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Fernand Braudel (; 24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: ''The Mediterranean'' (1923–49, then 1949–66), ''Civilization and Capitalism'' (1955–79), and the unfinished ''Identity of France'' (1970–85). His reputation stems in part from his writings, but even more from his success in making the Annales School the most important engine of historical research in France and much of the world after 1950. As the dominant leader of the Annales School of
historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the p ...

historiography
in the 1950s and 1960s, he exerted enormous influence on historical writing in France and other countries. He was a student of
Henri Hauser Henri Hauser (19 July 1866 – 27 May 1946) was a French historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes abo ...
. Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history. He can also be considered one of the precursors of
world-systems theory World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)Immanuel Wallerstein, (2004), "World-systems Analysis." In ''World System History'', ed. George Modelski, in ''Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems'' (EOLSS ...
. In his works Braudel shows a revolutionary change of focus in the craft and analysis of history from individuals or events to world systems.


Biography

Braudel was born in Luméville-en-Ornois (as of 1943, merged with and part of
Gondrecourt-le-Château Gondrecourt-le-Château () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is wh ...

Gondrecourt-le-Château
), in the département of the
Meuse The Meuse ( , , , ; wa, Moûze ) or Maas ( , ; li, Maos or ) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean bet ...
, France.Marnie Hughes-Warrington, ''Fifty Key Thinkers on History'' (London: Routledge, 2000), 17. His father, who was a natural mathematician, aided him in his studies. Braudel also studied a good deal of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
and a little Greek. At the age of 7, his family moved to Paris. Braudel was educated at the Lycée Voltaire and the
Sorbonne The Sorbonne ( , , ) is a building in the Latin Quarter The Latin Quarter of Paris (french: Quartier latin, ) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris The city of Paris is divided into twenty ''municipal arrondisseme ...

Sorbonne
, where at the age of 20 he was awarded an ''agrégé'' in history. While teaching at the
University of Algiers The University of Algiers Benyoucef Ben Khedda, Benyoucef Benkhedda (Arabic language, Arabic:جامعة الجزائر – بن يوسف بن خـدة ) is a university located in Algiers, Algeria. It was founded in 1909 and is organized into sev ...
between 1923 and 1932, he became fascinated by the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and wrote several papers on the Spanish presence in Algeria in the 16th century. During this time, Braudel began his doctoral thesis on the foreign policy of King
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain, while in Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal and his Italian kingdoms he ruled as Philip I ( pt, Filipe I). (21 May 152713 September 1598), also known as Philip the Prudent ( es, Felipe el Prudente), was King of Spain from 1556, K ...

Philip II of Spain
. From 1932 to 1935 he taught in the Paris ''lycées'' (secondary schools or high schools) of
Pasteur Louis Pasteur (, ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist, and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, fermentation, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization. He is re ...
,
Condorcet Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (; 17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from ...

Condorcet
, and
Henri-IV
Henri-IV
. By 1900, the French solidified their cultural influence in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the ...

Brazil
through the establishment of the Brazilian Academy of Fine Arts.
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
still lacked a university, however, and in 1934 francophile Julio de Mesquita Filho invited anthropologist
Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (, ; 28 November 1908 – 30 October 2009) was a French anthropologist and Ethnology, ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theories of structuralism and structural anthropology. He held the chair of Soc ...
and Braudel to help establish one. The result was formation of the new
University of São Paulo The University of São Paulo ( pt, Universidade de São Paulo, USP) is a public university in the Brazilian States of Brazil, state of São Paulo (state), São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian public university and the country's most prestigi ...

University of São Paulo
. Braudel later said that the time in Brazil was the "greatest period of his life." In 1937, Braudel returned to Paris from Brazil. However, the journey was as significant as arriving at his destination; on his way, he met
Lucien Febvre Lucien Paul Victor Febvre (, ; 22 July 1878 – 11 September 1956) was a French historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who ...
, who was the co-founder of the influential ''
Annales Annales or annals are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year. List of Works with titles containing the word "Annales" *Annales (Ennius), an epic poem by Quintus Ennius covering Roman history from the ...
'' journal. The two had booked passage on the same ship. Braudel had started archival research on his doctorate on the Mediterranean when he fell under the influence of the ''Annales'' School around 1938. Also around this time he entered the
École pratique des hautes études École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. Th ...
as an instructor in history. He worked with Lucien Febvre, who would later read the early versions of Braudel's ''magnum opus'' and provide him with editorial advice. At the outbreak of war in 1939, he was called up for military service and in 1940 was taken prisoner by the Germans. He was held at a
POW POW is "prisoner of war", a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. POW or pow may also refer to: Music * P.O.W (Bullet for My Valentine song), "P.O.W" (Bulle ...
camp in
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine ...

