| house =Bourbon
| father =Philip V of Spain
| mother =Maria Luisa of Savoy
| birth_date =23 September 1713
| birth_place =Royal Alcazar of Madrid
| death_date =
| death_place =Villaviciosa de Odón
, Madrid, Spain
| place of burial=Convent of the Salesas Reales
| signature = Ferdinand VI of Spain signature.svg
| religion =Roman Catholicism
Ferdinand VI ( es|Fernando; 23 September 1713 – 10 August 1759), called the Learned (''el Prudente'') and the Just (''el Justo''), was King of Spain
from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the third ruler of the Spanish Bourbon
dynasty. He was the son of the previous monarch, Philip V
, and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy
Born at the Royal Alcázar of Madrid
, Ferdinand endured a lonely childhood. His stepmother, the domineering Elisabeth Farnese
, had no affection except for her own children, and looked upon Ferdinand as an obstacle to their fortunes. The hypochondria
of his father left Elisabeth mistress of the palace.
Ferdinand was by temperament melancholic, shy and distrustful of his own abilities. When complimented on his shooting, he replied, "It would be hard if there were not something I could do." Shooting and music were his only pleasures, and he was the generous patron of the famous singer Farinelli
, whose voice soothed his melancholy.
Ferdinand was married in 1729 to Infanta Barbara of Portugal
, daughter of John V of Portugal
and Maria Anna of Austria
Beginning of the reign
When he came to the throne, Spain found itself in the War of the Austrian Succession
, which ended with little benefit for Spain. He started his reign by eliminating the influence of his stepmother and her group of Italian courtiers. As king he followed a steady policy of neutrality in the conflict between France and Britain and refused to be tempted by the offers of either into declaring war on the other.
Prominent figures during his reign were Marquis of Ensenada
, a Francophile; and José de Carvajal y Lancáster
, a supporter of the alliance with Great Britain
. The fight between both ended in 1754 with the death of Carvajal and the fall of Ensenada, after which Ricardo Wall
became the most powerful advisor to the monarch.
The Projects of Ensenada
The most important tasks during the reign of Ferdinand VI were carried out by the Marquis of Ensenada, the Secretary of the Treasury, Navy and Indies. He suggested that the state help modernize the country. To him, this was necessary to maintain a position of exterior strength so that France and Great Britain would consider Spain as an ally without supposing Spain's renunciation of its claim to Gibraltar.
A new model of the Treasury was suggested by Ensenada in 1749. He proposed substitution of the traditional taxes with a special tax, the cadastre
, that weighed the economic capacity of each contributor based on their property holdings. He also proposed a reduction of subsidies by the state to the Cortes and the army. The opposition by the nobility caused the abandonment of the project.
The bank Giro Real was created in 1752. It favored the transfer of public and private funds outside of Spain keeping all of the foreign exchanges in the hands of the Royal Treasury, enriching the State. It is considered the predecessor to the Bank of San Carlos, introduced during the reign of Charles III
. Commerce was stimulated in the Americas, in an attempt to end the monopoly in the Indies and eliminate the injustices of colonial commerce. Ferdinand leaned toward registered ships rather than fleets of ships. The new system consisted of the substitution of the fleets and galleons so that a Spanish ship, previously authorized, could conduct trade freely in the Americas. This increased the revenues and decreased the fraud. Even so, this system provoked many protests among merchants in the private sector.
According to Ensenada, a powerful navy was fundamental to power of an overseas empire and aspirations of being respected by France and Great Britain. He increased the navy's budget and expanded the capacity of the shipyards of Cádiz
which marked a commitment to extending the naval policies already underway in his predecessor's reign.
Church relations were really tense from start of the reign of Philip V because of the recognition of Charles of Austria
as the king of Spain by the pope. A regalist policy was maintained that pursued as much political as fiscal objectives and whose decisive achievement was the Concord of 1753. From this the right of universal patronage was obtained from Pope Benedict XIV
, giving important economic benefits to the Crown and a great control over the clergy.
King Ferdinand helped create the Royal Academy of the Fine Arts of San Fernando
in 1752. The noted composer Domenico Scarlatti
, music teacher to Queen Barbara, wrote many of his 555 harpsichord sonatas
at Ferdinand's court.
left|150px|Half escudo gold coin of Ferdinand VI, dated 1756
During the War of the Austrian Succession
and the Seven Years' War
, Spain reinforced its military might.
The main conflict was its confrontation with Portugal over the colony of Sacramento
, from which British contraband was transferred down the Río de la Plata
. In 1750 José de Carvajal
helped Spain and Portugal strike a deal. Portugal agreed to renounce the colony and its claim to free navigation down the Río de la Plata. In return, Spain ceded to Portugal two regions on the Brazilian border, one in the Amazon and the other to the south, in which were seven of the thirty Jesuit Guaraní towns. The Spanish had to expel the missionaries, generating a conflict with the Guaraní people
that lasted eleven years.
The conflict over the towns provoked a crisis in the Spanish Court. Ensenada, favorable to the Jesuits, and Father Rávago, confessor of the King and members of the Society of Jesus
, were fired, accused of hindering the agreements with Portugal.
During his last year of reign, Ferdinand VI was rapidly losing his mental capacity and he was held in the Villaviciosa de Odón castle until his death on 10 August 1759. That period of time between August 1758 and August 1759 is known in Spanish historiography as the year without a king, due to the absence of the royal figure as ruler. The cause of the disease is still debated.
Some authors suggest that the king suffered a depressive episode. The death of his wife Barbara, who had been devoted to him, and who carefully abstained from political intrigue, broke his heart. Between the date of her death in August 1758 and his own on 10 August 1759, he fell into a state of prostration in which he would not even dress, but wandered unshaven, unwashed and in a nightgown about his park.
Other opinion is that Ferdinand VI suffered a rapidly progressive clinical syndrome where behavioral disorganization with apathy and impulsivity, loss of judgment, and epileptic seizures of right frontal lobe semiology were predominant. This semiology is highly suggestive of a right frontal lobe syndrome.
As the couple had no children, Ferdinand VI was succeeded as King by his half-brother Charles III
In popular culture
A fictionalized version of Ferdinand VI appears in the 2011 adventure film
''Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides
''. In the film, after learning about the discovery of the Fountain of Youth
, Ferdinand (portrayed by Sebastian Armesto
) sends his most trusted agent, known only as "The Spaniard", to find and destroy the Fountain, because he saw it as the abomination in the eyes of God
. Also, his residence, for unknown reasons, is situated in Cádiz
, not in Madrid
, the capital of Spain
File:Coat of Ferdinand VI of Spain as Infante.svg|Coat of arms as Infante of Spain
[Menéndez-Pidal De Navascués, Faustino; (1999)El escudo; Menéndez Pidal y Navascués, Faustino; O´Donnell, Hugo; Lolo, Begoña. Símbolos de España. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales. ]
File:Coat of Arms of the Prince of Asturias (1700-1761)-Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg|Coat of arms as Prince of Asturias [Rodríguez de Maribona, Manue]
File:Royal Greater Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1761) Version with Golden Fleece and Holy Spirit Collars.svg|Coat of arms as King of Spain
Las armas del Príncipe de Asturias - ABC
*Capítulo Noble de Fernando VI
Category:18th-century Spanish monarchs
Category:18th-century Navarrese monarchs
Category:Nobility from Madrid
Category:Princes of Asturias
Category:House of Bourbon (Spain)
Category:Knights of Santiago
Category:Knights of the Golden Fleece of Spain
Category:Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece