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An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
that is
taught
taught
and
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
ed at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part) and recognized by the
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of w ...
s in which
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
is published, and the
learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a compan ...
and
academic department {{unreferenced, date=June 2009, bot=yes An academic department is a division of a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awa ...
s or faculties within colleges and universities to which their practitioners belong. Academic disciplines are conventionally divided into the
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

humanities
, including language, art and cultural studies, and the
scientific discipline The branches of science, also referred to as science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Tes ...
s, such as
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
,
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
, and
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
; the
social sciences Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ...

social sciences
are sometimes considered a third category. Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as ''
expert An expert is somebody who has a broad and deep competence in terms of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or obj ...

expert
s'' or ''specialists''. Others, who may have studied
liberal arts Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") is the traditional academic program in Western higher education. ''Liberal arts'' takes the term ''Art (skill), art'' in the sense of a learned skill rather than spec ...
or
systems theory Systems theory is the interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields ...
rather than concentrating in a specific academic discipline, are classified as ''generalists''. While academic disciplines in and of themselves are more or less focused practices, scholarly approaches such as multidisciplinarity/interdisciplinarity,
transdisciplinarity Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many Discipline (academia), disciplinary boundaries to create a Holism, holistic approach. It applies to research efforts focused on problems that cross the boundaries of two or more di ...
, and
cross-disciplinarity An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
integrate aspects from multiple academic disciplines, therefore addressing any problems that may arise from narrow concentration within specialized fields of study. For example, professionals may encounter trouble communicating across academic disciplines because of differences in language, specified concepts or methodology. Some researchers believe that academic disciplines may, in the future, be replaced by what is known as
Mode 2 A knowledge production mode is a term from the sociology of science Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behaviour, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of cul ...

Mode 2
or "post-academic science", which involves the acquisition of cross-disciplinary knowledge through collaboration of specialists from various academic disciplines.


Terminology

Also known as a ''field of study'', ''field of inquiry'', ''research field'' and ''branch of knowledge''. The different terms are used in different countries and fields.


History of the concept

The
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
in 1231 consisted of four faculties:
Theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
,
Medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

Medicine
,
Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
and
Arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
. Educational institutions originally used the term "discipline" to catalog and archive the new and expanding body of information produced by the scholarly community. Disciplinary designations originated in German universities during the beginning of the nineteenth century. Most academic disciplines have their roots in the mid-to-late-nineteenth century
secularization In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The ter ...
of universities, when the traditional
curricula In education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelli ...
were supplemented with non-classical languages and
literatures Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities ...
,
social sciences Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ...

social sciences
such as
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
,
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
,
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
and
public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, g ...
, and
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
and
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
disciplines such as
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
,
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
, and
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
. In the early twentieth century, new academic disciplines such as
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
and
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
were added. In the 1970s and 1980s, there was an explosion of new academic disciplines focusing on specific themes, such as
media studies Media studies is a discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as the ...
, women's studies, and
Africana studies Africana studies, black studies or Africology, in US education, is the multidisciplinary study of the histories, politics and cultures of peoples of African origin in both Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous ...
. Many academic disciplines designed as preparation for careers and professions, such as
nursing Nursing is a profession within the health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''qua ...

nursing
,
hospitality management Image:UCF Rosen College.JPG, The University of Central Florida Rosen College of Hospitality Management Hospitality Management and Tourism is the study of the hospitality industry. A degree in the subject may be awarded either by a University c ...
, and
corrections In criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart. Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, one of the four cardinal virtues, by Vitruvio Alberi, 1589–1590. Fresco, corner of the vault, studiolo o ...
, also emerged in the universities. Finally, interdisciplinary scientific fields of study such as
biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and pr ...

biochemistry
and
geophysics Geophysics () is a subject of natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a b ...