Mainz
from 1940 to 1942 before being transferred to a POW camp near
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Balt ...

Lübeck
, where he remained for the rest of the war. While in that camp, Braudel drafted his great work ''La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II'' (''The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II''), without access to his books or notes and relying only on his prodigious memory and a local library. Braudel became the leader of the second generation of ''Annales'' historians after 1945. In 1947, with Febvre and Charles Morazé, Braudel obtained funding from the
Rockefeller Foundation '' The Rockefeller Foundation is an American private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough (New York City), borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Pa ...
in New York and founded the noted Sixième Section for "Economic and social sciences" at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. He received an additional $1 million from the Ford Foundation in 1960. In 1962, he and Gaston Berger used the Ford Foundation grant and government funds to create a new independent foundation, the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (FMSH), which Braudel directed from 1970 until his death. It was housed in the building called "Maison des Sciences de l'Homme". FMSH focused its activities on international networking in order to disseminate the ''Annales'' approach to Europe and the world. In 1972 he gave up all editorial responsibility on the journal, although his name remained on the masthead. In 1962, he wrote ''A History of Civilizations'' as the basis for a history course, but its rejection of the traditional event-based narrative was too radical for the French ministry of education, which in turn rejected it. A feature of Braudel's work was his compassion for the suffering of marginal people. He articulated that most surviving historical sources come from the literate wealthy classes. He emphasized the importance of the ephemeral lives of slaves, serfs, peasants, and the urban poor, demonstrating their contributions to the wealth and power of their respective masters and societies. His work was often illustrated with contemporary depictions of daily life, rarely with pictures of noblemen or kings. In 1949, Braudel was elected to the
Collège de France The Collège de France (), formerly known as the ''Collège Royal'' or as the ''Collège impérial'' founded in 1530 by François I, is a higher education and research establishment (''grand établissement'') in France. It is located in Paris, ...
upon Febvre's retirement. He co-founded the academic journal, '' Revue économique,'' in 1950. He retired in 1968. In 1983, he was elected to the
Académie française An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the w ...
.


''La Méditerranée''

His first book, ''La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen à l'Epoque de Philippe II'' (1949) (''The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II'') was his most influential and has been described as a "watershed". For Braudel there is no single Mediterranean Sea. There are many seas—indeed a "vast, complex expanse" within which men operate. Life is conducted on the Mediterranean: people travel, fish, fight wars, and drown in its various contexts. And the sea articulates with the plains and islands. Life on the plains is diverse and complex; the poorer south is affected by religious diversity (
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...
and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
), as well as by intrusions – both cultural and economic – from the north. In other words, the Mediterranean cannot be understood independently from what is exterior to it. Any rigid adherence to boundaries falsifies the situation. The first level of time, geographical time, is that of the environment, with its slow, almost imperceptible change, its repetition and cycles. Such change may be slow, but it is irresistible. The second level of time comprises long-term social, economic, and cultural history, where Braudel discusses the Mediterranean economy, social groupings, empires and civilizations. Change at this level is much more rapid than that of the environment; Braudel looks at two or three centuries in order to spot a particular pattern, such as the rise and fall of various aristocracies. The third level of time is that of events (''histoire événementielle''). This is the history of individuals with names. This, for Braudel, is the time of surfaces and deceptive effects. It is the time of the "''courte durée''" proper and it is the focus of Part 3 of ''The Mediterranean'' which treats of "events, politics and people." Braudel's Mediterranean is centered on the sea, but just as important, it is also the desert and the mountains. The desert creates a nomadic form of social organization where the whole community moves; mountain life is sedentary. Transhumance — that is, the movement from the mountain to the plain, or vice versa in a given season — is also a persistent part of Mediterranean existence. Braudel's vast, panoramic view used insights from other social sciences, employed the concept of the ''
longue durée The ''longue durée'' (; en, the long term) is an expression used by the French Annales School of historical writing to designate their approach to the study of history. It gives priority to long-term historical structures over what François Sim ...
'', and downplayed the importance of specific events. It was widely admired, but most historians did not try to replicate it and instead focused on their specialized monographs. The book firmly launched the study of the Mediterranean and dramatically raised the worldwide profile of the '' Annales School.''


