritime era of South East Asia. The ancient races became homogenized into the Malayo-Polynesians which colonized the majority of the Philippine, Malaysian and Indonesian archipelagos. Naturales 4.png,
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
''maharlika'', c.1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Naturales 5.png,
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
''maginoo'', c.1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Visayans 3.png,
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...
''kadatuan'', c.1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Naturales 2.png, Native
commoner '' A commoner, also known as the ''common man'', ''commoners'', the ''common people'' or the ''masses'', was in earlier use an ordinary person in a community or nation who did not have any significant social status, especially one who was a memb ...
women (likely
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
in
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
at the time), c.1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Visayans 2.png,
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...
''timawa'', c.1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Visayans 1.png,
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...
''pintados'' (tattooed), c. 1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Naturales 1.png,
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...
''uripon'' (slaves), c. 1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex
Native of Visayan origin.jpg, ''
Binukot ''Binukot'' ( Hiligaynon: confined, secluded or restricted) is a Filipino cultural practice that secludes a young woman with the expectation that seclusion will result in a higher value placed on the girl by marital suitors in the future. The prac ...
'' from
Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan ...
, c. 1590
Boxer Codex The ''Boxer Codex'' ( es, Códice Boxer), sometimes known as the ''Manila Manuscript'', is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish c ...

Boxer Codex


Archaic epoch (to 1565)

Since at least the 3rd century, various ethnic groups established several communities. These were formed by the assimilation of various native Philippine kingdoms.
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
n and
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
n people together with the people of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula, traded with Filipinos and introduced
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
to the native tribes of the Philippines. Most of these people stayed in the Philippines where they were slowly absorbed into local societies. Many of the ''
barangay A barangay (; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), sometimes referred to by its archaic name barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a Village#Philippines, village, d ...

barangay
'' (tribal municipalities) were, to a varying extent, under the ''de jure'' jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langua ...
,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
nese
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
,
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...
,
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been listed ...
, Indian
Chola The Chola dynasty ( ta, சோழ வம்சம்) was a Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia **Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka **Tamil Malaysian ...

Chola
,
Champa Champa (Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams The Chams or Cham people ( Cham: ''Urang Campa'' / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨛꨩ, vi, người Chăm or người Chàm, km, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethni ...

Champa
and , although ''de facto'' had established their own independent system of rule. Trading links with
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia S ...

Sumatra
,
Borneo Borneo (; id, Kalimantan) is the third-List of islands by area, largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java Is ...

Borneo
,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
,
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
,
Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language f ...
,
Indochina Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula or Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
and
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
. A
thalassocracy A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa, , , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power), somet ...
had thus emerged based on international trade. Even scattered barangays, through the development of inter-island and international trade, became more culturally homogeneous by the 4th century.
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as ...
-
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitu ...

Buddhist
culture and religion flourished among the noblemen in this era. In the period between the 7th to the beginning of the 15th centuries, numerous prosperous centers of trade had emerged, including the Kingdom of
Namayan Namayan (Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit: or (''Sapa''), Post-Kudlit: ), also called Sapa,Locsin, Leandro V. and Cecilia Y. Locsin. 1967. ''Oriental Ceramics Discovered in the Philippines.'' Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. Maysapan or Nasapan, and ...

Namayan
which flourished alongside
Manila Bay Manila Bay ( fil, Look ng Maynila) is a natural harbor that serves the Port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines. Strategically located around the Manila, capital city of the Philippines, Manila Bay facilitated commerce and trade between the ...

Manila Bay
,
Cebu Cebu (; ceb, Sugbo), officially the Province of Cebu ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Sugbo; tl, Lalawigan ng Cebu), is a of the located in the , and consists of a main island and . Its capital is , nicknamed "the Queen City of the South", the oldest ...

Cebu
,
Iloilo Iloilo (), officially the Province of Iloilo ( hil, Kapuoran sang Iloilo; krj, Kapuoran kang Iloilo; tl, Lalawigan ng Iloilo), is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrati ...
,
Butuan (pronounced ), officially the ( ceb, Dakbayan sa ; Butuanon: ''Dakbayan hong ''; tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science ...
, the Kingdom of Sanfotsi situated in
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative div ...

Pangasinan
, the Kingdom of Luzon now known as
Pampanga Pampanga, officially the Province of Pampanga ( pam, Lalawigan ning Pampanga; tl, Lalawigan ng Pampanga) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Central Luzon Regions of the Philippines, region of the Philippines. Lying on the northe ...
which specialized in trade with most of what is now known as Southeast Asia and with China, Japan and the
Kingdom of Ryukyu The Ryukyu Kingdom ( ryu, 琉球國 ''Ruuchuu-kuku''; ja, 琉球王国 ''Ryūkyū Ōkoku''; Middle Chinese: ''Ljuw-gjuw kwok''; historical English language, English names: ''Lewchew'', ''Luchu'', and ''Loochoo'') was a kingdom in the Ryukyu Islan ...
in
Okinawa is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

Okinawa
. From the 9th century onwards, a large number of
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
traders from the Middle East settled in the
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( ceb, Kapupud-ang Malay, ms, Kepulauan Melayu, tgl, Kapuluang Malay, jv, Nusantara) is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of ...

Malay Archipelago
and intermarried with the local
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
, Bruneian, Malaysian, Indonesian and
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
and
Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan ...
indigenous populations. In the years leading up to 1000 AD, there were already several maritime societies existing in the islands but there was no unifying political
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
encompassing the entire Philippine archipelago. Instead, the region was dotted by numerous semi-autonomous ''
barangays A barangay (; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), sometimes referred to by its archaic name barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a Village#Philippines, village, di ...
'' (settlements ranging is size from villages to city-states) under the sovereignty of competing
thalassocracies A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa () , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power) is a s ...
ruled by
datu Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially i ...
s,
rajah ''Raja'' (; from sa, राजन्, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguist ...

rajah
s or
sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

sultan
s or by upland agricultural societies ruled by "petty plutocrats". States such as the Wangdoms of
Ma-i Ma-i or Maidh (also spelled Ma'I, Mai, Ma-yi or Mayi; Baybayin (, ''pre-kudlit'': , ''virama-krus-kudlit'': , ''virama-pamudpod'': ; also formerly commonly incorrectly known as alibata) is a Philippine script. The script Script may ref ...
and
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative div ...
,
Kingdom of Maynila In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter ...
,
Namayan Namayan (Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit: or (''Sapa''), Post-Kudlit: ), also called Sapa,Locsin, Leandro V. and Cecilia Y. Locsin. 1967. ''Oriental Ceramics Discovered in the Philippines.'' Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. Maysapan or Nasapan, and ...

Namayan
, the
Kingdom of Tondo In early Philippine history, the Tagalog settlement at Tondo (; Baybayin: ) was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, on Luzon island.Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the P ...
, the Kedatuans of Madja-as and Dapitan, the Rajahnates of
Butuan (pronounced ), officially the ( ceb, Dakbayan sa ; Butuanon: ''Dakbayan hong ''; tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science ...
and
Cebu Cebu (; ceb, Sugbo), officially the Province of Cebu ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Sugbo; tl, Lalawigan ng Cebu), is a of the located in the , and consists of a main island and . Its capital is , nicknamed "the Queen City of the South", the oldest ...
and the sultanates of
Maguindanao Maguindanao (, Maguindanaon: ''Prubinsya nu Magindanaw''; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attrib ...
, Lanao and
Sulu Sulu (; Tausūg: ''Wilāya sin Lupa' Sūg''; tl, Lalawigan ng Sulu) is a province of the Philippines In the Philippines, provinces ( tl, lalawigan) are one of its primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines, administrat ...