geophysics
gained prominence as their contribution to knowledge became widely recognized. Some new disciplines, such as
public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, g ...
, can be found in more than one disciplinary setting; some public administration programs are associated with business schools (thus emphasizing the public management aspect), while others are linked to the political science field (emphasizing the
policy analysis Policy analysis is a technique used in public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is th ...
aspect). As the twentieth century approached, these designations were gradually adopted by other countries and became the accepted conventional subjects. However, these designations differed between various countries. In the twentieth century, the natural science disciplines included:
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
,
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...

biology
,
geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geology
, and
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
. The social science disciplines included:
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
,
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

politics
,
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
, and
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
. Prior to the twentieth century, categories were broad and general, which was expected due to the lack of interest in science at the time. With rare exceptions, practitioners of science tended to be amateurs and were referred to as "natural historians" and "natural philosophers"—labels that date back to Aristotle—instead of "scientists". Natural history referred to what we now call life sciences and natural philosophy referred to the current physical sciences. Prior to the twentieth century, few opportunities existed for science as an occupation outside the educational system. Higher education provided the institutional structure for scientific investigation, as well as economic support for research and teaching. Soon, the volume of scientific information rapidly increased and researchers realized the importance of concentrating on smaller, narrower fields of scientific activity. Because of this narrowing, scientific specializations emerged. As these specializations developed, modern scientific disciplines in universities also improved their sophistication. Eventually, academia's identified disciplines became the foundations for scholars of specific specialized interests and expertise.


Functions and criticism

An influential critique of the concept of academic disciplines came from
Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault (, ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectual An intellectual is a ...

Michel Foucault
in his 1975 book, ''
Discipline and Punish ''Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison'' (french: Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault ( , ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philo ...
''. Foucault asserts that academic disciplines originate from the same social movements and mechanisms of control that established the modern prison and penal system in eighteenth-century
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, and that this fact reveals essential aspects they continue to have in common: "The disciplines characterize, classify, specialize; they distribute along a scale, around a norm, hierarchize individuals in relation to one another and, if necessary, disqualify and invalidate." (Foucault, 1975/1979, p. 223)


Communities of academic disciplines

Communities of academic disciplines can be found outside academia within corporations, government agencies, and independent organizations, where they take the form of associations of professionals with common interests and specific knowledge. Such communities include corporate
think tanks A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture. Most think tanks are non-governmental organ ...
,
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
, and
IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the authoritative power over chemist ...
. Communities such as these exist to benefit the organizations affiliated with them by providing specialized new ideas, research, and findings. Nations at various developmental stages will find need for different academic disciplines during different times of growth. A newly developing nation will likely prioritize government, political matters and engineering over those of the humanities, arts and social sciences. On the other hand, a well-developed nation may be capable of investing more in the arts and social sciences. Communities of academic disciplines would contribute at varying levels of importance during different stages of development.


Interactions

These categories explain how the different academic disciplines interact with one another.


Multidisciplinary

Multidisciplinary knowledge is associated with more than one existing academic discipline or profession. A multidisciplinary community or project is made up of people from different academic disciplines and professions. These people are engaged in working together as equal stakeholders in addressing a common challenge. A multidisciplinary person is one with degrees from two or more academic disciplines. This one person can take the place of two or more people in a multidisciplinary community. Over time, multidisciplinary work does not typically lead to an increase or a decrease in the number of academic disciplines. One key question is how well the challenge can be decomposed into subparts, and then addressed via the distributed knowledge in the community. The lack of shared vocabulary between people and communication overhead can sometimes be an issue in these communities and projects. If challenges of a particular type need to be repeatedly addressed so that each one can be properly decomposed, a multidisciplinary community can be exceptionally efficient and effective. There are many examples of a particular idea appearing in different academic disciplines, all of which came about around the same time. One example of this scenario is the shift from the approach of focusing on sensory awareness of the whole, "an attention to the 'total field, a "sense of the whole pattern, of form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of structure and configuration". This has happened in art (in the form of cubism), physics, poetry, communication and educational theory. According to
Marshall McLuhan Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911 – December 31, 1980) was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Province ...