Capitalism

After ''La Méditerranée'', Braudel's most famous work is ''Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et Capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe'' ('' Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century''). The first volume was published in 1967, and was translated to English in 1973. The last of the three-volume work appeared in 1979. The work is a broad-scale history of the pre-industrial modern world, presented in the minute detail demanded by the methodological school called
cliometricsCliometrics (, also ), sometimes called new economic history or econometric history, is the systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, and other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history (especially social and e ...
, and focusing on how regular people made economies work. Like all Braudel's major works, the book mixed traditional economic material with
thick description In the social sciences and related fields, a thick description is a description of human social action that describes not just physical behaviors, but their context as interpreted by the actors as well, so that it can be better understood by an ou ...
of the social impact of economic events on various facets of everyday life, including
food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism In biology, an organism (from Anci ...

food
,
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are i ...

fashion
, and other
social custom Social norms are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct. They can be viewed as cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions)Sherif, M. (193 ...
s. The third volume, subtitled "The Perspective of the World", was strongly influenced by the work of German scholars like
Werner Sombart Werner Sombart (; ; 19 January 1863 – 18 May 1941) was a German economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts ...
. In this volume, Braudel traced the impact of the centers of Western capitalism on the rest of the world. Braudel wrote the series both as a way of explanation for the modern way and partly as a refutation of the Marxist view of history.Gwynne Lewis, "Braudel, Fernand," in ''The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing'', edited by Kelly Boyd (Chicago: FitzRoy Dearborn, 1999) 114. Braudel discussed the idea of long-term cycles in the
capitalist economy Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for Profit (economics), profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price sy ...

capitalist economy
that he saw developing in Europe in the 12th century. Particular cities, and later nation-states, follow each other sequentially as centers of these cycles:
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...

Venice
in the 13th through the 15th centuries (1250–1510);
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
Antwerp
and
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
in the 16th century (1500–1569 and 1557–1627, respectively),
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
in the 16th through 18th centuries (1627–1733); and London (and England) in the 18th and 19th centuries (1733–1896). He used the word "structures" to denote a variety of
social structures Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
, such as organized behaviours, attitudes, and conventions, as well as physical structures and infrastructures. He argued that the structures established in Europe during the Middle Ages contributed to the successes of present-day European-based cultures. He attributed much of this to the long-standing independence of city-states, which, though later subjugated by larger geographic states, were not always completely suppressed—probably for reasons of utility. Braudel argued that capitalists have typically been monopolists and not, as is usually assumed, entrepreneurs operating in competitive markets. He argued that capitalists did not specialize and did not use free markets, thus diverging from both liberal (
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
) and
MarxianMarxian is a term generally used to refer to things related to Karl Marx other than Marxism. It can refer to: * Marxian economics * Marxist philosophy * Marxian class theory See also

* Marxism, which is usually referred to as "Marxist", rathe ...
interpretations. In Braudel's view, the state in capitalist countries has served as a guarantor of monopolists rather than a protector of competition, as it is usually portrayed. He asserted that capitalists have had power and cunning on their side as they have arrayed themselves against the majority of the population. An agrarian structure is a long-term structure in the Braudelian understanding of the concept. On a larger scale the agrarian structure is more dependent on the regional, social, cultural and historical factors than on the state's undertaken activities.


''L'Identité de la France''

Braudel's last and most personal book was ''L'Identité de la France'' (''The Identity of France''), which was unfinished at the time of his death in 1985. Unlike many of Braudel's other books, he made no secret of his profound love of his country, remarking at the beginning that he had loved France as if she were a woman. Reflecting his interest with the ''longue durée'', Braudel's concern in ''L'Identité de la France'' was with the centuries and millennia instead of the years and decades. Braudel argued that France was the product not of its politics or economics but rather of its geography and culture, a thesis Braudel explored in a wide-ranging book that saw the ''bourg'' and the ''patois: historie totale'' integrated into a broad sweep of both the place and the time. Unlike Braudel's other books, ''L'Identité de la France'' was much colored by a romantic nostalgia, as Braudel argued for the existence of ''la France profonde'', a "deep France" based upon the peasant ''mentalité'' that despite all of the turmoil of French history and the Industrial Revolution had survived intact right up to the present.