Sulu
existed alongside the highland societies of the
Ifugao Ifugao ( ilo, Probinsia ti Ifugao; tl, Lalawigan ng Ifugao) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...
and
Mangyan Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups found on the island of Mindoro, southwest of the island of Luzon, the Philippines, each with its own tribal name, language, and customs. The total population may be around 280,000, ...
. Some of these regions were part of the Malayan empires of
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langua ...
,
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
and
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...
.


Historic caste systems

Datu Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially i ...
– The
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
''
maginoo The Tagalog people, Tagalog ''maginoo'', the Kapampangan people, Kapampangan ''ginu'', and the Visayan people, Visayan ''tumao'' were the nobility social class among various cultures of the pre-colonial Philippines. Among the Visayans, the ''tumao ...
'', the
KapampanganKapampangan, Capampañgan or Pampangan may refer to: *Kapampangan people The Kapampangan people ( pam, Taung Kapampangan), Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the sixth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2,784,526 in 2 ...
''ginu'' and the
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...

Visayan
''tumao'' were the nobility social class among various cultures of the pre-colonial Philippines. Among the Visayans, the tumao were further distinguished from the immediate royal families or a ruling class.
Timawa The ''Timawa'' (Spanish language, Spanish spelling: ''Timagua'') were the feudalism, feudal warrior class of the ancient Visayan people, Visayan societies of the Philippines. They were regarded as higher than the ''uripon'' (commoners, serfs, and s ...
– The timawa class were free commoners of Luzon and the Visayas who could own their own land and who did not have to pay a regular tribute to a maginoo, though they would, from time to time, be obliged to work on a datu's land and help in community projects and events. They were free to change their allegiance to another datu if they married into another community or if they decided to move.
Maharlika The ''Maharlika'' (meaning freeman or freedman A freedman or freedwoman is a formerly enslaved person who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, enslaved people were freed by manumission (granted freedom by their ...
– Members of the Tagalog warrior class known as maharlika had the same rights and responsibilities as the timawa, but in times of war they were bound to serve their datu in battle. They had to arm themselves at their own expense, but they did get to keep the loot they took. Although they were partly related to the nobility, the maharlikas were technically less free than the timawas because they could not leave a datu's service without first hosting a large public feast and paying the datu between 6 and 18 pesos in gold – a large sum in those days.
Alipin The ''alipin'' refers to the lowest social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government A government is the system or group ...
– Commonly described as "servant" or "slave". However, this is inaccurate. The concept of the alipin relied on a complex system of obligation and repayment through labor in ancient Philippine society, rather than on the actual purchase of a person as in Western and Islamic
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
. Members of the alipin class who owned their own houses were more accurately equivalent to medieval European
serf Serfdom was the status of many peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial farmhand, agricultural laborer or a farmer with limited land-ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and tenant farmer, paying rent, tax, fee ...
s and commoners. By the 15th century, Arab and Indian missionaries and traders from Malaysia and Indonesia brought Islam to the Philippines, where it both replaced and was practiced together with indigenous religions. Before that, indigenous tribes of the Philippines practiced a mixture of
Animism Animism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...

Animism
,
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
. Native villages, called ''barangays'' were populated by locals called Timawa (Middle Class/freemen) and Alipin (servants and slaves). They were ruled by
Rajah ''Raja'' (; from sa, राजन्, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguist ...

Rajah
s,
Datu Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially i ...
s and
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

Sultan
s, a class called
Maginoo The Tagalog people, Tagalog ''maginoo'', the Kapampangan people, Kapampangan ''ginu'', and the Visayan people, Visayan ''tumao'' were the nobility social class among various cultures of the pre-colonial Philippines. Among the Visayans, the ''tumao ...
(royals) and defended by the
Maharlika The ''Maharlika'' (meaning freeman or freedman A freedman or freedwoman is a formerly enslaved person who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, enslaved people were freed by manumission (granted freedom by their ...
(Lesser nobles, royal warriors and aristocrats). These Royals and Nobles are descended from native Filipinos with varying degrees of
Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also

*Aryan invasion theory (disambiguation) *Indo-Aryan tribes (disambigua ...
and
Dravidian Dravidian, Dravidan, or Dravida may refer to: Language and culture *Dravidian languages, a family of languages spoken mainly in South India and northeastern Sri Lanka *Proto-Dravidian language, a model of the common ancestor of the Dravidian langu ...
, which is evident in today's DNA analysis among South East Asian Royals. This tradition continued among the Spanish and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
traders who also intermarried with the local populations.


Hispanic settlement and rule (1521–1898)

The Philippines was settled by the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
. The arrival of Portuguese explorer
Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magellan ( or ; pt, Fernão de Magalhães, ; es, link=no, Fernando de Magallanes, ; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information In ...

Ferdinand Magellan
( pt, Fernão de Magalhães, italic=no) in 1521 began a period of European colonization. During the period of Spanish
colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose the ...

colonialism
, the Philippines was part of the
Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

Viceroy
alty of
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...

New Spain
, which was governed and administered from
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
. Early Spanish settlers were mostly explorers, soldiers, government officials and religious
missionaries A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), va ...
born in Spain and Mexico. Most Spaniards who settled were of
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...

Basque
ancestry, but there were also settlers of Andalusian,
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...

Catalan
, and
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...

Moorish
descent. The ''Peninsulares'' (governors born in Spain), mostly of
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...
ancestry, settled in the islands to govern their territory. Most settlers married the daughters of
rajah ''Raja'' (; from sa, राजन्, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguist ...

rajah
s,
datu Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially i ...
s and
sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

sultan
s to reinforce the colonization of the islands. The ''Ginoo'' and ''Maharlika'' castes (royals and nobles) in the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spanish formed the privileged '' Principalía'' (nobility) during the early Spanish period. The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines, especially through the commencement of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade that connected the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
through
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
to
Acapulco Acapulco de Juárez (), commonly called Acapulco ( , also ), is a city and major seaport in the Political divisions of Mexico, state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular b ...

Acapulco
in
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
, attracted new waves of immigrants from
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, as Manila was already previously connected to the
Maritime Silk Road The Maritime Silk Road or Maritime Silk Route refers to the maritime section of the historic Silk Road The Silk Road was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, and was central to the eco ...
and Maritime Jade Road, as shown in the , from
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
and/or
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying a ...

Zhangzhou
in
Southern Fujian Minnan, Southern Fujian or Minnan Golden Triangle (), refers to the coastal region in Southern Fujian, Fujian Province, China, which includes the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities of Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The region accounts f ...
to
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
, maritime trade flourished during the Spanish period, especially as Manila was connected to the ports of
Southern Fujian Minnan, Southern Fujian or Minnan Golden Triangle (), refers to the coastal region in Southern Fujian, Fujian Province, China, which includes the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities of Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The region accounts f ...
, such as
Yuegang Yuegang (月港, literally 'Moon Harbour') was a seaport situated at the estuary of the Jiulong River near Zhangzhou in Fujian, China. Known as a smuggling hub since the early Ming dynasty, Yuegang rose to prominence in the 16th century as the Ming ...
(the old port of Haicheng in
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying a ...