Marshall McLuhan
, this paradigm shift was due to the passage from the era of mechanization, which brought sequentiality, to the era of the instant speed of electricity, which brought simultaneity. Multidisciplinary approaches also encourage people to help shape the innovation of the future. The political dimensions of forming new multidisciplinary partnerships to solve the so-called societal Grand Challenges were presented in the Innovation Union and in the European Framework Programme, the
Horizon 2020 The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP9, are funding programmes created by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic uni ...
operational overlay. Innovation across academic disciplines is considered the pivotal foresight of the creation of new products, systems, and processes for the benefit of all societies' growth and wellbeing. Regional examples such as Biopeople and industry-academia initiatives in translational medicine such as SHARE.ku.dk in Denmark provides the evidence of the successful endeavour of multidisciplinary innovation and facilitation of the paradigm shift.


Transdisciplinary

In practice, transdisciplinary can be thought of as the union of all interdisciplinary efforts. While interdisciplinary teams may be creating new knowledge that lies between several existing disciplines, a transdisciplinary team is more holistic and seeks to relate all disciplines into a coherent whole.


Cross-disciplinary

Cross-disciplinary knowledge is that which explains aspects of one discipline in terms of another. Common examples of cross-disciplinary approaches are studies of the
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
of
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
or the
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

politics
of
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...

literature
.


Bibliometric studies of disciplines

Bibliometrics Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyse books, articles and other publications. Bibliometric methods are frequently used in the field of library and information science. The sub-field of bibliometrics which concerns itself wit ...
can be used to map several issues in relation to disciplines, for example the flow of ideas within and among disciplines (Lindholm-Romantschuk, 1998) or the existence of specific national traditions within disciplines. Scholarly impact and influence of one discipline on another may be understood by analyzing the flow of citations. The Bibliometrics approach is described as straightforward because it is based on simple counting. The method is also objective but the quantitative method may not be compatible with a qualitative assessment and therefore manipulated. The number of citations is dependent on the number of persons working in the same domain instead of inherent quality or published result's originality.


See also

*
Outline of academic disciplines An academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part) and recognized by the academic journ ...
* List of academic fields