Historiography

According to Braudel, before the ''Annales'' approach, the writing of history was focused on the ''courte durée'' (short span), or on ''histoire événementielle'' (a history of events). His followers admired his use of the ''longue durée'' approach to stress the slow and often imperceptible effects of space, climate and technology on the actions of human beings in the past. The ''Annales'' historians, after living through two world wars and massive political upheavals in France, were very uncomfortable with the notion that multiple ruptures and discontinuities created history. They preferred to stress inertia and the ''longue durée'', arguing that the continuities in the deepest structures of society were central to history. Upheavals in institutions or the superstructure of social life were of little significance, for history, they argued, lies beyond the reach of conscious actors, especially the will of revolutionaries. They rejected the Marxist idea that history should be used as a tool to foment and foster revolutions. A proponent of historical materialism, Braudel rejected Marxist materialism, stressing the equal importance of infrastructure and superstructure, both of which reflected enduring social, economic, and cultural realities. Braudel's structures, both mental and environmental, determine the long-term course of events by constraining actions on, and by, humans over a duration long enough that they are beyond the consciousness of the actors involved.


Recognition

Binghamton University The State University of New York at Binghamton (Binghamton University or SUNY Binghamton) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the ...
in New York has a
Fernand Braudel CenterThe Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, and Civilizations at Binghamton University The State University of New York at Binghamton (Binghamton University or SUNY Binghamton) is a public In public relations a ...
, and there is an Instituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial in
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
, Brazil. In a 2011 poll by ''
History Today ''History Today'' is an illustrated history magazine. Published monthly in London since January 1951, it presents serious and authoritative history to as wide a public as possible. The magazine covers all periods and geographical regions and publ ...
'' magazine, Fernand Braudel was picked as the most important historian of the previous 60 years.


Acknowledgement

* Member of the
Académie française An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the w ...
* Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
* Member of the
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (''Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften'') is an independent public institution, located in Alfons-Goppel-Str. 11, Munich Munich ( ; german: M ...
* Member of the
Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities The Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (German: ''Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften''), established in 1909 in Heidelberg, Germany, is an assembly of scholars and scientists in the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The Academy ...
* Member of the
Hungarian Academy of SciencesHungarian may refer to: * Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the so ...

Hungarian Academy of Sciences
* Member of the
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts ( sr, Српска академија наука и уметности, Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti, abbr. САНУ/SANU) is a national academy and the most prominent academic institution in Serbia ...


Honorary degrees

* *
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
*
University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private university, private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago's Hyde Park, Chicago, Hyde Park neighborhood. In Fall 2021, it enrolled 18,45 ...
*
University of Cologne The University of Cologne (german: Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the fourth-most popul ...
*
University of Geneva The University of Geneva (French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily ...

University of Geneva
*
Leiden University Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a Public university, public research university in Leiden, Netherlands. Founded in 1575 by William the Silent, William, Prince of Orange as a reward to the city of Leiden for ...
*
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
*
University of Padua The University of Padua ( it, Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is an Italian university located in the city of Padua, region of Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , p ...
*
Complutense University of Madrid The Complutense University of Madrid ( es, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, links=no, ''Universidad de Madrid'', ''Universidad Central de Madrid''; la, Universitas Complutensis Matritensis, links=no) is a public university, public research un ...
*
Université de Montréal The Université de Montréal (UdeM; ; translates to University of Montreal) is a French-language public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) ...

Université de Montréal
*
University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw ( pl, Uniwersytet Warszawski, la, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hig ...
*
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...


Honours

* Commander of the
Legion of Honour The National Order of the Legion of Honour (french: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour (') is the highest French order of merit An order of merit is an honorific order Order or ORDER or ...