Zhangzhou
,
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
). The Spanish recruited thousands of Chinese migrant workers from "''Chinchew''" (
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
), "''Chiõ Chiu''" (
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying a ...

Zhangzhou
), "''Canton''" (
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
), and
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lond ...

Macau
called ''
sangley Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe a person of mixed Chinese people, Chinese and Ethnic groups i ...
s'' (from
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
) to build the colonial infrastructure in the islands. Many Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity, intermarried with the locals, and adopted Hispanized names and customs and became assimilated, although the children of unions between Filipinos and Chinese that became assimilated continued to be designated in official records as '' mestizos de sangley''. The Chinese mestizos were largely confined to the
Binondo Binondo () is a district in Manila and is referred to as the city's Chinatown. Its influence extends beyond to the places of Quiapo, Manila, Quiapo, Santa Cruz, Manila, Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Manila, San Nicolas and Tondo, Manila, Tondo. It i ...

Binondo
area until the 19th century. However, they eventually spread all over the islands and became traders, landowners and moneylenders. Today, their descendants still comprise a significant part of the
Philippine population Demography of the Philippines records the human population, including its population density, ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them ...
especially its
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
, who during the late Spanish Colonial Era in the late 19th century, produced a major part of the ''
ilustrado The Ilustrados (, "erudite", "learned" or "enlightened ones") constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century. Elsewhere in New Spain (of which the Philippines were part), the term '' gente de ...
''
intelligentsia The intelligentsia is a status class The German sociologist Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German Sociology, sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economy, political economist, who is regar ...
of the late Spanish Colonial Philippines, that were very influential with the creation of
Filipino nationalism File:Flag of the Philippines.svg, Flag of the Philippines, 230x230px Filipino nationalism refers to the establishment and support of a political identity associated with the modern nation-state of the Philippines, leading to a wide-ranging campaign ...
and the sparking of the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
as part of the foundation of the
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collec ...
and subsequent sovereign independent
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. Today, the bulk of the families in the list of the political families in the Philippines have such family background. Meanwhile, the colonial-era Sangley's pure ethnic Chinese descendants of which, replenished by later migrants in the 20th century, that preserved at least some of their
Chinese culture Chinese culture () is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago. The culture prevails across a large geographical region in East Asia and is extremely diverse and varying, with customs and traditions varying grea ...
, integrated together with mainstream
Filipino culture The culture of the Philippines is a combination of cultures of the East East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or car ...
, are now in the form of the modern
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino
community, who currently play a leading role in the Philippine business sector and contribute a significant share of the
Philippine economy The economy of the Philippines is the world's List of countries by GDP (nominal), 29th largest economy by nominal GDP according to the International Monetary Fund 2020 and the Economy of Asia, 13th largest economy in Asia. The Philippines is one o ...
today, where most in the current list of the Philippines' richest each year comprise
Taipan Taipans are snakes of the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also r ...
billionaire A billionaire is a person with a net worth of at least 1,000,000,000, one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e., a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually of a major currency such as the United States dollar, euro, or pound sterling. The Am ...

billionaire
s of Chinese Filipino background, mostly of
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
descent, where most still trace their roots back to mostly Jinjiang or Nan'an within
Quanzhou Quanzhou, alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait, also known as the Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait A strait is a natural ...

Quanzhou
or sometimes
Xiamen Xiamen ( , ; ), also known as Amoy (, from pronunciation ), is a in southeastern , People's Republic of China, beside the . It is divided into six : , , , , , and . All together, these cover an area of with a population of 5,163,970 a ...

Xiamen
(Amoy) or
Zhangzhou Zhangzhou (), alternately romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying a ...

Zhangzhou
, all within
Southern Fujian Minnan, Southern Fujian or Minnan Golden Triangle (), refers to the coastal region in Southern Fujian, Fujian Province, China, which includes the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities of Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The region accounts f ...
, the Philippines' historical trade partner with
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

Mainland China
. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...
traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. Many were assimilated throughout the centuries, especially through the tumultuous period of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Today, there is a small growing Nikkei community of Japanese Filipinos in Davao with roots to the old in Mintal or Calinan in
Davao City , officially the ( ceb, Dakbayan sa Dabaw; tl, Lungsod ng Davao), is a in the , . The city has a total land area of , making it the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is the third-most populous city in the Philipp ...
during the
American colonial period The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 17th century (e.g., 1600s) until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. In the late 16th century, Kin ...
, where many had roots starting out in Abaca plantations or from workers of the Benguet Road (
Kennon Road Kennon Road, also known as Rosario–Baguio Road, is a two lane roadway A carriageway (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic langu ...
) to
Baguio ( , ), officially the ( ibl, Syudad ne Bag-iw; ; ilo, Siudad ti ; tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the , . It is known as the "Summer Capital of the Philippines", owing to its cool climate since ...

Baguio
. British forces occupied Manila between 1762 and 1764 as a part of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
. However, the only part of the Philippines which the British held was the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the principal naval port of
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
, both of which are located on
Manila Bay Manila Bay ( fil, Look ng Maynila) is a natural harbor that serves the Port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines. Strategically located around the Manila, capital city of the Philippines, Manila Bay facilitated commerce and trade between the ...

Manila Bay
. The war was ended by the
Treaty of Paris (1763) The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area ...
. At the end of the war the treaty signatories were not aware that Manila had been taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony. Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
. Many
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
Sepoy ''Sepoy'' () was originally the designation given to a professional Indian infantryman, usually armed with a musket s aboard the frigate A frigate () is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over time. In the 17th century, ...

Sepoy
troops and their British captains mutinied and were left in Manila and some parts of the
Ilocos Ilocos Region ( ilo, Rehion/Deppaar ti Ilocos; pag, Sagor na Baybay na Luzon; tl, Rehiyon ng Ilocos) is an administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the admi ...

Ilocos
and
Cagayan Cagayan ( ) ( ilo, Probinsia ti Cagayan; ibg, Provinsiya na Cagayan; itv, Provinsiya ya Cagayan; tl, Lalawigan ng Cagayan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative ...
. The
Indian Filipino Indian Filipinos are Filipinos Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino; Baybayin: ᜋᜅ ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ) are the people who are native to or citizens of the country of the Philippines. Filipinos come from various Austronesian people, Austrone ...
s in Manila settled at
Cainta, Rizal , officially the ( tgl, Bayan ng ), is a in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and admi ...
and the ones in the north settled in Isabela. Most were assimilated into the local population. A total of 110 Manila-Acapulco galleons set sail between 1565 and 1815, during the Philippines trade with Mexico. Until 1593, three or more ships would set sail annually from each port bringing with them the riches of the archipelago to Spain. European ''criollos'', ''mestizos'' and Portuguese, French and Mexican descent from the Americas, mostly from Latin America came in contact with the Filipinos.
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...
,
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
and Cambodian Christians who fled from religious persecutions and killing fields also settled in the Philippines during the 17th until the 19th centuries. With the inauguration of the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
in 1867,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
opened the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
for international trade. European investors such as British, Dutch, German, Portuguese, Russian, Italian and French were among those who settled in the islands as business increased. More Spaniards and Chinese arrived during the next century. Many of these migrants intermarried with local ''mestizos'' and assimilated with the indigenous population. In the 1860s to 1890s, in the urban areas of the Philippines, especially at Manila, according to burial statistics, as much as 3.3% of the population were pure European Spaniards and the pure Chinese were as high as 9.9%. The Spanish Filipino and Chinese Filipino Mestizo populations also fluctuated. Eventually, many families belonging to the non-native categories from centuries ago beyond the late 19th century diminished because their descendants intermarried enough and were assimilated into and chose to self-identify as Filipinos while forgetting their ancestor's roots since during the Philippine Revolution to modern times, the term "Filipino" was expanded to include everyone born in the Philippines coming from any race, as per the
Philippine Nationality Law The Philippine nationality law is based upon the principles of ''jus sanguinis ( , , ; 'right of blood') is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a coun ...
. That would explain the abrupt drop of otherwise high Chinese, Spanish and mestizo, percentages across the country by the time of the first American census in 1903. By the 20th century, the remaining ethnic Spaniards and ethnic Chinese, replenished by further Chinese migrants in the 20th century, now later came to compose the modern
Spanish Filipino Spanish Filipinos ( es, Español Filipino / Hispano Filipino; cbk, Español Filipino / Hispano Filipino / Conio; Filipino language, Filipino/ tl, Kastilà / Espanyól / Tisoy / Konyo; ceb, Katsílà / Ispaniyul; hil, Katsílà / Espanyól) are ...
community and
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino
community respectively, where families of such background contribute a significant share of the
Philippine economy The economy of the Philippines is the world's List of countries by GDP (nominal), 29th largest economy by nominal GDP according to the International Monetary Fund 2020 and the Economy of Asia, 13th largest economy in Asia. The Philippines is one o ...
today, where most in the current list of the Philippines' richest each year comprise
billionaire A billionaire is a person with a net worth of at least 1,000,000,000, one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e., a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually of a major currency such as the United States dollar, euro, or pound sterling. The Am ...

billionaire
s of either
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino
background or the old elite families of
Spanish Filipino Spanish Filipinos ( es, Español Filipino / Hispano Filipino; cbk, Español Filipino / Hispano Filipino / Conio; Filipino language, Filipino/ tl, Kastilà / Espanyól / Tisoy / Konyo; ceb, Katsílà / Ispaniyul; hil, Katsílà / Espanyól) are ...
background.


Late modern

After the defeat of Spain during the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
in 1898, Filipino general,
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phil ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
declared
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...
on June 12 while General
Wesley Merritt Wesley Merritt (June 16, 1836December 3, 1910) was an American major general who served in the cavalry Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldiers or warriors who Horses in warfare, f ...

Wesley Merritt
became the first American
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
of the Philippines. On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris formally ended the war, with Spain ceding the Philippines and other colonies to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
in exchange for $20 million. The Philippine–American War resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 Filipino civilians. Some estimates for total civilian dead reach up to 1,000,000. After the Philippine–American War, the United States civil governance was established in 1901, with
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857March 8, 1930) was the 27th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of ...

William Howard Taft
as the first American Governor-General. A number of Americans settled in the islands and thousands of interracial marriages between Americans and Filipinos have taken place since then. Owing to the strategic location of the Philippines, as many as 21 bases and 100,000 military personnel were stationed there since the United States first colonized the islands in 1898. These bases were decommissioned in 1992 after the end of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of tension between the and the and their respective allies, the and the , which began following . Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span ...
, but left behind thousands of
Amerasian An Amerasian originally meant a person born in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It share ...
children. The country gained
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...

independence
from the United States in 1946. The Pearl S. Buck International Foundation estimates there are 52,000 Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines. However, according to the center of Amerasian Research, there might be as many as 250,000 Amerasians scattered across the cities of
Clark Clark is an English language surname, ultimately derived from the Latin language, Latin with historical links to England and Ireland ''clericus'' meaning "scribe", "secretary" or a scholar within a religious order, referring to someone who was educ ...
,
Angeles City , anthem = Himno ning Angeles (Angeles Hymn) , subdivision_type3 = House of Representatives of the Philippines#District representation, District , subdivision_name3 = Legislative districts o ...
,
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
, and
Olongapo , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ; ilo, Siudad ti ; xsb, Siyodad nin ; pam, Lakanbalen ning ; pag, Siyudad na ), is a in the region of the . Located in the province A province is almost always an administrative division Admin ...
. In addition, numerous Filipino men enlisted in the US Navy and made careers in it, often settling with their families in the United States. Some of their second- or third-generation families returned to the country. Following its independence, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving American, European, Chinese and Japanese peoples. After World War II,
South Asians South Asian ethnic groups are ethnolinguistic composition of the diverse population of South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region cons ...

South Asians
continued to migrate into the islands, most of which assimilated and avoided the local social stigma instilled by the early Spaniards against them by keeping a low profile and/or by trying to pass as Spanish mestizos. This was also true for the Arab and Chinese immigrants, many of whom are also post WWII arrivals. More recent migrations into the country by
Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") ...
,
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...
,
Brazilians Brazilians ( pt, Brasileiros, ) are the citizens of Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square ki ...

Brazilians
and other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape, language and culture. Centuries of
migration Migration, migratory, or migrate may refer to: Human migration * Human migration, physical movement by humans from one region to another ** International migration, when peoples cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum len ...

migration
,
diaspora A diaspora () is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Historically, the word diaspora was used to refer to the mass dispersion of a population from its indigenous territories, specifically the dispersion ...

diaspora
, assimilation and
cultural diversity Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture In agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the ris ...
made most Filipinos accepting of
interracial marriage Interracial marriage is a marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as ...
and
multiculturalism The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social ...

multiculturalism
.
Philippine nationality law The Philippine nationality law is based upon the principles of ''jus sanguinis ( , , ; 'right of blood') is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a coun ...
is currently based upon the principle of ''
jus sanguinis ( , , ; 'right of blood') is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is determined or acquired by the nationality or ethnicity of one or both parents. Children at birth may be citizens of a particular state if either or both of th ...
'' and, therefore, descent from a parent who is a citizen of the Republic of the Philippines is the primary method of acquiring national citizenship. Birth in the Philippines to foreign parents does not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA9139, the Administrative Naturalization Law of 2000, does provide a path for administrative naturalization of certain aliens born in the Philippines. Since many of the above historical groups came to the Philippines before its establishment as an independent state, many have also gained citizenship before the founding of either the First Philippines Republic or
Third Republic of the Philippines Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers * 3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics) A fraction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European ...
. For example, many Cold-War-era who had relatives in the Philippines attain Filipino citizenship for their children through
marriage Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other Significant other (SO) is colloquially used as a term ...

marriage
with
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino
families that trace back to either the late Spanish Colonial Era or
American Colonial Era The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 17th century (e.g., 1600s) until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. In the late 16th century, Kin ...
. Likewise, many other modern expatriates from various countries, such as the , often come to the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
to marry with a Filipino citizen, ensuring their future children attain Filipino citizenship and their Filipino spouses ensure property ownership.


Social classifications

During the Spanish colonial period,
Spaniards Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a predominantly Romance peoples, Romance-speaking ethnic group native to Spain. Within Spain, there are a number of National and regional identity in Spain, national and regional ethnic identities that reflect th ...
from
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
and
Hispanic America Hispanic America (: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (usually known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the comprising the of North, Central, and South America. In all of these countries, is the main la ...

Hispanic America
mainly referred to Spaniards born in the Philippines (Spanish Filipinos) in es, " Filipino/s" (m) or " Filipina/s" (f), lit= in relation to those born in Hispanic America called in es, " Americano/s" (m) / " Americana/s" (f) or " Criollo/s", lit=, whereas the Spaniards born in the Philippines themselves called the Spaniards from Spain as "''''" with themselves also referred to as "''''". Meanwhile, the colonial caste system hierarchy and taxation system during the Spanish Colonial Times dictated that those of mixed descent were known as "''''" (''m'') / "''''" (''f''), specifically those of mixed
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
and native Filipino descent were known as "'' Mestizo/s de Español''" ( Spanish Mestizos), whereas those of mixed
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
and native Filipino descent were known as "'' Mestizo/s de
Sangley Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe a person of mixed Chinese people, Chinese and Ethnic groups i ...
''" ( Chinese Mestizos) and the mix of all of the above or a mix of
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
and
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
were known as "'' Tornatrás''". Meanwhile, the ethnic Chinese migrants (
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino
s) were historically referred to as "'' Sangley/es''" (from
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
), while the natives of the Philippine islands were usually known by the generic term "''''" (lit. "
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
, native of the
East Indies 300px, The East Indies (or simply the Indies), is a term used in historical narratives of the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), ...
"). Filipinos of mixed ethnic origins are still referred today as ''
mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
''. However, in common popular parlance, mestizos usually refer to Filipinos mixed with Spanish or any other European ancestry. Filipinos mixed with any other foreign ethnicities are named depending on the non-Filipino part. Historically though, it was the ''
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...
de
Sangley Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe a person of mixed Chinese people, Chinese and Ethnic groups i ...
'' (
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...
) that numbered the most among ''
mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
'', though the ''
Mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
de Español'' (
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
Mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
) carried more due to the colonial caste system hierarchy that usually elevated
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
blood and
christianization Christianization ( or Christianisation) was the conversion of societies to Christianity beginning in late antiquity Late antiquity is a used by historians to describe the time of transition from to the in and adjacent areas bordering th ...
to the peak, while most descendants of the ''
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...
de
Sangley Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe a person of mixed Chinese people, Chinese and Ethnic groups i ...
'' (
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...
), despite assuming many of the important roles in the economic, social and political life of the nation, would readily assimilate into the fabric of Philippine society or sometimes falsely claim Spanish descent due to this situation. People classified as 'blancos' (whites) were the insulares or "Filipinos" (a person born in the Philippines of pure Spanish descent), peninsulares (a person born in Spain of pure Spanish descent), Español mestizos (a person born in the Philippines of mixed Austronesian and Spanish ancestry) and tornatrás (a person born in the Philippines of mixed Austronesian, Chinese and Spanish ancestry).
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
was racially segregated, with blancos living in the walled city of
Intramuros Intramuros (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Intramuros
, un-Christianized sangleys in Parían, Christianized sangleys and mestizos de sangley in Binondo and the rest of the 7,000 islands for the indios, with the exception of Cebu and several other Spanish posts. Only mestizos de sangley were allowed to enter Intramuros to work for whites (including mestizos de español) as servants and various occupations needed for the colony. Indio were native Austronesians, but as a legal classification, Indio were those who embraced Roman Catholicism and Austronesians who lived in proximity to the Spanish colonies. People who lived outside
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
,
Cebu Cebu (; ceb, Sugbo), officially the Province of Cebu ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Sugbo; tl, Lalawigan ng Cebu), is a of the located in the , and consists of a main island and . Its capital is , nicknamed "the Queen City of the South", the oldest ...

Cebu
and the major Spanish posts were classified as such: 'Naturales' were Catholic Austronesians of the lowland and coastal towns. The un-Catholic Negritos and
Austronesians The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
who lived in the towns were classified as 'salvajes' (savages) or 'infieles' (the unfaithful). 'Remontados' (Spanish for 'situated in the mountains') and 'tulisanes' (bandits) were
indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...

indigenous
Austronesians and Negritos who refused to live in towns and took to the hills, all of whom were considered to live outside the social order as Catholicism was a driving force in Spanish colonials everyday life, as well as determining social class in the colony. People of pure Spanish descent living in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
who were born in Spanish America were classified as 'americanos'. Mestizos and africanos born in Spanish America living in the Philippines kept their legal classification as such and usually came as indentured servants to the 'americanos'. The Philippine-born children of 'americanos' were classified as 'Ins'. The Philippine-born children of mestizos and Africanos from Spanish America were classified based on patrilineal descent. The term ''negrito'' was coined by the Spaniards based on their appearance. The word 'negrito' would be misinterpreted and used by future European scholars as an ethnoracial term in and of itself. Both Christianized negritos who lived in the colony and un-Christianized negritos who lived in tribes outside the colony were classified as 'negritos'. Christianized negritos who lived in Manila were not allowed to enter Intramuros and lived in areas designated for indios. A person of mixed
Negrito The term Negrito () refers to several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical so ...

Negrito
and
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
ancestry were classified based on patrilineal descent; the father's ancestry determined a child's legal classification. If the father was 'negrito' and the mother was 'India' (Austronesian), the child was classified as 'negrito'. If the father was 'indio' and the mother was 'negrita', the child was classified as 'indio'. Persons of Negrito descent were viewed as being outside the social order as they usually lived in tribes outside the colony and resisted conversion to
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
. This legal system of racial classification based on patrilineal descent had no parallel anywhere in the Spanish-ruled colonies in the Americas. In general, a son born of a sangley male and an indio or mestizo de sangley female was classified as mestizo de sangley; all subsequent male descendants were mestizos de sangley regardless of whether they married an India or a mestiza de sangley. A daughter born in such a manner, however, acquired the legal classification of her husband, i.e., she became an India if she married an indio but remained a mestiza de sangley if she married a mestizo de sangley or a sangley. In this way, a chino mestizo male descendant of a paternal sangley ancestor never lost his legal status as a mestizo de sangley no matter how little percentage of Chinese blood he had in his veins or how many generations had passed since his first Chinese ancestor; he was thus a mestizo de sangley in perpetuity. However, a 'mestiza de sangley' who married a blanco ('Filipino', 'mestizo de español', 'peninsular' or 'americano') kept her status as 'mestiza de sangley'. But her children were classified as tornatrás. An 'India' who married a blanco also kept her status as India, but her children were classified as mestizo de español. A mestiza de español who married another blanco would keep her status as mestiza, but her status will never change from mestiza de español if she married a mestizo de español, Filipino or peninsular. In contrast, a mestizo (de sangley or español) man's status stayed the same regardless of whom he married. If a mestizo (de sangley or español) married a filipina (woman of pure Spanish descent), she would lose her status as a 'filipina' and would acquire the legal status of her husband and become a mestiza de español or sangley. If a 'filipina' married an 'indio', her legal status would change to 'India', despite being of pure Spanish descent. The social stratification system based on class that continues to this day in the country had its beginnings in the Spanish colonial area with a discriminating caste system. The social stratification system based on class that continues to this day in the country had its beginnings in the Spanish colonial area with a discriminating caste system. The Spanish colonizers reserved the term ''Filipino'' to refer to Spaniards born in the Philippines. The use of the term was later extended to include Spanish and Chinese
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

mestizo
s or those born of mixed Chinese-indio or Spanish-indio descent. Late in the 19th century,
José Rizal José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalism, Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the History of the Philippines (1521–1898), Spanish colonial period o ...
popularized the use of the term ''Filipino'' to refer to all those born in the Philippines, including the Indios. When ordered to sign the notification of his death sentence, which described him as a Chinese mestizo, Rizal refused. He went to his death saying that he was ''indio puro''. The Spanish caste system based on race was abolished after the Philippines' independence from
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
in 1898 and the word 'Filipino' expanded to include the entire population of the Philippines regardless of racial ancestry, as per the
Philippine Nationality Law The Philippine nationality law is based upon the principles of ''jus sanguinis ( , , ; 'right of blood') is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a coun ...
and as described by Wenceslao Retaña's ''Diccionario de filipinismos'', where he defined ''Filipinos'' as follows, File:Indios, detail from Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas 1734.jpg, Native Filipinos as illustrated in the ''
Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas copy, thumb File:Mapa de las yslas Philipinas (2675427656).jpg, 1744 Reduced version, Boston Public Library copy, thumb ''Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Islas Filipinas'' (Spanish language, Spanish, lit. "''Hydrography, Hydrographical ...

Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas
'' (1734) File:Mestizo de luto by José Honorato Lozano.jpg, "''Mestizo de luto''" (A Native Filipino Mestizo) by José Honorato Lozano File:India de Manila by José Honorato Lozano.jpg, "''India de Manila''" (Native Filipina of
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
) by José Honorato Lozano File:Mestizos Sangley y Chino by Justiano Asuncion.jpg, ''Mestizos Sangley y Chino'' (
Sangley Sangley (Sangley mestizo, ''mestisong Sangley'', ''mestizo de Sangley'' or Chinese mestizo; plural: ''Sangleys'' or ''Sangleyes'') is an archaic term used in the Philippines to describe a person of mixed Chinese people, Chinese and Ethnic groups i ...
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino
Mestizos (; ; fem. ) is a term used in Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaki ...
) by Justiniano Asuncion, c. 1841 File:Spanish mestizo costume.jpg, ''Mestizos de Español'' ( Spanish Mestizo), by Jean Mallat de Bassilan, c. 1846 File:A family belonging to the Principalia.JPG, Typical costume of a '' Principalía'' family of the late 19th century. Exhibit in the Villa Escudero Museum,
San Pablo, Laguna , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the Provinces of the Philippines, province of , . According to the , it has a population of people. Located in the southern portion of Laguna (provi ...
, Philippines.


Origins and genetic studies

The aboriginal settlers of the Philippines were primarily
Negrito The term Negrito () refers to several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical so ...

Negrito
groups. Negritos comprise a small minority of the nation's overall population. The majority population of Filipinos are
Austronesians The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
, a linguistic and genetic group whose historical ties lay in
maritime Southeast Asia Maritime Southeast Asia comprises the countries of Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Singapore. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes also referred to as Island Southeast Asia, Insular Southeast Asia ...
, but through ancient migrations can be found as indigenous peoples stretching as far east as the
Pacific islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as w ...
and as far west as
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic The Malagasy Republic ( mg, Repoblika Mal ...

Madagascar
off the coast of Africa. The current predominant theory on Austronesian expansion holds that Austronesians settled the Philippine islands through successive southward and eastward seaborne migrations from the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
Austronesian populations of Taiwan. Other hypotheses have also been put forward based on linguistic, archeological, and genetic studies. These include an origin from mainland
South China South China () is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. A notable feature of South China in comparison to the rest of China is that most of its citizens are not ...
(linking them to the
Liangzhu culture The Liangzhu culture (; 3300–2300 BC) was the last Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is f ...
and the Tapengkeng culture, later displaced or assimilated by the expansion of speakers of
Sino-Tibetan languages Sino-Tibetan, also known as Trans-Himalayan in a few sources, is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationsh ...

Sino-Tibetan languages
); an ''in situ'' origin from the
Sundaland Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an o ...
continental shelf prior to the
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqui ...

sea level rise
at the end of the last glacial period (c. 10,000 BC); or a combination of the two (the Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network hypothesis) which advocates
cultural diffusion In cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and pas ...
rather than a series of linear migrations.


Generalized Anthropology Study

A research paper, which claims to be a useful aid to
biological anthropology Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primates, particularly from an ...
, published in the Journal of Forensic Anthropology, collating contemporary Anthropological cranial data showed that the percentage of Filipino bodies who were sampled from the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; Filipino language, Filipino: ''Pamantasan ng Pilipinas'' or ''Unibersidad'' ''ng Pilipinas'') is a Higher education in the Philippines#State universities and colleges, state university system in the Philippi ...
, that were curated to be representative of Filipinos, that is classified as Asian ( East,
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
and
Southeast Asian Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the southeastern subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the ...
) is 72.7%, Hispanic (Spanish-Amerindian Mestizo,
Latin American Latin Americans ( es, Latinoamericanos; pt, Latino-americanos; ) are the citizenship, citizens of Latin American countries (or people with cultural, ancestral or national origins in Latin America). Latin American countries and their diasporas a ...
, or Spanish-Malay
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

Mestizo
) is at 12.7%, Indigenous American (
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
) at 7.3%, African at 4.5%, and European at 2.7%.


Genetics

The results of a massive DNA study conducted by the
National Geographic ''National Geographic'' (formerly the ''National Geographic Magazine'', sometimes branded as NAT GEO) is an American monthly magazine published by the National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Was ...
's, "The Genographic Project", based on genetic testings of 80,000 Filipino people by the National Geographic in 2008–2009, found that the average Filipino's genes are around 53% Southeast Asia and Oceania, 36% East Asian, 5% Southern European, 3% South Asian and 2% Native American.


Dental morphology

provides clues to prehistoric migration patterns of the Philippines, with Sinodont dental patterns occurring in East Asia, Central Asia, North Asia, and the Americas. Sundadont patterns occur in Southeast Asia as well as the bulk of Oceania. Filipinos exhibit Sundadonty, and are regarded as having a more generalised dental morphology and having a longer ancestry than its offspring, Sinodonty.


Historic reports

Published in 1849, The ''Catalogo Alfabetico de Apellidos'' contains 141 pages of surnames with both Spanish and indigenous roots. Authored by Spanish Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua and Domingo Abella, the catalog was created in response to the Decree of November 21, 1849, which gave every Filipino a surname from the book. The decree in the Philippines was created to fulfill a Spanish colonial decree that sought to address colonial subjects who did not have a last name. This explains why a number of Filipinos without Spanish blood share the same surnames as many Spaniards today. In relation to this, a population survey conducted by German ethnographer
Fedor Jagor Andreas Fedor Jagor (30 November 1816 – 11 February 1900) was a German ethnologist Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the r ...
concluded that 1/3rd of Luzon which holds half of the Philippines' population had varying degrees of Spanish and Latin American ancestry.


Current immigration

Recent studies during 2015, record around 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country. There are also 250,000
Amerasian An Amerasian originally meant a person born in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It share ...
s across
Angeles City , anthem = Himno ning Angeles (Angeles Hymn) , subdivision_type3 = House of Representatives of the Philippines#District representation, District , subdivision_name3 = Legislative districts o ...
, Manila,
Clark Clark is an English language surname, ultimately derived from the Latin language, Latin with historical links to England and Ireland ''clericus'' meaning "scribe", "secretary" or a scholar within a religious order, referring to someone who was educ ...
and
Olongapo , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ; ilo, Siudad ti ; xsb, Siyodad nin ; pam, Lakanbalen ning ; pag, Siyudad na ), is a in the region of the . Located in the province A province is almost always an administrative division Admin ...
.