References


Further reading

* Abbott, A. (1988). ''The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor'', University of Chicago Press. * Augsburg, T. (2005), Becoming Interdisciplinary: An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Studies. * Dogan, M. & Pahre, R. (1990). "The fate of formal disciplines: from coherence to dispersion." In ''Creative Marginality: Innovation at the Intersections of Social Sciences''. Boulder, CO: Westview. pp. 85–113. * Dullemeijer, P. (1980).
Dividing biology into disciplines: Chaos or multiformity?
''Journal Acta Biotheoretica'', 29(2), 87–93. * Fagin, R.; Halpern, J.Y.; Moses, Y. & Vardi, M.Y. (1995). ''Reasoning about Knowledge'', MIT Press. * Gibbons, M.; Limoges, C.; Nowotny, H.; Schwartzman, S.; Scott, P. & Trow, M. (1994).
The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies
'. London: Sage. * Golinski, J. (1998/2005). ''Making Natural Knowledge: Constructivis, and the History of Science''. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2: "Identity and discipline." Part II: ''The Disciplinary Mold''. pp. 66–78. * Hicks, D. (2004).
The Four Literatures of Social Science
. IN: ''Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research: The Use of Publication and Patent Statistics in Studies of S&T Systems''. Ed. Henk Moed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. * Hyland, K. (2004). ''Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing''. New edition. University of Michigan Press/ESL. * Klein, J.T. (1990). ''Interdisciplinarity: History, Theory, and Practice''. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. * * Leydesdorff, L. & Rafols, I. (2008)
A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories
''Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology''. * Lindholm-Romantschuk, Y. (1998).
Scholarly Book Reviewing in the Social Sciences and Humanities: The Flow of Ideas within and among Disciplines
'. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. * Martin, B. (1998).
Information Liberation: Challenging the Corruptions of Information Power
'. London: Freedom Press * Morillo, F.; Bordons, M. & Gomez, I. (2001).
An approach to interdisciplinarity bibliometric indicators
" ''Scientometrics'', 51(1), 203–22. * Morillo, F.; Bordons, M. & Gomez, I. (2003). "Interdisciplinarity in science: A tentative typology of disciplines and research areas". ''Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology'', 54(13), 1237–49. * Newell, A. (1983). "Reflections on the structure of an interdiscipline." In Machlup, F. & U. Mansfield (Eds.), ''The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages''. pp. 99–110. NY: John Wiley & Sons. * Pierce, S.J. (1991). "Subject areas, disciplines and the concept of authority". ''Library and Information Science Research'', 13, 21–35. * Porter, A.L.; Roessner, J.D.; Cohen, A.S. & Perreault, M. (2006).
Interdisciplinary research: meaning, metrics and nurture
" ''Research Evaluation'', 15(3), 187–95. * Prior, P. (1998).
Writing/Disciplinarity: A Sociohistoric Account of Literate Activity in the Academy
'. Lawrence Erlbaum. (Rhetoric, Knowledge and Society Series) * Qin, J.; Lancaster, F.W. & Allen, B. (1997).
Types and levels of collaboration in interdisciplinary research in the sciences
" ''Journal of the American Society for Information Science'', 48(10), 893–916. * Rinia, E.J.; van Leeuwen, T.N.; Bruins, E.E.W.; van Vuren, H.G. & van Raan, A.F.J. (2002).
Measuring knowledge transfer between fields of science
" ''Scientometrics'', 54(3), 347–62. * Sanz-Menendez, L.; Bordons, M. & Zulueta, M. A. (2001). " tp://ftp.repec.org/opt/ReDIF/RePEc/ipp/wpaper/dt-0104.pdf Interdisciplinarity as a multidimensional concept: its measure in three different research areas" ''Research Evaluation'', 10(1), 47–58. * Stichweh, R. (2001). "Scientific Disciplines, History of". Smelser, N.J. & Baltes, P.B. (eds.). ''International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences''. Oxford: Elsevier Science. pp. 13727–31. * Szostak, R. (October 2000). Superdisciplinarity: A Simple Definition of Interdisciplinarity With Profound Implications. Association for Integrative Studies, Portland, Oregon. (Meeting presentation) * Tengström, E. (1993). Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskapen – ett fler- eller tvärvetenskapligt område? Svensk Biblioteksforskning (1), 9–20. * Tomov, D.T. & Mutafov, H.G. (1996). "Comparative indicators of interdisciplinarity in modern science." ''Scientometrics'', 37(2), 267–78. * van Leeuwen, T.N. & Tijssen, R.J.W. (1993). "Assessing multidisciplinary areas of science and technology – A synthetic bibliometric study of Dutch nuclear-energy research." ''Scientometrics'', 26(1), 115–33. * van Leeuwen, T.N. & Tijssen, R.J.W. (2000). "Interdisciplinary dynamics of modern science: analysis of cross-disciplinary citation flows." ''Research Evaluation'', 9(3), 183–87. * Weisgerber, D.W. (1993). "Interdisciplinary searching – problems and suggested remedies – A Report from the ICSTI Group on Interdisciplinary Searching." ''Journal of Documentation'', 49(3), 231–54. * Wittrock, B. (2001). "Disciplines, History of, in the Social Sciences." ''International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences'', pp. 3721–28. Smeltser, N.J. & Baltes, P.B. (eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.


External links


Association for Interdisciplinary Studies

Ryan Shaw. 2020. "Periodization
in ''ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization'', eds. Birger Hjørland and Claudio Gnoli.
Sandoz, R. (ed.), ''Interactive Historical Atlas of the Disciplines'', University of Geneva
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