Main publications

*''La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l'époque de Philippe II'', 3 vols. (originally appeared in 1949; revised several times) : vol. 1: ''La part du milieu'' : vol. 2: ''Destins collectifs et mouvements d'ensemble'' : vol. 3: ''Les événements, la politique et les hommes'' * ''The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II''. 2 vols., 2nd rev. ed., transl. 1972 and 1973 by Sian Reynolds
excerpt and text search vol 1excerpt and text search vol 2
*''Ecrits sur l'Histoire'' (1969) *''Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe siècle'' : vol. 1: ''Les structures du quotidien'' (1967) : vol. 2: ''Les jeux de l'échange'' (1979) : vol. 3: ''Le temps du monde'' (1979) *''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century'', translated by Siân Reynolds, 3 vols. (1979) : vol. 1: ''The Structures of Everyday Life'' : vol. 2: ''The Wheels of Commerce'' : vol. 3: ''The Perspective of the World'' *''On History'' (1980; English translation of ''Ecrits sur l'Histoire'' by Siân Reynolds) *''La Dynamique du Capitalisme'' (1985) *''L'Identité de la France'' (1986) *''The Identity of France'' (1988–1990) : vol. 1: ''History and Environment'' : vol. 2: ''People and Production'' *''Ecrits sur l'Histoire II'' (1990) *''Out of Italy, 1450–1650'' (1991) *''A History of Civilizations'' (1995) *''Les mémoires de la Méditerranée'' (1998) *''The Mediterranean in the Ancient World'' (UK) and ''Memories of the Mediterranean'' (USA; both 2001; English translation of ''Les mémoires de la Méditerranée'' by Siân Reynolds) *''Personal Testimony'' Journal of Modern History, vol. 44, no. 4. (December 1972)


See also

*
World-systems theory World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)Immanuel Wallerstein, (2004), "World-systems Analysis." In ''World System History'', ed. George Modelski, in ''Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems'' (EOLSS ...
*
Arnold J. Toynbee Arnold Joseph Toynbee (; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of comparative history, international history at the London School of Economics ...
*
Oswald Spengler Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (; 29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who st ...

Oswald Spengler
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Carroll Quigley Carroll Quigley (; November 9, 1910 – January 3, 1977) was an American historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who s ...


References


Further reading

* Aurell, Jaume. "Autobiographical Texts as Historiographical Sources: Rereading Fernand Braudel and Annie Kriegel." ''Biography'' 2006 29(3): 425–445. Fulltext:
Project Muse Project MUSE, a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in cont ...
* Burke, Peter. ''The French Historical Revolution: The Annales School 1929–89,'' (1990)
excerpt and text search
* * Carrard, Philippe. ''Poetics of the New History: French Historical Discourse from Braudel to Chartier,'' (1992) * Pierre Daix, ''Braudel'', (Paris: Flammarion, 1995) * Dosse, Francois. ''New History in France: The Triumph of the Annales,'' (1994, first French edition, 1987
excerpt and text search
* Giuliana Gemelli, ''Fernand Braudel'' (Paris: Odile Jacob, 1995) * Harris, Olivia. "Braudel: Historical Time and the Horror of Discontinuity." ''History Workshop Journal'' 2004 (57): 161–174. Fulltext: OUP * Hexter, J. H. "Fernand Braudel and the Monde Braudellien," ''Journal of Modern History,'' 1972, vol. 44, pp. 480–539
in JSTOR
* Hufton, Olwen. "Fernand Braudel", ''Past and Present,'' No. 112. (Aug., 1986), pp. 208–213
in JSTOR
* * Kaplan, Steven Laurence. "Long-Run Lamentations: Braudel on France," ''The Journal of Modern History,'' Vol. 63, No. 2, A Special Issue on Modern France. (Jun., 1991), pp. 341–353
in JSTOR
* * * Lai, Cheng-chung. ''Braudel's Historiography Reconsidered'', Maryland: University Press of America, 2004
Book PDF file
* Moon, David. "Fernand Braudel and the Annales School
online edition
* * Stoianovich, Traian. ''French Historical Method: The Annales Paradigm,'' (1976) * Wallerstein, Immanuel. "Time and Duration: The Unexcluded Middle" (1997
online version


External links



* ttp://www.africahistory.net/braudel.htm Braudel, Colonialism and the Rise of the Westbr>Fernand Braudel:Mediterranean studies:Annales schoolFernand Braudel CenterInstituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial


* * Fernand Braudel, father of the modern pop-history genre - b
blaqswans.org
* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Braudel, Fernand 1902 births 1985 deaths People from Meuse (department) University of Paris faculty Historians of France Economic historians World system scholars Theories of history Theorists on Western civilization Members of the Académie Française French military personnel of World War II Collège de France faculty University of São Paulo faculty Burials at Père Lachaise Cemetery Binghamton University buildings French prisoners of war in World War II 20th-century French historians French male non-fiction writers Lycée Henri-IV teachers Lycée Condorcet teachers 20th-century French male writers 20th-century French people French historians of philosophy Corresponding Fellows of the British Academy