Languages

Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign ...
have been spoken in the Philippines for thousands of years. According to a 2014 study by Mark Donohue of the Australian National University and Tim Denham of Monash University, there is no linguistic evidence for an orderly north-to-south dispersal of the Austronesian languages from Taiwan through the Philippines and into Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Many adopted words from
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
and Tamil were incorporated during the strong wave of Indian (Hindu-Buddhist) cultural influence starting from the 5th century BC, in common with its Southeast Asian neighbors. Chinese languages were also commonly spoken among the traders of the archipelago. However, with the advent of Islam, Arabic and Persian soon came to supplant Sanskrit and Tamil as holy languages. Starting in the second half of the 16th century, Spanish was the official language of the country for the more than three centuries that the islands were governed through
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
on behalf of the Spanish Empire. The variant of Spanish used was Mexican-Spanish, which also included much vocabulary of Nahuatl (Aztec) origin. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Spanish was the preferred language among ''
Ilustrados The Ilustrados (, "erudite", "learned" or "enlightened ones") constituted the Filipino educated Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and ha ...
'' and educated Filipinos in general. Significant disagreements exist, however, on the extent Spanish use beyond that. It has been argued that the Philippines were less hispanized than Canaries and
America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...

America
, with Spanish only being adopted by the ruling class involved in civil and judicial administration and culture. Spanish was the language of only approximately ten percent of the Philippine population when Spanish rule ended in 1898. As a lingua franca or creole language of Filipinos, major languages of the country like
Chavacano Chavacano or Chabacano is a group of varieties spoken in the . The variety spoken in , located in the southern Philippine island group of Mindanao, has the highest concentration of speakers. Other currently existing varieties are found in Cavit ...

Chavacano
, Cebuano,
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
,
KapampanganKapampangan, Capampañgan or Pampangan may refer to: *Kapampangan people The Kapampangan people ( pam, Taung Kapampangan), Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the sixth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2,784,526 in 2 ...
,
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative div ...
, , Hiligaynon, and Ilocano assimilated many different words and expressions from Castilian Spanish.
Chavacano Chavacano or Chabacano is a group of varieties spoken in the . The variety spoken in , located in the southern Philippine island group of Mindanao, has the highest concentration of speakers. Other currently existing varieties are found in Cavit ...

Chavacano
is the only Spanish-based
creole language A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages into a new one within a fairly brief period of time: often, a evolved into a full-fledged language. While the concept is sim ...
in Asia. Its vocabulary is 90 percent Spanish, and the remaining 10 percent is a mixture of predominantly
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
,
Nahuatl Nahuatl (; ),The Classical Nahuatl word (noun stem ''nāhua'', + absolutive ''-tl'' ) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Nao ...

Nahuatl
( Mexican Indian), Hiligaynon, and some English. Chavacano is considered by the
Instituto Cervantes Instituto Cervantes (the Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616), the author of ''Don Quixote'' and perhaps the most important figure ...

Instituto Cervantes
to be a Spanish-based language. In sharp contrast, another view is that the ratio of the population which spoke Spanish as their ''mother tongue'' in the last decade of Spanish rule was 10% or 14%. "Los censos norteamericanos de 1903 y 1905, dicen de soslayo que los Hispano-hablantes de este archipiélago nunca han rebasado, en su número, a más del diez por ciento (10%) de la población durante la última década de los mil ochocientos (1800s). Esto quiere decir que ''900,000 Filipinos, el diez porciento'' de los dados nueve millones citados por el Fray Manuel Arellano Remondo, ''tenían al idioma español como su primera y única lengua''." (Emphasis added.) The same author writes: "Por otro lado, unos recientes estudios por el Dr. Rafael Rodríguez Ponga señalan, sin embargo, que los Filipinos de habla española, al liquidarse la presencia peninsular en este archipiélago, llegaban al ''catorce (14%) por ciento de la población de la década 1891–1900''. Es decir, el 14% de una población de nueve millones (9,000,000), que serían un millón (1,260,000) y dos cientos sesenta mil de Filipinos que ''eran primordialmente de habla hispana''. (Vea Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, enero de 2003)".
La persecución del uso oficial del idioma español en Filipinas
Retrieved July 8, 2010.)
An additional 60% is said to have spoken Spanish as a second language until World War II, but this is also disputed as to whether this percentage spoke "kitchen Spanish", which was used as marketplace lingua compared to those who were actual fluent Spanish speakers. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced
universal education Universal access to education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelli ...
, creating free public schooling in Spanish, yet it was never implemented, even before the advent of American annexation. It was also the language of the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
, and the 1899
Malolos Constitution The Political Constitution of 1899 ( es, Constitución Política de 1899), informally known as the Malolos Constitution, was the constitution of the First Philippine Republic. It was written by Felipe Calderón y Roca and Felipe Buencamino as a ...
proclaimed it as the "official language" of the
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collec ...
, albeit a temporary official language. Spanish continued to be the predominant
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
used in the islands by the elite class before and during the American colonial regime. Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
, the overall use of Spanish declined gradually, especially after the 1940s. According to
Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living language A language is a structured system of communicatio ...
, there are about 180 languages spoken in the Philippines. The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines imposed the Filipino language. as the
national language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
and designates it, along with English, as one of the
official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

official language
s.
Regional languages A regional language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
are designated as auxiliary official languages. The constitution also provides that Spanish and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Other Philippine languages in the country with at least 1,000,000 native and indigenous speakers include Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon,
WarayWaray may refer to: * Waray people of the Philippines * Waray language, the fifth most spoken native language of the Philippines, spoken by the Waray people * Waray literature * Warray language, an Australian language spoken in the Adelaide River ar ...
,
Central Bikol Central Bikol commonly called Bikol Naga, also known simply as Bikol, is an Austronesian language The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speec ...
,
KapampanganKapampangan, Capampañgan or Pampangan may refer to: *Kapampangan people The Kapampangan people ( pam, Taung Kapampangan), Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the sixth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2,784,526 in 2 ...
,
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative div ...
,
Chavacano Chavacano or Chabacano is a group of varieties spoken in the . The variety spoken in , located in the southern Philippine island group of Mindanao, has the highest concentration of speakers. Other currently existing varieties are found in Cavit ...

Chavacano
(Spanish-based creole), Albay Bikol,
Maranao The Maranao people (Maranao: mәranaw Filipino language, Filipino: ''Maranaw''), also spelled Meranao, Maranaw, and Mëranaw, is the term used by the Philippine government to refer to the southern Indigenous peoples, indigenous people who ar ...
,
Maguindanao Maguindanao (, Maguindanaon: ''Prubinsya nu Magindanaw''; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attrib ...
,
Kinaray-a The Karay-a language, also known as ''Binisaya nga Kinaray-a'' or simply ''Kinaray-a'' (''Karay-a'' + the infix An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word or the core of a family of words). It contrasts with ''adfix,' ...
, Tausug,
SurigaononSurigaonon may refer to: * Surigaonon people * Surigaonon language {{disambig Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...
, Masbateño, Aklanon and Ibanag. The 28-letter modern
Filipino alphabetThe modern Filipino alphabet ( fil, makabagong alpabetong Filipino), otherwise known as the Filipino alphabet ( fil, alpabetong Filipino), is the alphabet of the Filipino language Filipino (; ''Wikang Filipino'' ), also known as Pilipino and Taga ...
, adopted in 1987, is the official writing system. In addition, each ethnicity's language has their own writing scripts and set of alphabets, many of which are no longer used.


Religion

According to National Statistics Office (NSO) as of 2010, over 92% of the population were
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
s, with 80.6% professing
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
. The latter was introduced by the Spanish beginning in 1521, and during their 300-year colonization of the islands, they managed to convert a vast majority of Filipinos, resulting in the Philippines becoming the largest Catholic country in Asia. There are also large groups of
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
denominations, which either grew or were founded following the
disestablishment The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted. F ...
of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...
during the
American Colonial period The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of America from the early 17th century (e.g., 1600s) until the incorporation of the colonies into the United States of America. In the late 16th century, Kin ...
. The
Iglesia ni Cristo Iglesia ni Cristo (, abbreviated as INC; ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Iglesia de Cristo'') is an independent Nontrinitarianism, Nontrinitarian Christianity in the Philippines, Christian Christian denomination, church, founded in 1913 and regi ...
is currently the single largest church whose headquarters is in the Philippines, followed by
United Church of Christ in the Philippines United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania United is located in Mount Pleasant Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. It is a community located near Norvelt, Pennsylvania. History In 1881, the United Coal Company, United Coal & Cok ...
. The
Iglesia Filipina Independiente The Philippine Independent Church ( es, Iglesia Filipina Independiente; tl, Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; la, Libera Ecclesia Philippina; colloquially called the Aglipayan Church, IFI and PIC) is an independent Christian denomination A Chri ...
(also known as the Aglipayan Church) was an earlier development, and is a
national church A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such a ...
directly resulting from the 1898 Philippine Revolution. Other Christian groups such as the Victory Church,
Jesus Miracle CrusadeThe Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry (JMCIM) is a Christian church in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republ ...
,
Mormonism Mormonism is the religious tradition and theology of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationism, Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 1830s. As a label, Mormonism has been applied to var ...
,
Orthodoxy Orthodoxy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
, and the
Jehovah's Witnesses Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious ...
have a visible presence in the country. The second largest religion in the country is
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
, estimated to account for 5% to 8% of the population.
Islam in the Philippines Islam is the first-recorded monotheistic Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, ...
is mostly concentrated in southwestern
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
and the
Sulu Archipelago The Sulu Archipelago ( Tausug: سوڬ, ms, كڤولاوان سولو, fil, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arc ...

Sulu Archipelago
which, though part of the Philippines, are very close to the neighboring
Islamic countries The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the ''Islamic community'', which is also known as the Ummah. This consists of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in ...

Islamic countries
of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
and
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
. The Muslims call themselves ''Moros'', a
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
word that refers to the
Moors '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors init ...

Moors
(albeit the two groups have little cultural connection other than Islam). Historically, ancient Filipinos held animist religions that were influenced by
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...
, which were brought by traders from neighbouring Asian states. These
indigenous Philippine folk religions Indigenous Philippine folk religions are the distinct native religions of various ethnic groups in the Philippines The Philippines is inhabited by more than 182 Ethnolinguistic group, ethnolinguistic groups, many of which are classified as "I ...
continue to be present among the populace, with some communities, such as the
Aeta The Aeta (Ayta ), Agta, or Dumagat, are collective terms for several Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
,
Igorot The indigenous peoples of the Cordillera Mountain Range of northern , are often referred to using the Igorot people, or more recently, as the Cordilleran peoples. There are nine main ethnolinguistic groups whose domains are in the , altogether ...

Igorot
, and
Lumad The Lumad are a group of Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ... indigenous people Indigenous peo ...
, having some strong adherents and some who mix beliefs originating from the indigenous religions with beliefs from Christianity or Islam. , religious groups together constituting less than five percent of the population included
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
,
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
,
Seventh-day Adventists The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the ...
,
United Church of Christ The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical and confessional roots in the Congregationalism in the United States, Congregational, Reformed churches, Reformed, Lut ...
, United Methodists, the
Episcopal Church in the Philippines The Episcopal Church in the Philippines (ECP; tl, Simbahang Episkopal sa Pilipinas; Ilocano: ''Simabaan nga Episkopal iti Filipinas'') is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term ...
,
Assemblies of God The Assemblies of God (AG), officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 144 autonomous self-governing national groupings of churches that together form the world's largest Pentecostal Pentecostalism or Classical Pente ...
,
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, often informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism ...
(Mormons), and Philippine (Southern)
Baptists Baptists form a major branch of Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Cath ...
; and the following domestically established churches:
Iglesia ni Cristo Iglesia ni Cristo (, abbreviated as INC; ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Iglesia de Cristo'') is an independent Nontrinitarianism, Nontrinitarian Christianity in the Philippines, Christian Christian denomination, church, founded in 1913 and regi ...
(Church of Christ),
Philippine Independent Church The Philippine Independent Church ( es, Iglesia Filipina Independiente; tl, Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; la, Libera Ecclesia Philippina; colloquially called the Aglipayan Church, IFI and PIC) is an independent Christian denomination A Chri ...
(Aglipayan),
Members Church of God International The Members Church of God International, abbreviated as MCGI, is an international Christianity, Christian religious organization with headquarters in the Philippines. It started as a small group with less than a hundred believers. It is popularly ...
, and The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, the Name Above Every Name. In addition, there are
Lumad The Lumad are a group of Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ... indigenous people Indigenous peo ...
, who are indigenous peoples of various animistic and syncretic religions.


Diaspora

There are currently more than 10 million Filipinos who live overseas. Filipinos form a minority ethnic group in the Americas, Europe, Oceania, the Middle East, and other regions of the world. There are an estimated four million in the United States, and more than 300,000 American citizens in the Philippines. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought
family reunification Family reunification is a recognized reason for immigration in many countries because of the presence of one or more family members in a certain country, therefore, enables the rest of the divided family or only specific members of the family to i ...
.Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller. (July 2009).
Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region
". ''Migration Information Source''. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
Filipinos make up over a third of the entire population of the Northern Marianas Islands, an American territory in the
North Pacific Ocean North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating Direction (geometry), direction or geography. Etymology Th ...
, and a large proportion of the populations of
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an in the subregion of the western . It is the and territory of the United States (reckoned from the ); in , it is the largest and southernmost of the and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is , and t ...

Guam
, Palau, the
British Indian Ocean Territory The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is a British overseas territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen territories all with a constitutional and histori ...

British Indian Ocean Territory
, and
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Sabah
.


See also

*
Spanish Filipino Spanish Filipinos ( es, Español Filipino / Hispano Filipino; cbk, Español Filipino / Hispano Filipino / Conio; Filipino language, Filipino/ tl, Kastilà / Espanyól / Tisoy / Konyo; ceb, Katsílà / Ispaniyul; hil, Katsílà / Espanyól) are ...
*
Chinese Filipino Chinese Filipinos; tl, Tsinoy, / Pilipinong Tsino, ; Philippine Hokkien Philippine Hokkien or Lannang-Oe (), is a particular dialect of Southern Min language spoken by part of the Chinese Filipino, ethnic Chinese population of the Philippi ...

Chinese Filipino


References


Publications

* * * * * * * * * * * . * * * *


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Filipino People Ethnic groups in the Philippines